我的哲学导论课程大纲和阅读列表(英文)

Gawiel 2017-08-13

我教哲学导论这门课已经有三年了,三年中来回换了一些材料,有些是教过一次之后觉得自己脑子坏掉了(教过一次梅洛庞蒂,我自己特别带劲,学生实在听不懂),有些是教着有点尴尬,想以后换了学校再试试(比如柏拉图《会饮篇》,学生比较拘谨,很难讨论起来)。教到现在算不上多么得心应手,但自己也颇为喜欢。关于这份书目,有一些说明:

1. 我所在学校哲学导论是必修课,因此学生大多数都没有哲学背景或兴趣,我对于课程的设计是考虑了这一点的。我不想假装有什么“人文教育”“西方正典”“非读不可”的东西——这些学生很可能期末结束出门就把《理想国》扔了,我放在这里的,都是我觉得对于每一个人都还算有意思的东西。奥古斯丁是学校规定的,其他内容学校没有规定,可以由各个任课老师自己安排。

[再补充一下:这个课程真的真的不是为有兴趣和有志继续学习哲学的同学们设计的,这是通识必修课,和哲学专业的哲学概论课程是两回事。另,课程内容的设计完全是根据在我所在学校的学生组成,因此社会议题部分是非常美国的(几乎全是美国作者),如果在其他学校或者其他地方,我可能也会换掉一些材料。]

2. 我所在学校是欧陆哲学,所以这里没有逻辑和语言哲学的内容。自觉无法胜任罢了。我们学校有另开设逻辑课和语言哲学的课程。写作所需的一些简单的非形式逻辑,会有少量涉及。

3. 当然有很多我没有涉及的东西,有很多原因,我自己的喜好,和每学期都想换一些东西来做实验。更重要的是,完全没有读过哲学的人,第一学期为了一门必修课去读一整本黑格尔或者康德是不可能的,这是主要的原因。梅洛庞蒂之困难也在于此,不理解笛卡尔,不读点之前的现象学,是很难明白梅洛庞蒂在讨论什么问题的。我选的这些读物,都是相对直接的,所讨论的问题也都是一个大学生刚进大学的时候可能会想到的问题。每天的阅读量大概是十页左右。

4. 关于发在这里。豆瓣上高朋满座,我抛砖引玉。如果大家在回复中可以讨论或贴自己喜欢的其他“入门”型读物,自然是最好。如果有好的分析哲学导论的课程大纲,也可以一起分享。我的想法是先贴一个大纲,然后每个星期可能会更新一两句话,比如说这星期我们主要讨论了什么问题。不过毕竟是业余之为,先要言明:1)不保证回答问题;2)不接受求翻译,求资源,如果有免费公开的资源,我找得到的话会分享,大家找得到也请分享,但请不要求资源;3)讨论中请勿人身攻击。


Course description

In this course, we will find our way through some very difficult texts ranging from 5th century B.C.E. to 2008, written by authors from Europe, North America, and South America. Our topic will be knowledge, reality, and self, and we will ask some questions to the authors and to ourselves, such as: Is there one ideal for our human existence? Is there only one type of knowledge of reality? Where do our values come from? How do we understand ourselves as human beings who share a world?

We are also going to practice our skills of reading, writing, and thinking critically. Reading difficult texts means that it is more difficult to follow the argument or to grasp the meaning, but it is often very rewarding. Writing to express your opinions in a clear and articulate manner is a skill that you will need throughout your career. Honing these skills not only helps you to excel in this course, but also contributes to your other endeavors in and out of university.

Required Texts

· Augustine Free Choice of the Will (ISBN:9780872201880 )

· Rene Descartes Discourse on Method and Meditations (ISBN: 9780872204201)

· Plato Republic (ISBN: 9780465069347)


Week 1

Introduction and welcome

Group reading and discussion

Week 2

"Five Faces of Oppression" (http://www.sunypress.edu/pdf/62970.pdf) Iris Marion Young

Young对于压迫的定义主要侧重于结构性的压迫。这篇文章比较长,但是很清楚,并且内容也很贴合学生的所见所闻,所以分成两节课。今天的要点是对于压迫的结构性理解。比较了法律层面上将“歧视”定义为个人行为和Young在本文中所讨论的结构性压迫。Young还讨论了social group的概念,类似于我们现在所说的identity(Young比较强调集体的人群,所以用了social group,social group有可能具有sense of identity身份认同感)。并且讨论了这种态度:“为什么要把人分类呢?就应该把人当成个人,不要看到身份标签。”Young认为这种态度1)否认social group存在的现实,不切实际;2)还是停留在个人看法层面,不能着眼于社会结构。

cont.

接着读完这篇文章。Young分析了压迫的五个方面:剥削、边缘化、无力、文化帝国主义、暴力(她都有很详细的定义和解释,和我们一般使用这些词汇的意思不太一样)。

Prologue to "Exile and Pride" Eli Clare

Clare这本书是关于酷儿和残障的,导言里讲了残障的生理层面(impairment)和社会层面(disability),也反思了他如何将社会对于残障者的压力内在化,不得不努力证明自己一样强甚至更强。这里还讨论一个残障研究中很常用的词”supercrip“。crip是英语对于残障者的一个不太友善的称呼,supercrip则是残障者讽刺那些充满怜悯然而却高高在上的鸡汤式励志故事所用的词:在这些故事中,残障者是supercrip,而故事的落脚点却很少是如何帮助更多残障者。

Week 3

“What's Wrong With 'All Lives Matter'?” (https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/12/whats-wrong-with-all-lives-matter/) and “Dear White America” (https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/12/24/dear-white-america/) Judith Butler and George Yancy

Yancy这篇NYT文章很有名。和Young类似,他也是指出歧视和偏见的结构性。他说:我即便认为自己不主动歧视女性,作为男性我仍然受益于社会对于女性的歧视和压迫;在这个意义上,我请读者反思自己是否受益于美国社会和历史上对于黑人的剥削和压迫。

PDC 1*

Week 4

Republic Book 1, 330d - 341a Plato (What is Justice?)

Republic Book 1, 341a - 354a (What is Justice? Thrasymachus)

Republic Book 4, 430e – 435 a, 441 c- 445 (tripartite soul)

Week 5

Republic Book 7, 509c – 517a (cave simile)

Republic Book 6, 502b – 509b (sun simile and line simile)

Group discussion

2-page mini-essay

Week 6

PDC 2

Free Choice of the Will Book 1 Augustine

cont.

Week 7

Free Choice of the Will Book 2

“Internet fight clinic”

Midterm exam

Week 9

PDC 3

Thus Spoke Zarathustra(Prologue 3-5) Frederich Nietzsche

Thus Spoke Zarathustra(“The Three Metamorphoses”)

Week 10

cont.

PDC 5

Week 11

Pyrrhus and Cineas 90-95 Simone de Beauvoir (英文在这本书内:https://book.douban.com/subject/2561291/ 中文在这本书内: https://book.douban.com/subject/20375518/

Pyrrhus and Cineas95-102

Pyrrhus and Cineas116-126

Week 12

Pyrrhus and Cineas126-141

Group debate

2-page mini essay

PDC 5

Week 13

Discourse 1and 2 Descartes

Meditation 1

Meditation 2

Week 14

Meditation 6

Week 15

Meditation 6

Group Discussion

“The Social Construction of Disability”. Susan Wendall, (http://moodle.fhs.cuni.cz/pluginfile.php/19118/mod_resource/content/0/Wendell_Social_construction.pdf)

Week 16

“Sotomayor's Reasoning” Linda Martin Alcoff (http://www.alcoff.com/content/palin.html)

cont.

“Playfulness, ‘World’-Travelling, and Loving Perception” Maria Lugones

PDC: Philosophical Drama Class

1. “Everything I have done is based on my belief that _______. But now, after _______, I’m not so sure…” (examination, reflection)

2. “Everyone thinks that you are hurting X by doing ________, but you keep doing it. While some people only talk behind your back, others choose to confront you and try to talk you out of it…” (moral standard)

3. “This is it! I’m not going to listen to what _______ say about me anymore!” (values, judgments)

4. “I have lost interest in everything. I just don't care. Nothing can make me feel, not even ________. ” (meanings, existence)

5. “Year 2050. I have a normal family, a normal job, and overall, a normal life. But then, I find out that all these might not be real….” (knowledge, reality)

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