什么是「富人思维」?

鬼手财狼 2019-04-24 11:00:21

最新的ted的一个荷兰学者对贫穷和所谓的“富人思维”进行了一个很有意思的演讲,目前还没有中文字幕,我把主要内容大体翻译一下(注意,不是严谨地翻译),《贫穷不是性格缺陷,就是缺钱而已》,里面涉及到了所谓的穷人和富人思维,看看学术界怎么看所谓的“穷人缺陷的”。

Why do the poor make so many poor decisions? I know it's a harsh question, but take a look at the data. The poor borrow more, save less, smoke more, exercise less, drink more and eat less healthfully. Why? well, the standard explanation was once summed up by the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. And she called poverty "a personality defect."

为什么穷人会做很多的昏庸的决定?穷人借的多,存的少,吸烟多,运动少,喝得多,吃得差。为什么?撒切尔夫人有一个标准答案,就是她所说的 “贫穷是一个人格缺陷。”

“ Some of you may believe that the poor should be held responsible for their own mistakes. And others may argue that we should help them to make better decisions. But the underlying assumption is the same: there's something wrong with them. If we could just change them, if we could just teach them how to live their lives, if they would only listen. And to be honest, this was what I thought for a long time. It was only a few years ago that I discovered that everything I thought I knew about poverty was wrong.”

你们有些人或许会认为穷人应该为自己的错误负责,另外一部分人会想,我们应该帮助穷人做更好的决定。这两个都有一个一样的潜在的前提,就是认为:穷人自己肯定有毛病。(这个说法和这个题目是一样的:富人肯定有穷人不具备的思维,穷人肯定有思维缺陷)我以前也是这么想的,但是几年前我发现我关于贫穷的一切认识都是错的。

下面举了一个例子。

You should know that these farmers collect about 60 percent of their annual income all at once, right after the harvest. This means that they're relatively poor one part of the year and rich the other. The researchers asked them to do an IQ test before and after the harvest. What they subsequently discovered completely blew my mind. The farmers scored much worse on the test before the harvest. The effects of living in poverty, it turns out, correspond to losing 14 points of IQ. Now, to give you an idea, that's comparable to losing a night's sleep or the effects of alcoholism.

印度种糖的农民,丰收后一次收获全年60%的收入,在拿到这笔前后分别对他们进行IQ测试,发现在拿到钱之前,他们的IQ得分比拿到钱之后,下降了14分!

A few months later, I heard that Eldar Shafir, a professor at Princeton University and one of the authors of this study, was coming over to Holland, where I live. So we met up in Amsterdam to talk about his revolutionary new theory of poverty. And I can sum it up in just two words: scarcity mentality. It turns out that people behave differently when they perceive a thing to be scarce. And what that thing is doesn't much matter — whether it's not enough time, money or food.

和普林斯顿大学教授 Eldar Shafir讨论过之后,作者总结了贫穷的根本原因:scarcity mentality (匮乏心态)。当人们处于匮乏状态的时候,行为模式会发生很大的改变。缺乏什么并不重要,不管是时间,钱还是食物的缺乏。

George Orwell, one of the greatest writers who ever lived, experienced poverty firsthand in the 1920s. "The essence of poverty," he wrote back then, is that it "annihilates the future." And he marveled at, quote, "How people take it for granted they have the right to preach at you and pray over you as soon as your income falls below a certain level."

乔治奥威尔,曾经经历过贫穷。关于贫穷,他是这么写的:贫穷的本质就是,没有未来(annihilate:简单可以理解为消灭)。一旦你的收入掉入一定水平之下,人们就会理所当然地来对你进行说教,且表示帮你祷告。(就是富人的思维说教,以及假意的仁慈)。

所以,所谓的富人思维不是富的原因,而是有钱之后的结果。同样,所谓的穷人思维,不是贫穷的原因,是稀缺压力折磨的结果。

解决问题的关键在于,如何让穷人跳出贫穷的境遇。演讲的后半部分诉诸于社会福利政策的改革,提供外力,给穷人最基本的生活教育保障,让他们不再被这种所贫穷折磨。

这个,大概估计豆瓣大部分人并不关心,大家关心的是,我现在穷没那么有钱,我又没有外力,我要怎么办?

可以做的就是,尽量排除匮乏状态对你产生的负面压力。努力工作攒点钱,在没有解决匮乏心态的时候,不要做把你进一步拉入更匮乏的漩涡里的事情。

比如,不要迷信富人思维,认为自己穷是因为有缺陷,智商低,从而进一步加深自己的匮乏感和压力感。而成功学做的就是这个生意,卖的就是穷人的匮乏感。

克服了这个副作用,大概就是抛弃了贫穷思维吧。

我的微信号:17045493100,添加请注明【豆瓣】 欢迎交流学习~

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