熊大 2017-08-11

But once the problem is put in this way, it is less a question of applying a logical combinative apparatus governing an interplay of exchanges, as Levi-Strauss would have it, than one of establishing a physical system that will express itself naturally in terms of debts.一旦这个问题以这种方式被提出,它不是应用支配着交换的相互作用的逻辑组合装置的问题,如列维斯特劳斯将提出的,而是建立将会根据债务自然地表达自身的身体系统的问题。It seems to us very significant that Levi-Strauss himself invokes the co-ordinates of a physical system , although he sees this as nothing more than a metaphor. 这在我们看来非常重要,列维斯特劳斯自己求助于身体系统的协调,尽管他只把这视为一种隐喻。In the physical system in extension, something passes through that is of the nature of an energy flow ( + - or - + ), something does not pass or remains blocked ( + + or - -), and something blocks, or on the contrary causes, passage . 在这个扩张的身体系统中,某物穿过,这是能量流(+-或-+)的本质,某物没有穿过或依然受阻(++或--),或相反地造成,某物堵塞了通道。Something or someone . In this system in extension there is no primary filiation, nor is there a first generation or an initial exchange , but there are always and already alliances, at the same time as the filiations are extended, expressing both what must remain blocked in the filiation and what must pass through in the alliance .某物或某人。在这扩张的系统中,不存在原始的血缘关系,也不存在初代或最初的交换,但总是已经存在联姻,同时作为扩展的血缘关系,它既表达了什么必须在血缘关系中受阻,以及什么必须在联姻关系中流通。 The essential is not that the signs change according to the sexes and the generations, but that one passes from the intensive to the extensive , that is to say, from an order of ambiguous signs to an order of signs that are changing but determined. 重要的不是标记随性别与世代而改变,而是人们从强度过度到广度,也就是说,从模糊的标记秩序过渡到变动着但却被决定了的标记秩序。It is here that resorting to myth is indispensable , not because the myth would be a transposed or even an inverse representation of real relations in extension, but because only the myth can determine the intensive conditions of the system (the system of production included) in conformity with indigenous thought and practice. 在此求助于神话是必须的,不是因为神话将会成为移置的或甚至颠倒的处于扩张中的真实关系的代理,而是因为只有神话能够确定与本土的思想与实践相符的系统(固有的生产系统)的强度环境。That is why a text of Marcel Griaule 's, which looks to myth for a principle that would explain the avunculate , seems decisive to us, and seems to avoid the reproach of idealism that usually greets this kind of attempt. 这就是为何马塞尔·格里奥勒的文本,它期待神话将会解释舅权的原则,对我们来说似乎是决定性的,而且似乎避免了一贯迎合这种企图的唯心主义的指责。We have a similar view of the recent article in which Adler and Cartry return to the question.13 关于最近的文章,我们有相似的看法,在其中,艾德勒与卡特里回到了这个问题。These authors are right in remarking that Levi-Strauss's kinship atom-with its four relationships:brothersister, husband-wife , father-son, maternal uncle-sister's son-presents itself as a ready-made whole from which the mother as such is strangely excluded, although, depending on the circumstances, she can be more or less a "kinswoman" or more or less an "affine" in relation to her children. 这些作家是对的,当他们评论列维.斯特劳斯亲属关系的原子,具有它的四种关系:兄妹,夫妻,父子,舅舅与外甥——呈现它自身为现成的整体,母亲本身被奇怪地从中被排除了,虽然依赖这种环境,她可能或多或少是"女亲属"或多多少少是一种与她的孩子有关的"姻亲"。Now this is indeed where the myth takes root, the myth that does not express but conditions. 现在这确实是神话扎根的地方,并不表达但却作出规定的神话。As Griaule relates it, the Yourougou, breaking into the piece of placenta he has stolen, is like the brother of his mother, with whom he is united by that fact: ''This individual went away into the distance carrying with him a part of the nourishing placenta, which· is to say a part of his own mother. 如格里奥勒提到的,有肉狗,进入了他偷到的胎盘碎片,就像他母亲的兄弟,他与之结合,根据这个事实:"这个人向远方走去,带着有营养的胎盘的一部分,也就是说,带着他母亲的一部分。He saw this organ as his own and as forming a part of his own person, in such a way that he identified himself with the one who gave birth to him. She was the matrix of the world, and he considered himself to be placed on the same plane as she from the viewpoint of the generations .... 他把这个器官视为自己的器官并且视为他身体的一部分,以这种方式,他将自身等同于生育他的人。她是世界的母体,而且从世代的观点来看,他认为自己与她同处一个层面。He senses unconsciously his symbolic membership in his mother's generation and his detachment from the real generation of which he is a member .... 他无意识地察觉到,他的象征成员身份处于他母亲一代当中以及他与他是其中一员的现实一代的分离。Being, according to him, of the same substance and generation as his mother, he likens himself to a male twin of his genetrix, and the mythical rule of the union of two paired members proposes him as the ideal husband . Hence , in his capacity as pseudo brother to his genetrix, he should be in the position of his maternal uncle , the designated husband of this woman."14 对他来说,作为与他母亲相同的实体与世代,他把自己比喻为他的生育女神的一对男性双胞胎,而且两个配对的成员的结合的神话规则推荐他为理想的丈夫。因此,以他的作为生育女神的伪兄弟的身份,他应当处于他舅舅的地位,这个女人的指定丈夫。

Doubtless all the dramatis personae will be found to come into play from this point on: mother, father, son, mother's brother, son's sister。无疑,所有的主人公将会被发现从这一点开始表演:母亲,父亲,儿子,母亲的兄弟,儿子的姐妹。But it is evident and striking that these are not persons. Their names do not designate persons, but rather the intensive variations of a "vibratory spiraling movement," inclusive disjunctions, necessarily twin states through which a subject passes on the cosmic egg. 但是显而易见的是,这些人物不是人。他们的名字被没有指称人,而是指称"振动漩涡时刻"的强度变化,包容的分离,通过必然成对的状态,主体穿过宇宙之卵。Everything must be interpreted in intensity. The egg and the placenta itself, swept by an unconscious life energy "susceptible to augmentation and diminution." 一切必须通过强度得到解释。卵以及胎盘自身,被无意识的生命能量扫过"容易增强或减弱。"The father is in no way absent. But Amma, the father and genitor, is himself a high intensive part, immanent to the placenta, inseparable from the twinness, which relates him to his feminine part. 父亲绝非缺席。但是艾玛,父亲与双亲,自身是高强度的一部分,内在于胎盘,不可与对体分离,这使他与他的女性部分联系起来。And if the Yourougou son carries away a part of the placenta in his turn, it is in an intensive relationship with another part that contains his own sister or twin sister. 如果轮到儿子幽肉狗带走胎盘的一部分,它与另一包含他自己的姐妹或挛生姐妹的部分处于强度关系中。But, aiming too high, the part he carries away makes him the sister of his mother, who eminently replaces the sister, and to whom he becomes united by replacing Amma.但是,目标大高,他带走的这部分使他变成他母亲的姐妹, 他明显替代了姐妹,通过取代艾玛,它与之结合。 In short, a whole world of ambiguous signs, included divisions and bisexual states. I am the son, and also my mother's brother and my sister's husband and my own father. 简而言之,模糊标记的整个世界,包容的分离以及双性状态。我是儿子,同样也是我母亲的兄弟,我姐妹的丈夫以及我自己的父亲。Everything rests on the placenta, which has become the earth, the unengendered, the full body of antiproduction where the organs partial objects of a sacrificed Nommo are attached. 一切都依赖胎盘,它已经成为大地,非生产之物,这种反生产的充盈身体,在其中,献祭的诺母神的器官、部分客体缠在一起。It is because the placenta, as a substance common to the mother and the child, a common part of their bodies, makes it such that these bodies are not like cause and effect, but are both products derived from this same substance, in relation to which the son is his mother's twin: such is indeed the axis of the Dogon myth related by Griaule .正因为胎盘,作为母亲与孩子共有的实体,他们身体的共同部分,使得这些身体不像因果,却都是源自这种相同实体的产品:与之相关,儿子是他母亲的双胞胎:这确实是格里奥勒讲述的多贡人的神话的轴线。Yes, I have been my mother and I have been my son. It is rare that one sees myth and science saying the same thing from such a great distance : the Dogon narrative develops a mythical Weismannism, where the germinative plasma forms an immortal and continuous lineage that does not depend on bodies;是的,我一直是我的母亲并且我一直是我的儿子。这很罕见,人们发现神话与科学从如此遥远的距离讲述相同的事情:多贡人的叙事阐释了一种神话的巍斯曼学说,在那里,萌发的原生质形成一种不朽且持续的不依赖身体的家系。on the contrary, the bodies of the parents as well as the children depend on it. Whence the distinction between two lines, the one continuous and germinal , but the other discontinuous and somatic , it alone being subjected to a succession of generations. 相反,父母的身体与孩子的身体都依靠它。两种家系之间的区别,一种是连续与生发的,另外一种是不连续的而且是体腔的,它独自承受世代交替。(T.D Lysenko employed a naturally Dogon tone , turning it back against Weismann, to reproach him for making the son the genetic or germinal brother of the mother: ••The Morganists-Mendelians, following Weismann, start from the idea that the parents are not genetically the parents of their children ; if we are to believe their doctrine , parents and children are brothers and sisters."15) (T.D李森科使用一种自然的多贡人语调,使它转而反对威斯曼,谴责他使得儿子成为母亲的遗传或生发的兄弟…摩尔根派—孟德尔学派,追随威斯曼,从这种观念出发,父母在基因上不是他们孩子的父母;如果我们打算相信他们的信条,父母与孩子是兄弟与姐妹。)


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