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judyx 2017-08-12
 

Many people believe that because wages are lower in developing countries than in developed countries, competition from developing countries in goods traded internationally will soon eliminate large numbers of jobs in developed countries. Currently, developed countries' advanced technology results in higher productivity, which accounts for their higher wages. ‚Advanced technology is being transferred ever more speedily across borders, but even with the latest technology, productivity and wages in developing countries will remain lower than in developed countries for many years because developed countries have better infrastructure and better-educated workers. When productivity in a developing country does catch up, experience suggests that wages there will rise.Some individual firms in developing countries have raised their productivity but kept their wages (which are influenced by average productivity in the country's economy) low.… However, in a developing country's economy as a whole, productivity improvements...
 

Many people believe that because wages are lower in developing countries than in developed countries, competition from developing countries in goods traded internationally will soon eliminate large numbers of jobs in developed countries. Currently, developed countries' advanced technology results in higher productivity, which accounts for their higher wages. ‚Advanced technology is being transferred ever more speedily across borders, but even with the latest technology, productivity and wages in developing countries will remain lower than in developed countries for many years because developed countries have better infrastructure and better-educated workers. When productivity in a developing country does catch up, experience suggests that wages there will rise.Some individual firms in developing countries have raised their productivity but kept their wages (which are influenced by average productivity in the country's economy) low.… However, in a developing country's economy as a whole, productivity improvements in goods traded internationally are likely to cause an increase in wages. Furthermore, if wages are not allowed to rise, the value of the country's currency will appreciate, which (from the developed countries' point of view) is the equivalent of increased wages in the developing country. And although in the past a few countries have deliberately kept their currencies undervalued, that is now much harder to do in a world where capital moves more freely.



1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) identify the origin of a common misconception
(B) discuss the implications of a generally accepted principle
(C) present information relevant in evaluating a commonly held belief
(D) defend a controversial assertion against a variety of counterarguments
(E) explain under what circumstances a well-known phenomenon occurs
 
 
2. The passage suggests that if the movement of capital in the world were restricted, which of the following would be likely?
 
(A) Advanced technology could move more quickly from developed countries to developing countries.
(B) Developed countries could compete more effectively for jobs with developing countries.
(C) A country's average wages could increase without significantly increasing the sophistication of its technology or the value of its currency.
(D) A country's productivity could increase without significantly increasing the value of its currency.
(E) Workers could obtain higher wages by increasing their productivity.


 
3. The passage suggests that which of the following would best explain why, in a developing country, some firms that have raised their productivity continue to pay low wages?
 
(A) Wages are influenced by the extent to which productivity increases are based on the latest technology.
(B) Wages are influenced by the extent to which labor unions have organized the country's workers.
(C) Wages are not determined by productivity improvements in goods traded internationally.
(D) The average productivity of the workers in the country has not risen.
(E) The education level of the workers in the country determines wages.

往下 看雷哥GMAT老师解析:

 原文解析

Many people believe that because wages are lower in developing countries than in developed countries, competition from developing countries in goods traded internationally will soon eliminate large numbers of jobs in developed countries. (很多人认为:发展中国家工资比发达国家低,这种竞争力会使发达国家的很多人失去工作。)➀ Currently, developed countries' advanced technology results in higher productivity, which accounts for their higher wages. (目前,发达国家的先进技术增大了他们的生产力,从而增加了他们的工资)➁ Advanced technology is being transferred ever more speedily across borders, but even with the latest technology, productivity and wages in developing countries will remain lower than in developed countries for many years because developed countries have better infrastructure and better-educated workers. (先进技术现在以前所未有的速度普及世界,但是即使发展中国家拥有了先进技术,生产力和工资还是比发达国家低,原因在于基础设施和劳动力素质)➂ When productivity in a developing country does catch up, experience suggests that wages there will rise. (经验告诉我们:发展中国家生产力上升之后,它们的工资会上升)➃ Some individual firms in developing countries have raised their productivity but kept their wages (which are influenced by average productivity in the country's economy) low.(有些个别企业的个例:生产力上升之后,工资还是低,原因在于整个国家平均生产力低)➄ However, in a developing country's economy as a whole, productivity improvements in goods traded internationally are likely to cause an increase in wages.(但是总体来说,在国际市场交易的产品 生产力上升之后,工资会上升) ➅Furthermore, if wages are not allowed to rise, the value of the country's currency will appreciate, which (from the developed countries' point of view) is the equivalent of increased wages in the developing country. And although in the past a few countries have deliberately kept their currencies undervalued, that is now much harder to do in a world where capital moves more freely.(进一步说,就算工资不上涨,这个国家的货币也会升值,从发达国家看来,升值跟直接涨工资也是一样的。虽然以前一些国家故意不升值货币,但是在如今货币流通自由,要故意压制货币升值是不可能的)



文章逻辑

一.很多人的观点:发展中国家工资比发达国家低,这种竞争力会使发达国家的很多人失去工作。
➀ 发达国家工资高的原因:技术好→生产力大
➁ 目前发展中国家工资还是偏低的原因)发展中国家即使有好的技术,因为基础设施、劳动力素质等原因造成生产力不高,所以工资低
➂ 经验告诉我们:发展中国家生产力上升之后,它们的工资会上升
➃ 个别企业外例:生产力上升之后,工资还是低,原因在于整个国家平均生产力低
➄ 但是总体来说,在国际市场上 生产力上升之后,工资会上升
➅ 进一步说,就算不以直接涨工资的形式,也可以通过升值货币的形式。
 

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to(文章首先提出一个观点:由于发展中国家相对工资低,造成发达国家的人失业。然后提到这种信息去分析评价这个观点:接着提到发达国家工资高的原因:技术高,达到生产力高,从而工资高;发展中国家也可以获得技术,但是因为劳动力素质等原因造成生产力不高,所以工资低。(发展中国家工资低的原因)。接着提到发展中国家只要生产力上升了之后,总体来说还是会涨工资的,不论以何种形式。

(A) identify the origin of a common misconception(找一个广泛误解的源头,首先不是一个误解,也不是在找误解源头)

(B) discuss the implications of a generally accepted principle(不是在讨论一个原则的运用)

(C) present information relevant in evaluating a commonly held belief(正确)

(D) defend a controversial assertion against a variety of counterarguments(维护一个受争议的观点,没有在维护观点)

(E) explain under what circumstances a well-known phenomenon occurs (没有解释在何种情况下,一个现象发生)
 
 


2. The passage suggests that if the movement of capital in the world were restricted, which of the following would be likely?(定位在文章最后一句,以前货币流通部自由,(即使提高了生产力)所以一些国家可以故意不让货币升值。
 
(A) Advanced technology could move more quickly from developed countries to developing countries.(technology在定位层次未提及)

(B) Developed countries could compete more effectively for jobs with developing countries.(jobs在定位层次未提及)

(C) A country's average wages could increase without significantly increasing the sophistication of its technology or the value of its currency.(technology在定位层次未提及)

(D) A country's productivity could increase without significantly increasing the value of its currency.(可以不升值货币,正确)

(E) Workers could obtain higher wages by increasing their productivity. (可以通过提高生产力提高工资,反了;是货币流通时候,提高生产力可以获得工资提升)
 



3. The passage suggests that which of the following would best explain why, in a developing country, some firms that have raised their productivity continue to pay low wages?定位在文章第4层次,有些个别企业的个例:生产力上升之后,工资还是低,原因在于整个国家平均生产力低
 
(A) Wages are influenced by the extent to which productivity increases are based on the latest technology.(technology定位层次未提及)

(B) Wages are influenced by the extent to which labor unions have organized the country's workers.(工会未提及)

(C) Wages are not determined by productivity improvements in goods traded internationally.(不在定位层次)

(D) The average productivity of the workers in the country has not risen.(国家平均生产力影响,正确)

(E) The education level of the workers in the country determines wages. (定位层次未提及)
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