为什么听不懂老外的发音——原来英语有连读、弱读和缩读

詹森大那多 2012-02-01 17:55:33

连读   (一)什么是连读。     在连贯地说话或朗读时,在同一个意群(即短语或从句)中,如果相邻的两个词前者以辅音音素结尾,后者以元音音素开头,就要自然地将辅音和元音相拼,构成一个音节,这就是连读。连读时的音节一般不重读,只需顺其自然地一带而过,不可以加音,也不可以读得太重。如:notatall这个短语。连读时听起来就像是一个单词。注意:连读只发生在句子中的同一个意群中。在两个意群之间即使有两个相邻的辅音和元音出现,也不可连读。如:Pleasetakealookatit.这个句子中takealookatit是同一个意群,那么take与a可连读,look与at可连读,at与it可连读。在Thereisabookinit.一句中book与in往往不连读,因为book与in分别在两个不同的意群中。 (二)连读的详细情况     1.在同一个意群中,相邻的两个词,前者以辅音音素结尾,后者以元音音素开头,往往要拼在一起连读。如:     He is a student.(is与a要连读)     That is a right answer.(That与is,is和a,right和answer都可以连读)     I’ll be back in half an hour.(back和in,half和an,an与hour都可以连读)。        2.在同一个意群中的两个单词,如果前面的单词以r或re结尾,后面的单词以元音音素开头,则r或re要发/r/音,并与其后的元音音素相拼。如:hereandthere连读时往往读作/。hiErEnd`TZE/。apairofshoes连读时读作/E`pZErEv`FU:z/.    (三)音的组合任何一个单词都是由音素的不同组合而成。 英语中,同一音节中两个或两个以上相邻的辅音结合在一起,这种结构叫做辅音群(或辅音连缀、辅音丛)。两个、三个辅音的连缀,在英语中是普遍的。像sixths/siksz/这样四个辅音的连缀却比较少。英语单词里,辅音连缀所出现的位置有一定规律,通常只出现在词首或词尾。值得特别注意的是,辅音群中,辅音之间决不能夹有元音;以不发音的元音结尾的词,朗读时,辅音后面也不能附加元音。      请注意以下几个方面:      (1)辅音群中的辅音之间不能加上中元音//。这是初学者常出现的错误,如:blue/blu:/读成/blu:/;flood/fld/读成/fld/。这种错误在三个辅音组成的辅音群中更常见。又如:screen/skri:n/读成了/skri:n/。汉语中,声母/p/、/b/、/m/之后都加有元音。学英语时,这种中国式的语音习惯只有通过大量的练习来改变。练习英语发音时,我们可以将第一个辅音遮住,先读/kri:n/,再加/s/,读/skri:n/。      (2)在辅音 /r/的辅音群中,像/br/,/r/,/r/,初学者常把卷舌音/r/念成舌边音/l/。如:three/ri:/念成/lui:/。其原因是两个音在连接时舌尖没有及时地离开齿龈,作卷舌的动作。      (3)/s/ 3对爆破音,朗读/sp/、/sk/、/st/时,清辅音/p/、/k/、/t/不能念成送气音,而要将它们略微浊化,向/b/、//、/d/*近。而且朗读位于它们之前的/s/时,送气也不能太强。      (4)在以/l/ 另外一个辅音的辅音群中,有的学生不会读浊音的/l~/,而用//来替代。如:film/film/读成/fim/,world/w:ld/读成/w:d/。其原因是舌尖没有抵住上齿龈,舌后部未用力。还有一种是将舌尖卷曲发成浊音的/l~/。这也是不正确的。      (5)在一个辅音 /l/的辅音群中,有些同学往往在辅音与/l/之间加上一个中元音//。如apple/pl/读成/pl/。其原因是舌身在发音活动中移动太慢,舌尖没有及时移到上齿龈浊音的/l~/的位置。      (6)在一个辅音 /n/的辅音群中,有些同学感到困难的是“鼻腔爆破”辅音群/tn/和/dn/。有些人常在/t/、/d/与/n/之间夹中元音//:cotton/ktn/读成/ktn/。这样读的结果是没有实现鼻腔爆破,因为/t/、/d/、是从口腔内与//同时发出的。为了避免这样的发音错误,在/t/与/n/或/d/与/n/连读时,舌尖不要离开齿龈,这样舌身便把气流挡在口腔内,迫使它从鼻腔与/n/一同发出。      四.话语的节奏英语的话语如同音乐一样有一定的节奏。话语中的音乐像音乐的小节一样组成节奏群。每个节奏通常都会含有轻读音节与重读音节。在一个英语句子中,名词、动词、形容词和副词等实词常要强读,而介词、冠词、代词等虚词则一般弱读。英语的节奏规律是*重读音节与轻读音节的组合加重复来体现的。英语口语中的节奏基本体现在各个重读音节(用“”来表示)之间,其时距大体相同。英语是一种以重音计时的语言,各个重音与它跟随的若干轻读音节(用“·”表示)构成一个节奏群,有时一个节奏群是一个空拍(“<”表示)开始的(空拍在英语中也叫做“silentstress”)。节奏群用“/”来标识。我们用大致相同的时间来朗读每个节奏群。因此,为了真正取得节奏效果,碰到轻音少的节奏时,我们就可以念慢些,轻音较多的节奏群则必须念快一些。例如:daylight·/flashlight·.One/Two/Three/Four,/lets·/go/lets·/go.Peters·younger·sister·/leftthe·bagat·home.Thisis·the·/furnit·ure·.两个重音之间的轻读音节越多,我们在每个轻读音节上花的时间便越少。有时一个节奏群是以空拍开始,后面紧跟着几个轻音节,这样的节奏群常见句首或句子中需要停顿的地方。例如:He∧is·a·/student./Yes/Peter·,/he∧was·at·/home.      五.弱读单词在句中可以强读,也可以弱读,主要取决于上下文所表达的意思。有些英语单词本身具有两种或两种以上不同发音。以单词some为例,该词在重读或单独出现时,其元音的发音与单词sum完全一样。但是,当some在句子中作为非重读单词时,其元音就显得短而模糊。弱读音节中最常见的音是中元音//。一个单词在强读或弱读具有不同(两种或两种以上)发音时,这些不同的形式就叫词的强读式或弱读式。英语单词中有强读式和弱读式的单词大约有50多个,而且他们多出现在句子的非重读音节里。从词性上看,它们大多为单音节的限定词、助动词、动词be、介词、关联词和人称代词等。例如:some/sm/→/sm/→/sm/,have/hv/→/hv/→/v/;were/w:/→/w/,must/mst/→/mst,ms/→/mst,ms/;do/du:/→/d/→/du/→/d/,and/nd/→/nd,n/→/n/;of/v/→/v/→/v/,them/m/→/m/→/m/;we/wi:/→/wi/等。      六.音的连读在英语的实际运用中,人们常将属于同一意群的词连在一起,一口气说出来。意群中词与词之间不留空隙,这种读法叫“连读”(用“(”来表示)。      英语有三种连读形式:      (1)辅音(除了/r/、/w/和/j/)元音:单词末尾的辅音同下一个以元音开头的单词连读。例如:readi(t/ri:dit/,brushu(p/brp/。在朗读这种连读时,可以采用这样的技巧:把前面词的末尾辅音移到后一个词的开头来读。如:puti(to(n可读成/pu-ti-tn/。      (2)元音元音:前一个词的末尾元音和后一个词的起首元音连在一起读出,使它们中间不出现停顿。如:doit/du-it/,heatesome/hietsm/,轻轻地滑到下一个元音上。      (3)/r/ 元音:这一类连读分为词末连接音/r/和外加音/r/与元音的连读。a)单词末尾或音节末尾的r在英式英语中是不发音的。但是,在连贯话语里,如果这个单词后面紧跟着一个以元音开头的词,而且两个词在意义上密切相关且中间无停顿隔开时,就可能是原来不发音的字母r读为/r/,并同后一个单词的元音字首相连。例如:thereis/riz/,forever/f:rev/。b)为了避免让两个意义相关的比邻词的末首元音分立而读,我们通常在前一个词的结尾元音和后面单词的起首元音之间加上/r/音,这就是外加音/r/。如:ideaofit/aidirvit/,thesofaoverthere/sufruv-/。七.语调我们说话时可以随意改变音高,使音调上升或下降。我们还可以像歌唱家那样突然抬高话语的音调。音调的这种上扬或下降叫语调。英语有两种基本的语调:升调和降调(分别用符号“.”、“∈”表示)。升降的过程可以是急促的,也可以是缓慢的,还可以形成不同的组合。说话人可以通过语调准确地表达各种信息。(1)升调:升调多用来表示“不肯定”和“未完结”的意思,比如一般疑问句,语气婉转的祈使句,以及用陈述句子形式表示疑问的各类句子。如:a)ShallItellhimtocomeandsee.you?(一般疑问句的正常语调)b)You.like.him?(用于陈述句形式的疑问句中,期待得到对方证实)c).Whathaveyougotthere?(用于特殊疑问句中,语气亲切热情)d).Rightyou.are.(用于某些感叹句中,表示轻快、活泼、鼓励等意义)e)Shebought.red,.yellow,and.greenrugs.(用于排例句中,区别语义)(2)降调:降调表示“肯定”和“完结”。一般用于陈述句、特殊疑问句、命令句和感叹句中。例如:a)Swimmingismyfavourite∈sport.(用于陈述句表示肯定的意义)b)Whatdidyoufind∈there?(降调用于特殊疑问句表示说话人浓厚的兴趣)c)Tellmeallabout∈it.(语气较强的命令)d)Haveyougotthe∈tickets?(降调用于一般疑问句表示说话人的态度粗率、不耐烦或不高兴)e)How∈nice!(用于感叹句,表示感叹)英语中除了升调、降调这两种最基本的语调外,还有降—升调、升—降调、升—降—升调、平调等。我们掌握了基本的降升调后,可以查阅参考书,再增加这方面的知识      连读的条件:相邻的两词在意义上必须密切相关,同属一个意群。连读所构成的音节一般都不重读,只需顺其自然地一带而过,不可读得太重,也不可音。(连读符号:~)      (1)“辅音+元音”型连读   在同一个意群里,如果相邻两词中的前一个词是以辅音结尾,后一个词是以元音开头,这就要将辅音与元音拼起来连读。      I’m~an~English boy.   It~is~an~old book.   Let me have~a look~at~it.   Ms Black worked in~an~office last~yesterday.   I called~you half~an~hour~ago.   Put~it~on, please.   Not~at~all.   Please pick~it~up.   (2)“r/re+元音”型连读   如果前一个词是以-r或者-re结尾,后一个词是以元音开头,这时的r或re不但要发/r/,而且还要与后面的元音拼起来连读。   They’re my father~and mother.   I looked for~it here~and there.   There~is a football under~it.   There~are some books on the desk.   Here~is a letter for you.   Here~are four~eggs.   But where~is my cup?   Where~are your brother~and sister?   但是,如果一个音节的前后都有字母r,即使后面的词以元音开头,也不能连读。   The black clouds are coming nearer and nearer.(nearer与and不可连读)   (3)“辅音+半元音”型连读   英语语音中的/j/和/w/是半元音,如果前一个词是以辅音结尾,后一个词是以半元音,特别是/j/开头,此时也要连读。   Thank~you.   Nice to meet~you.   Did~you get there late~again?   Would~you like~a cup~of tea?   Could~you help me, please?   “音的同化”   —常把/d/+/j/读成/dV/,did you听上成了/dIdVu/,would you成了/wudVu/,could you成了/kudVu/。   (4)“元音+元音”型连读如果前一个词以元音结尾,后一个词以元音开头,这两个音往往也要自然而不间断地连读到一起。   I~am Chinese.   He~is very friendly to me.      She wants to study~English.   How~and why did you come here?   She can’t carry~it.   It’ll take you three~hours to walk there.   The question is too~easy for him to answer.   (5)当短语或从句之间按意群进行停顿时,意群与意群之间即使有两个相邻的辅音与元音出现,也不可连读。   Is~it a~hat or a cat?(hat与or之间不可以连读)   There~is~a good book in my desk. (book与in之间不可以连读)   Can you speak~English or French? (English与or之间不可以连读)   Shall we meet at~eight or ten tomorrow morning? (meet与 at,eight与or之间不可以连读)   She opened the door and walked~in. (door与and之间不可以连读)         失去爆破6个爆破音有3对/p/,/b/,/t/,/d/,/k/,/g/   失去爆破,又叫不完全爆破,就是在某些情况下,只须做出发音的准备,但并不发音,稍稍停顿后就发后面的音。   (1)“爆破音+爆破音”型   6个爆破音【t、d、k、g、p、b】中的任意2个相临时,前一个爆破音会失去爆破,即由相关的发音器官做好这个发音的姿势,稍做停顿后即发后面的爆破音。   The girl in the re(d) coat was on a bla(ck) bike jus(t) now.   The bi(g) bus from the fa(c) tory is full of people.   Wha(t) time does he get up every morning?   This is an ol(d) pi(c)ture of a bi(g) car.   The ol(d) do(c)tor has a ca(t), too.   We’re going to work on a farm nex(t) Tuesday.   What would you like, ho(t) tea or bla(ck) coffee?   It’s a very col(d) day, but it’s a goo(d) day.   You can put i(t) down in the bi(g) garden.   I bought a chea(p) book, but it’s a goo(d) book.   (2)“爆破音+摩擦音”型如果前面是爆破音,其后紧跟着某些摩擦音(如/f/,/s/,/W/,/T/等),那么前面那个爆破音仅有十分轻微的爆破,而后面那个摩擦音则要完全爆破。      6个爆破音有3对/p/,/b/,/t/,/d/,/k/,/g/失去爆破,又叫不完全爆破,就是在某些情况下,只须做出发音的准备,但并不发音,稍稍停顿后就发后面的音。         (1)“爆破音+爆破音”型6个爆破音中的任意2个相临时,前一个爆破音会失去爆破,即由相关的发音器官做好这个发音的姿势,稍做停顿后即发后面的爆破音。   The girl in the re(d) coat was on a bla(ck) bike jus(t) now.   The bi(g) bus from the fa(c) tory is full of people.   Wha(t) time does he get up every morning?   This is an ol(d) pi(c)ture of a bi(g) car.   The ol(d) do(c)tor has a ca(t), too.   We’re going to work on a farm nex(t) Tuesday.   What would you like, ho(t) tea or bla(ck) coffee?   It’s a very col(d) day, but it’s a goo(d) day.   You can put i(t) down in the bi(g) garden.   I bought a chea(p) book, but it’s a goo(d) book.         (2)“爆破音+摩擦音”型如果前面是爆破音,其后紧跟着某些摩擦音(如/f/,/s/,/W/,/T/等),那么前面那个爆破音仅有十分轻微的爆破,而后面那个摩擦音则要完全爆破。   Goo(d) morning, Mr. Bell.   Goo(d) morning, dear.   Uncle Li’s fa(c)tory is qui(te) near to the cinema.   I wen(t) there alone a(t) nine las(t) night.   -Do you know his bi(ke) number? -Sorry, I don’(t) know.   The forty-firs(t) lesson is qui(te) difficult.   Goo(d) luck, Lin Tao.      爆破音+m/n,爆破音也会失爆!   /p/, /t/, /k/开头的音节发 /b/, /d/, /g/   在背诵新东方80篇,总结出来的一点东西:   1. 音标中无重读音节的,要轻轻的读,不要读出有高低调的声音!不要老爱把音节读成渐高调,感觉有点歇斯底里,很难听的!   2. 重音且长音要尽量拖长,发音要饱满,但是[i:]除外,这个音节只需轻轻带过!   ee、啊:、呃:读起来让人听着这个音节很明显。   3. 短音的i有时候不发音,只起到一个连接的作用; 传说中的100句英语可以帮你背7000单词 1. Typical of the grassland dwellers of the continent is the American antelope, or pronghorn. 1.美洲羚羊,或称叉角羚,是该大陆典型的草原动物。 2. Of the millions who saw Haley’s comet in 1986, how many people will live long enough to see it return in the twenty-first century. 2. 1986年看见哈雷慧星的千百万人当中,有多少人能够长寿到足以目睹它在二十一世纪的回归呢? 3. Anthropologists have discovered that fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise are universally reflected in facial expressions. 3.人类学家们已经发现,恐惧,快乐,悲伤和惊奇都会行之于色,这在全人类是共通的。 4. Because of its irritating effect on humans, the use of phenol as a general antiseptic has been largely discontinued. 4.由于苯酚对人体带有刺激性作用,它基本上已不再被当作常用的防腐剂了。 5. In group to remain in existence, a profit-making organization must, in the long run, produce something consumers consider useful or desirable. 5.任何盈利组织若要生存,最终都必须生产出消费者可用或需要的产品。 6. The greater the population there is in a locality, the greater the need there is for water, transportation, and disposal of refuse. 6.一个地方的人口越多,其对水,交通和垃圾处理的需求就会越大。 7. It is more difficult to write simply, directly, and effectively than to employ flowery but vague expressions that only obscure one’s meaning. 7.简明,直接,有力的写作难于花哨,含混而意义模糊的表达。 8. With modern offices becoming more mechanized, designers are attempting to personalize them with warmer, less severe interiors. 8.随着现代办公室的日益自动化,设计师们正试图利用较为温暖而不太严肃的内部装饰来使其具有亲切感。 9. The difference between libel and slander is that libel is printed while slander is spoken. 9.诽谤和流言的区别在于前者是书面的,而后者是口头的。 10. The knee is the joints where the thigh bone meets the large bone of the lower leg. 10.膝盖是大腿骨和小腿胫的连接处。 11. Acids are chemical compounds that, in water solution, have a sharp taste, a corrosive action on metals, and the ability to turn certain blue vegetable dyes red. 11.酸是一种化合物,它在溶于水时具有强烈的气味和对金属的腐蚀性,并且能够使某些蓝色植物染料变红。 12. Billie Holiday’s reputation as a great jazz-blues singer rests on her ability to give emotional depth to her songs. 12. Billie Holiday’s作为一个爵士布鲁斯乐杰出歌手的名声建立在能够赋予歌曲感情深度的能力。 13. Essentially, a theory is an abstract, symbolic representation of what is conceived to be reality. 13.理论在本质上是对认识了的现实的一种抽象和符号化的表达。 14. Long before children are able to speak or understand a language, they communicate through facial expressions and by making noises. 14.儿童在能说或能听懂语言之前,很久就会通过面部表情和靠发出噪声来与人交流了。 15. Thanks to modern irrigation, crops now grow abundantly in areas where once nothing but cacti and sagebrush could live. 15.受当代灌溉(技术设施)之赐,农作物在原来只有仙人掌和荞属科植物才能生存的地方旺盛的生长。 16. The development of mechanical timepieces spurred the search for more accurate sundials with which to regulate them. 16.机械计时器的发展促使人们寻求更精确的日晷,以便校准机械计时器。 17. Anthropology is a science in that anthropologists use a rigorous set of methods and techniques to do*英语易网*ent observations that can be checked by others. 17.人类学是一门科学,因为人类学家采用一整套强有力的方法和技术来记录观测结果,而这样记录下来的观测结果是供他人核查的。 18. Fungi are important in the process of decay, which returns ingredients to the soil, enhances soil fertility, and decomposes animal debris. 18.真菌在腐化过程中十分重要,而腐化过程将化学物质回馈于土壤,提高其肥力,并分解动物粪便。 19. When it is struck, a tuning fork produces an almost pure tone, retaining its pitch over a long period of time. 19.音叉被敲击时,产生几乎纯质的音调,其音量经久不衰。 20. Although pecans are most plentiful in the southeastern part of the United States, they are found as far north as Ohio and Illinois. 20.虽然美洲山河桃树最集中于美国的东南部但是在北至俄亥俄州及伊利诺州也能看见它们。 21. Eliminating problems by transferring the blame to others is often called scape-goating. 21.用怪罪别人的办法来解决问题通常被称为寻找替罪羊。 22. The chief foods eaten in any country depend largely on what grows best in its climate and soil. 22.一个国家的主要食物是什么,大体取决于什么作物在其天气和土壤条件下生长得最好。 23. Over a very large number of trials, the probability of an event's occurring is equal to the probability that it will not occur. 23.在大量的实验中,某一事件发生的几率等于它不发生的几率。 24. Most substance contract when they freeze so that the density of a substance's solid is higher than the density of its liquid. 24.大多数物质遇冷收缩,所以他们的密度在固态时高于液态。 25. The mechanism by which brain cells store memories is not clearly understood. 25.大脑细胞储存记忆的机理并不为人明白。 26. By the middle of the twentieth century, painters and sculptors in the United States had begun to exert a great worldwide influence over art. 26.到了二十一世纪中叶,美国画家和雕塑家开始在世界范围内对艺术产生重大影响。 27. In the eastern part of New Jersey lies the city of Elizabeth, a major shipping and manufacturing center. 27.伊丽莎白市,一个重要的航运和制造业中心,坐落于新泽西州的东部。 28. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman medical doctor in the United States, founded the New York Infirmary, an institution that has always had a completely female medical staff. 28. Elizabeth Blackwell,美国第一个女医生,创建了员工一直为女性纽约诊所。 29. Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the deaf than as the inventor of the telephone. 29. Alexander Graham Bell曾告诉家人,他更愿意让后人记住他是聋子的老师,而非电话的发明者。 30. Because its leaves remain green long after being picked, rosemary became associated with the idea of remembrance. 30.采摘下的迷迭香树叶常绿不衰,因此人们把迷迭香树与怀念联系在一起。 31. Although apparently rigid, bones exhibit a degree of elasticity that enables the skeleton to withstand considerable impact. 31.骨头看起来是脆硬的,但它也有一定的弹性,使得骨骼能够承受相当的打击。 32. That xenon could not FORM chemical compounds was once believed by scientists. 32.科学家曾相信:氙气是不能形成化合物的。 33. Research into the dynamics of storms is directed toward improving the ability to predict these events and thus to minimize damage and avoid loss of life. 33.对风暴动力学的研究是为了提高风暴预测从而减少损失,避免人员伤亡。 34. The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would have the same value as the amount of money borrowed. 34.消除通货膨胀应确保还贷的钱应与所贷款的价值相同。 35. Futurism, an early twentieth-century movement in art, rejected all traditions and attempted to glorify contemporary life by emphasizing the machine and motion. 35.未来主义,二十世纪早期的一个艺术思潮。拒绝一切传统,试图通过强调机械和动态来美化生活。 36. One of the wildest and most inaccessible parts of the United States is the Everglades where wildlife is abundant and largely protected. 36. Everglades是美国境内最为荒凉和人迹罕至的地区之一,此处有大量的野生动植物而且大多受(法律)保护。 37. Lucretia Mott's influence was so significant that she has been credited by some authorities as the originator of feminism in the United States. 37. Lucretia Mott's的影响巨大,所以一些权威部门认定她为美国女权运动的创始人。 38. The activities of the international marketing researcher are frequently much broader than those of the domestic marketer. 38.国际市场研究者的活动范围常常较国内市场研究者广阔。 39. The continental divide refers to an imaginary line in the North American Rockies that divides the waters flowing into the Atlantic Ocean from those flowing into the Pacific. 39.大陆分水岭是指北美洛矶山脉上的一道想象线,该线把大西洋流域和太平洋流域区分开来。 40. Studies of the gravity field of the Earth indicate that its crust and mantle yield when unusual weight is placed on them. 40.对地球引力的研究表明,在不寻常的负荷之下地壳和地幔会发生位移。 41. The annual worth of Utah's manufacturing is greater than that of its mining and farming combined. 41.尤它州制造业的年产值大于其工业和农业的总和。 42. The wallflower is so called because its weak stems often grow on walls and along stony cliffs for support. 42.墙花之所以叫墙花,是因为其脆弱的枝干经常要靠墙壁或顺石崖生长,以便有所依附。 43. It is the interaction between people, rather than the events that occur in their lives, that is the main focus of social psychology. 43.社会心理学的主要焦点是人与人之间的交往,而不是他们各自生活中的事件。 44. No social crusade aroused Elizabeth Williams' enthusiasm more than the expansion of educational facilities for immigrants to the United States. 44.给美国的新移民增加教育设施比任何社会运动都更多的激发了Elizabeth Williams的热情。 45. Quails typically have short rounded wings that enable them to spring into full flight instantly when disturbed in their hiding places. 45.典型的鹌鹑都长有短而圆的翅膀,凭此他们可以在受惊时一跃而起,飞离它们的躲藏地。 46. According to anthropologists, the earliest ancestors of humans that stood upright resembled chimpanzees facially, with sloping foreheads and protruding brows. 46.根据人类学家的说法,直立行走的人的鼻祖面部轮廓与黑猩猩相似,额头后倾,眉毛突出。 47. Not until 1866 was the fully successful transatlantic cable finally laid. 47.直到1866年第一条横跨大西洋的电缆才完全成功的架通。 48. In his writing, John Crowe Ransom describes what he considers the spiritual barrenness of society brought about by science and technology. 48. John Crowe Ransom在他的著作中描述了他认为是由科学技术给社会带来的精神贫困。 49. Children with parents whose guidance is firm, consistent, and rational are inclined to possess high levels of self-confidence. 49.父母的教导如果坚定,始终如一和理性,孩子就有可能充满自信。 50. The ancient Hopewell people of North America probably cultivated corn and other crops, but hunting and gathering were still of critical importance in their economy. 50.北美远古的Hopewell人很可能种植了玉米和其他农作物,但打猎和采集对他们的经济贸易仍是至关重要的。 51. Using many symbols makes it possible to put a large amount of inFORMation on a single map. 51.使用多种多样的符号可以在一张地图里放进大量的信息。 52. Anarchism is a term describing a cluster of doctrines and attitudes whose principal uniting feature is the belief that government is both harmful and unnecessary. 52.无政府主义这个词描述的是一堆理论和态度,它们的主要共同点在于相信政府是有害的,没有必要的。 53. Probably no man had more effect on the daily lives of most people in the Untied States than did Henry Ford a pioneer in automobile production. 53.恐怕没有谁对大多数美国人的日常生活影响能超过汽车生产的先驱亨利.福特。 54. The use of well-chosen nonsense words makes possible the testing of many basic hypotheses in the field of language learning. 54.使用精心挑选的无意义词汇,可以检验语言学科里许多基本的假定。 55. The history of painting is a fascinating chain of events that probably began with the very first pictures ever made. 55.优化历史是由一连串的迷人事件组成,其源头大概可以上溯到最早的图画。 56. Perfectly matched pearls, strung into a necklace, bring a far higher price than the same pearls told individually. 56.相互般配的珍珠,串成一条项链,就能卖到比单独售出好得多的价钱。 57. During the eighteenth century, Little Turtle was chief of the Miami tribe whose territory became what is now Indiana and Ohio. 57.十八世纪时,"小乌龟"是迈阿密部落的酋长,该部落的地盘就是今天的印第安那州和俄亥俄州。 58. Among almost seven hundred species of bamboo, some are fully grown at less than a foot high, while others can grow three feet in twenty-four hours. 58.在竹子的近七百个品种中,有的全长成还不到一英尺,有的却能在二十四小时内长出三英尺。 59. Before staring on a sea voyage, prudent navigators learn the sea charts, study the sailing directions, and memorize lighthouse locations to prepare themselves for any conditions they might encounter. 59.谨慎的航海员在出航前,会研究航向,记录的灯塔的位置,以便对各种可能出现的情况做到有备无患。 60. Of all the economically important plants, palms have been the least studied. 60.在所有的经济作物中,棕榈树得到的研究最少。 61. Buyers and sellers should be aware of new developments in technology can and does affect marketing activities. 61.购买者和销售者都应该留意技术的新发展,原因很简单,因为技术能够并且已经影响着营销活动。 62. The application of electronic controls made possible by the microprocessor and computer storage have multiplied the uses of the modern typewriter. 62.电脑储存和由于电子微处理机得以实现的电控运用成倍的增加了现代打字机的功能。 63. The human skeleton consists of more than two hundred bones bound together by tough and relatively inelastic connective tissues called ligaments. 63.人类骨骼有二百多块骨头组成,住些骨头石油坚韧而相对缺乏弹性的,被称为韧带的结蒂组连在一起。 64. The pigmentation of a pearl is influenced by the type of oyster in which it develops and by the depth, temperature, and the salt content of the water in which the oyster lives. 64.珍珠的色泽受到作为其母体牡蛎种类及牡蛎生活水域的深度,温度和含盐度的制约。 65. Although mockingbirds superbly mimic the songs and calls of many birds, they can nonetheless be quickly identified as mockingbirds by certain aural clues. 65.尽管模仿鸟学很多种鸟的鸣叫声惟妙惟肖,但人类还是能够依其声音上的线索很快识别它们。 66. Not only can walking fish live out of water, but they can also travel short distances over land. 66.鲇鱼不仅可以离开水存活,还可以在岸上短距离移动。 67. Scientists do not know why dinosaurs became extinct, but some theories postulate that changers in geography, climate, and sea levels were responsible. 67.科学家不知道恐龙为何绝种了,但是一些理论推断是地理,气候和海平面的变化造成的。 68. The science of horticulture, in which the primary concerns are maximum yield and superior quality, utilizes inFORMation derived from other sciences. 68.主要目的在于丰富和优质的农艺学利用了其他科学的知识。 69. Snow aids farmers by keeping heart in the lower ground levels, thereby saving the seeds from freezing. 69.雪对农民是一种帮助,因为它保持地层土壤的温度,使种子不致冻死。 70. Even though the precise qualities of hero in literary words may vary over time, the basic exemplary function of the hero seems to remain constant. 70.历代文学作品中的英雄本色虽各有千秋,但其昭世功力却是恒古不变的。 71. People in prehistoric times created paints by grinding materials such as plants and clay into power and then adding water. 71.史前的人们制造颜料是将植物和泥土等原料磨成粉末,然后加水。 72. Often very annoying weeds, goldenrods crowd out less hardy plants and act as hosts to many insect pests. 72.黄菊花通常令人生厌,它挤走不那么顽强的植物,并找来很多害虫。 73. Starting around 7000 B.C., and for the next four thousand years, much of the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than at present. 73.大约从公元前七千年开始,在四千年当中,北半球的温度比现在高。 74. When Henry Ford first sought financial backing for making cars, the very notion of farmers and clerks owning automobiles was considered ridiculous. 74.当亨利.福特最初制造汽车为寻求资金支持时,农民和一般职员也能拥有汽车的想法被认为是可笑的。 75. Though once quite large, the population of the bald eagle across North America has drastically declined in the past forty years. 75.北美秃头鹰的数量一度很多,但在近四十年中全北美的秃头鹰数量急剧下降。 76. The beaver chews down trees to get food and material with which to build its home. 76.水獭啃倒树木,以便取食物并获得造窝的材料。 77. Poodles were once used as retrievers in duck hunting, but the American Kennel Club does not consider them sporting dogs because they are now primarily kept as pets. 77.长卷毛狗曾被用作猎鸭时叼回猎物的猎犬,但是美国Kennel Club却不承认它们为猎犬,因为它们现在大多数作为宠物饲养。 78. As a result of what is now know in physics and chemistry, scientists have been able to make important discoveries in biology and medicine. 78.物理学和化学的一个成果是使得科学家们能在生物学和医学上获得重大发现。 79. The practice of making excellent films based on rather obscure novels has been going on so long in the United States as to constitute a tradition. 79.根据默默无闻的小说制作优秀影片在美国由来已久,已经成为传统。 80. Since the consumer considers the best fruit to be that which is the most attractive, the grower must provide products that satisfy the discerning eye. 80.因为顾客认为最好的水果应该看起来也是最漂亮的,所以种植者必须提供能满足挑剔眼光的产品。 81. Television the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth, is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. 81.电视,这项从迅速变化和成长为标志的最普及和最有影响力的现代技术,正在步入一个新时代,一个极为成熟和多样化的时代,这将重塑我们的生活和世界。 82. Television is more than just an electronics; it is a means of expression_r_r_r_r, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings. 82.电视不仅仅是一件电器;它是表达的手段和交流的载体并因此成为联系他人的有力工具。 83. Even more shocking is the fact that the number and rate of imprisonment have more than doubled over the past twenty years, and recidivism------that is the rate for re-arrest------is more than 60 percent. 83.更让人吃惊的事实是监禁的数目和比例在过去的二十年中翻了一番还有余,以及累犯率——即再次拘押的比例——为百分之六十强。 84. His teaching began at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but William Rainey Harper lured him to the new university of Chicago, where he remained officially for exactly a generation and where his students in advanced composition found him terrifyingly frigid in the classroom but sympathetic and understanding in their personal conferences. 84.他的教书生涯始于麻省理工学院,但是William Rainey Harper把他吸引到了新成立的芝加哥大学。他在那里正式任职长达整整一代人的时间。他的高级作文课上的学生觉得他在课上古板得可怕,但私下交流却富有同情和理解。 85. The sloth pays such little attention to its personal hygiene that green algae grow on its coarse hair and communities of a parasitic moth live in the depths of its coat producing caterpillars which graze on its mouldy hair. Its muscles are such that it is quits incapable of moving at a speed of over a kilometer an hour even over the shortest distances and the swiftest movement it can make is a sweep of its hooked arm. 85.树獭即不讲究卫生,以至于它粗糙的毛发上生出绿苔,成群的寄生蛾生长在它的皮毛深处,变成毛毛虫,并以它的脏毛为食。她的肌肉不能让他哪怕在很短的距离以内以每小时一公里的速度移动。它能做的最敏捷的动作就是挥一挥它弯曲的胳膊。 86. Artificial flowers are used for scientific as well as for decorative purposes. They are made from a variety of materials, such as way and glass, so skillfully that they can scarcely be distinguished from natural flowers. 86.人造花卉即可用于科学目的,也可用于装饰目的,它们可以用各种各样的材料制成,臂如蜡和玻璃;其制作如此精巧,几乎可以以假乱真。 87. Three years of research at an abandoned coal mine in Argonne, Illinois, have resulted in findings that scientists believe can help reclaim thousands of mine disposal sites that scar the coal-rich regions of the United States. 87.在伊利诺州Angonne市的一个废弃煤矿的三年研究取得了成果,科学家们相信这些成果可以帮助改造把美国产煤区弄得伤痕累累的数千个旧煤场。 88. When the persuading and the planning for the western railroads had finally been completed, the really challenging task remained: the dangerous, sweaty, backbreaking, brawling business of actually building the lines. 88.当有关西部铁路的说服和规划工作终于完成后,真正艰难的任务还没有开始;即危险,吃力,需要伤筋动骨和吵吵嚷嚷的建造这些铁路的实际工作。 89. Because of the space crunch, the Art Museum has become increasingly cautious in considering acquisitions and donations of art, in some cases passing up opportunities to strengthen is collections. 89.由于空间不足,艺术博物馆在考虑购买和接受捐赠的艺术品是越来越慎重,有些情况下放弃其进一步改善收藏的机会。 90. The United States Constitution requires that President be a natural-born citizen, thirty-five years of age or older, who has lived in the United States for a minimum of fourteen years. 90.美国宪法要求总统是生于美国本土的公民,三十五岁以上,并且在美国居住了至少十四年。 91. Arid regions in the southwestern United States have become increasingly inviting playgrounds for the growing number of recreation seekers who own vehicles such as motorcycles or powered trail bikes and indulge in hill-climbing contests or in caving new trails in the desert. 91.美国西部的不毛之地正成为玩耍的地方,对越来越多拥有摩托车或越野单车类车辆的,喜欢放纵于爬坡比赛或开辟新的沙漠通道的寻欢作乐者具有不断增长的吸引力。 92. Stone does decay, and so tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the man who made them have disappeared without trace. 92.石头不会腐烂,所以以前的(石器)工具能保存下来,虽然它们的制造者已经消失的无影无踪。 93. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals. 93.昆虫就将会使我们无法在这个世界上居住;如果我们没有受到以昆虫为食的动物的保护,昆虫就会吞嚼掉我们所有的庄稼并杀死我们饲养的禽兽。 94. It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement. 94.确实,他们在探险中遇到了极具威胁性的困难和危险,而他们的装备会让一个现代登山者想一想都会浑身颤栗。不过他们并不是刻意去追求刺激的。 95. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a glorious future before him and old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is where the rub is. 95.老人和年轻人之间只有一个区别:年轻人的前面有辉煌的未来,老年人灿烂的未来却已在它们身后。这也许就是困难之所在。 96. I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things. 96.我们位年强人振奋。它们带有自由的气息,他们不会为狭隘的野心和贪婪享受而孜孜以求。他们不是焦虑的向上爬的人,他们不会对物质性的东西难舍难分。 97. I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield. 97.每次我听说体育运动能够在国家间建立起友好感情,说世界各地的普通人只要能在足球场或板球场上相遇就会没有兴趣在战场上相遇的话,我都倍感诧异。 98. It is impossible to say simply for the fun and exercise: as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are around. 98.没有可能仅仅为了娱乐或锻炼而运动:一旦有了问题,一旦你觉得你输了你和你所属团体会有失体面时,你最野蛮的好斗本能就会被激发出来。 99. It has been found that certain bats emit squeaks and by receiving the echoes, they can locate and steer clear of obstacles------or locate flying insects on which they feed. This echo-location in bats is often compared with radar, the principle of which is similar. 99.人们已经发现,某些蝙蝠发出尖叫声并靠接受回响来锁定和避免障碍物——或者找到它们赖以为生的昆虫。蝙蝠这种回响定位法常拿来和原理与之很相近似的雷达相比。 100. As the time and cost of making a clip drop to a few days and a few hundred dollars, engineers may soon be free to let their imaginations soar without being penalized by expensive failure. 100.随着芯片制造时间和费用降低到了几天和几百美元,工程师们可能很快可以任他们的想象驰骋而不会被昂贵的失败所惩罚。 英语连读规则 “连读”在英语中叫Word Connections,借用法语的词汇时叫Liaison,读音为[li'eizn]——在这里要多说一句:从法语中借来的词读音一般都比较怪,一定要先查字典再去读它,免得搞错,比如debut['deibju:] 连读的意义 连读是语调中非常重要的一个组成要素。而语调是让别人更好听懂、更好理解的重要途径——语调的正确,比发音的准确还要重要。因为语调涉及的内容太多,而且很难用文字来描述,所以在这里只讲连读。 可能有人会认为连读会造成别人的理解困难,他们认为:还是把单词一个挨一个地读清楚更容易听明白。虽然这种说法明显是错误的,但是在这里我也不想浪费文字去反驳,读者们请自行决定是否要阅读或者离开。 一个例子 这里是一个连读的例子。在这个例子里,不仅仅有连读的存在,还包含发音的一些变化,请仔细分辨: 书写英语:They tell me that I’m easier to understand. 口语连读:theytellme thedaimeasier der-undersdand 连读的分类 英语中的连读主要有四种: 1)辅音+元音的连读(Consonant + Vowel) 2)辅音+辅音的连读 3)元音+元音的连读 4)T, D, S 或 Z + Y的连读 1. 辅音+元音的连读 一般来说中国人比较熟悉这种连读——前一个词由辅音结尾,后一个词由元音开头,于是就很自然地连起来了,比如: My name is… [my nay•miz] because I’ve. [b'k'zäiv] pick up on the American intonation… [pi•kə pan the(y) əmer'kə ninətənashən] 不只是句子中,读字母缩写也可以连读: LA [eh•Lay] 读数字时也可以连读: 902 5050 [nai•no•too fai•vo•fai•vo] 再来几个简单例子: hold on [hol don] turn over [tur nover] tell her I miss her [teller I misser] 因为这种连读一般初中生都会,在这里就不详细介绍了,重头戏在后面,马上开演。 2. 辅音+辅音的连读 这个很难用文字描述,放到最后再讲。 3. 元音+元音的连读 如果前一个词是由元音[u]结尾,下一个词由元音开头,那么,在[u]后面加上一个辅音[w] 如果前一个词是由元音[i]结尾,下一个词由元音开头,那么,在[i]后面加上一个辅音[y] 只说规则似乎有点不好理解,看例子就明白了。 Go away. [Go(w)away] 在电影Big Fish中,巨人Carl说过这句话。因为巨人说话又慢又重,所以那个w很明显。 再来看一个例子: I also need the other one. [I(y)also need thee(y)other one] 这种连读不能把辅音w或者j发得太重,否则会显得很傻,但是不发这两个辅音的话又会很难念得顺口。 go anywhere [go(w)anywhere] so honest [so(w)honest] through our [through(w)our] you are [you(w)are] he is [he(y)is] do I? [do(w)I?] I asked [I(y)asked] to open [to(w)open] she always [she(y)always] too often [too(w)often] 4. T, D, S 或 Z + Y的连读 如果前面的单词是以T/D/S/Z结尾,后面的单词是以Y开头(一般是you这个词),那么有如下的连读规则可以使用。 4.1. T + Y = CH What’s your name? [wəcher name] Can’t you do it? [kænt chew do(w)it] Actually [æk·chully] Don’t you like it? [dont chew lye kit] Wouldn’t you? [wooden chew] Haven’t you? [hæven chew] No, not yet. [nou, nä chet] I’ll let you know. [I'll letcha know] Can I get you a drink? [k'näi getchewə drink] We thought you weren’t coming. [we thä chew wrnt kəming] I’ll bet you ten bucks he forgot. [æl betcha ten buxee frgät] Is that your final answer? [is thæchr fin'læn sr] natural [næchrəl] perpetual [perpechə(w)əl] virtual [vrchə(w)əl] 4.2. D + Y = J Did you see it? [didjə see(y)it] How did you like it? [hæo•jə lye kit] Could you tell? [küjə tell] Where did you send your check? [wεrjə senjer check] What did your family think? [wəjer fæmlee think] Did you find your keys? [didjə fine jer keez] We followed your instructions. [we fallow jerin strəctionz] Congratulations! [k'ngræj'lationz] education [edjə·cation] individual [indəvijə(w)əl] graduation [græjə(w)ation] gradual [græjə(w)əl] 4.3. S + Y = SH Yes, you are. [yeshu are] Insurance [inshurance] Bless you! [blesshue] Press your hands together. [pressure hanz d'gethr] Can you dress yourself? [c 'new dreshier self] You can pass your exams this year. [yuk'n pæsher egzæmz thisheer] I’ll try to guess your age. [æl trydə geshierage] Let him gas your car for you. [leddim gæshier cär fr you] 4.4. Z + Y = ZH How’s your family? [hæozhier fæmlee] How was your trip? [hæo·wəzhier trip] Who’s your friend? [hoozhier frend] Where’s your mom? [wεrzh'r mäm] When’s your birthday? [wεnzh'r brthday] She says you’re OK. [she sεzhierou kay] Who does your hair? [hoo dəzhier hεr] casual [kæ·zhyə(w)əl] visual [vi·zhyə(w)əl] usual [yu•zhyə(w)əl] version [vrzh'n] vision [vizh'n] 附录: 音节省略和连读放在一起 I have got to go. I’ve gotta go. I have got a book. I’ve gotta book. Do you want to dance? Wanna dance? Do you want a banana? Wanna banana? Let me in. Lemme in. Let me go. Lemme go. I’ll let you know. I’ll letcha know. Did you do it? Dija do it? Not yet. Nä chet. I’ll meet you later. I’ll meechu layder. What do you think? Whaddyu think? What did you do with it? Whajoo do with it? How did you like it? Howja like it? When did you get it? When ju geddit? Why did you take it? Whyju tay kit? Why don’t you try it? Why don chu try it? What are you waiting for? Whaddya waitin’ for? What are you doing? Whatcha doin’? How is it going? Howzit going? Where’s the what-you-may-call-it? Where’s the whatchamacallit? Where’s what-is-his-name? Where’s whatsizname? How about it? How ’bout it? He has got to hurry because he is late. He’s gotta hurry ‘cuz he’s late. I could’ve been a contender. I coulda bina contender. Could you speed it up, please? Couldjoo spee di dup, pleez? Would you mind if I tried it? Would joo mindifai try dit? Aren’t you Bob Barker? Arnchoo Bab Barker? Can’t you see it my way for a change? Kænchoo see it my way for achange? Don’t you get it? Doancha geddit? I should have told you. I shoulda toljoo. Tell her (that) I miss her. Teller I misser. Tell him (that) I miss him. Tellim I missim. Did you eat? Jeet? No, did you? No, joo? Why don’t you get a job? Whyncha getta job? I don’t know, it’s too hard. I dunno, stoo härd. Could we go? Kwee gou? Let’s go! Sko! 英语发音规则 一、 连读 连读有两种规则,分别为: 1、 以辅音结尾的单词+元音开头的单词:要连读 如:I’d li(ke a)nother bow(l o)f rice. 这里like / laik / 以辅音结尾,another 以元音开头,所以连读 注意: 以辅音结尾 指的是音标中的最后一个音是辅音,而不是单词的结尾,这如同u[ju:.]niversity前面的定冠词必须用a 一样。 2、以辅音结尾的单词 + h开头的单词h不发音,与前面的辅音 what wil(l he) [wili]do? Ha(s he) done it before? Mus(t he) [ti] go? Can he do it? Should he….? Tell him to ask her…. Lea(ve him) [vim]. For him (连读这个词,会发现和forum 很相似) 我第一次知道这一连读规则时,兴奋不已,很容易的听懂了许多以前觉得很难以理解的句子, 并且按照这种连读方式发音省力、轻松了许多。再次证实”Economy”。 二、 音的同化 音的同化也是一种连读的现象,两个词之间非常平滑的过渡,导致一个音受临音影响而变化。主要是以下三种方式: 1、 辅音[d]与[j]相邻时,被同化为[dэ]:Would you....? 2、 辅音[t]与[j]相邻时,被同化为[t∫]: Can’t you:。。。。? 3、 辅音[s]与[j]相邻时, 被同化为[∫]: Miss you 三、 失音 由于失去爆破是失音的一种现象,摩擦音也会被失去,所以统称为失音。 注意: 爆破音并不是完全失去,仍然形成阻碍,把气流堵在里面,但不爆破,直接发出相邻的辅音。 规则: 1、 辅音爆破音或摩擦音后面跟的是爆破音、破擦音和摩擦等,前面的辅音要失去爆破。 这样的例子有很多很多, 红色标注的辅音不发音: Sit down: 发音再次的老师都不会发出 [t] 音 Contact lens: Big cake Dad told me Huge change Good night 四、 浊化 1、[S] 后面的清辅音要浊化 Discussion: [k] 浊化成 [g] Stand: [t] 浊化成[d] Expression: [p]浊化成 2、美音中:[t] 在单词的中间被浊化成[d] 如: writer, 听起来和 rider 的发音几乎没有区别 letter—ladder out of 美国人和加拿大人发音为了省事,习惯清音浊化,尤其是[t]在单词的中间一定会浊化成[d], 但英国人发音不会这样,这也是英音和美音的一大区别。 了解这一浊化原则,会给听力带来一些帮助。 五、 弱读 一般来说: 实词重读,如动词、名词、副词等; 虚词弱读,如介词、代词等 弱读的规则一般是:元音音节弱化成 [E] 或 比如说如下几个单词:for/to/some/does/of 查字典会发现这些词都至少有两种读音,如for: 重读时[fR:] , 弱读时 [fE] 六、 节奏 对于英语的节奏,我也把握不好,而且还为此郁闷不已。在我认为,中国人说普通化,一个句子的标准节奏和语调往往只有一个,我想英语也应该是这样,但是怎么样才是标准语调呢?特意为这个问题问过英语老师,不同的外国人说同一个陈述句会有不同得语调吗?她告诉我是的。不过在看了下面这段话之后,我想她可能误我了。: 老外教你“杀手锏”:注意说话的节奏 十年寒窗苦读英语,为谁辛苦为谁忙?当然是用来和老外“侃”喽。那外国人究竟如何看待中国人说的英语,他们说话有没有诀窍呢?记者请教了克里斯多佛•汉普顿---英国驻上海总领事馆的考官协调,他也是当天演讲比赛的裁判之一。 克里斯多佛一开口就指出了国人学英语最大的“软档” “中国人喜欢在单词的读音上纠缠不休。尤其是年轻人,总希望自己能说一口标准的美式英语,最好是带点纽约口音的美式英语。于是,他们很努力地听广播、看电视,刻意模仿美国人的说话腔调。 经过长时间的磨练,有些人的发音甚至比土生土长的美国人还地道。但是,我就算蒙着眼睛,也能轻易分辨出说话的是中国人,还是美国人。因为中国人说英语没有节奏。” 克里斯多佛所说的节奏并不仅指说话的速度快慢,还包含了许多平时不被重视的小环节,比如语调的升降、词语的重音、句子在何处停顿。中学的中文语文书中倒是有过断句练习,可几乎所有的英语教科书里都没有类似的章节,也鲜有老师会教学生这一套。所以,大多人不知道,英语句子也有自己拆分的规则。发言者要么按照中文的思维习惯,随心所欲把句子“大卸八块”;要么练习肺活量,一句话从头连到尾不喘气。于是,中国人听起来清清楚楚的句子,到外国人耳朵里就变成了“不知所云”。 要改变这个习惯也不难。克里斯多佛认为,只要连续练习几个月,一个英语水平普通的人也能说出漂亮的英语,甚至达到“以假乱真”的程度,和讲母语不分上下。 他的练习方法很简单---找一盒老外读的标准磁带,在录音机里不停顿地播放。然后你看着文字稿,亦步亦趋地跟着他的节奏读。这时候,充分调动你的耳朵,适应外国人的语音语调,还要像个回声筒似地反映出来。久而久之,当你习惯了老外的节奏,只要具备5000个基本单词,就能应付一般的对话 啊,终于写完啦!喝口水,开始写结束语。 我在最初练发音的时候,不知道这些规则,只是喜欢模仿,养成了不少坏习惯,老师总说我喜欢吞音,苦恼极了,以至于我发音开始小心翼翼,字字清楚,但我知道这样肯定是不对的。所以我便开始收集和总结这方面的规则,不但之前的困惑得到解决,发音也有了很大的改善,现在写下这篇音变规则,真心希望它能对你有所帮助!另外如果有错误之处,请不吝赐教! 清辅音浊化——之详细介绍 一、简单认识 按照英语读音的习惯,在s音后面的清辅音会读成相应的浊辅音。这就是清辅音浊化。 例如: spy /spai/ 轻辅音浊化就应该是/sbai/ spoon/spu:n /轻辅音浊化就应该是/sbu:n/ star /sta:/ 轻辅音浊化就应该是 /sda:/ 清辅音在/s/后浊化 如stick 中t读作/d/ 辅音浊化也并非完全的发浊音,它是界于清音和浊音之间那儿!发音并不如浊音那么强烈! 二、理性分析 关于辅音连缀/s/音后头情爆破音所谓"浊化" 这个问题的语音细节挺复杂,三言两语不易讲透。这里仅凭经验试图粗线条式地说几条,希望对说中国话的人学英语有点帮助。 1) 众所周知,同一音节中,紧接在/s/音后头的/p,t,k/和作为音节开头的/p,t,k/语音特点是不同的。国内英语教学界历来普遍把这种语音变化称作“浊化”。我认为这种说法从语音学角度不够准确,至少是以偏概全;从英语教学角度更是容易产生误导效果。 2) 所谓“浊”,无非是与“清”相对。英语/p,t,k/是清爆破辅音,与浊爆破辅音/b,d,g/相对。汉族学生,除了少数方言人士之外,一般都需要花一定的功夫才能正确掌握英语/b,d,g/的发音,学会把“浊”音“浊”够。若不强调模仿这一点,不作特别的“浊化”训练,自然模仿力不强的大部分学生就肯定会用汉语的[b,d,g]来代替英语的/p,t,k/,结果说出来的英语虽然在很多情况下都还不至于叫人误解,但语音效果肯定很差,一句话:不像英语!为什么呢?因为汉语[b,d,g]和[p,t,k]的区别可以说纯粹是送气与不送气的区别。可英语呢?/p,t,k/是强清爆破辅音,在一般情况下发音都伴随较强的送气过程。而 /b,d,g/则示弱浊爆破音,除了一般不送气之外,多半还有喉头声带震动,即所谓浊化。最后这一点,恰恰是汉语所没有的。例如很多人把 a guy 发成十足的“厄盖”,甚至还以为两者发音本来就是一样的,这就是因为他们“浊”不了那个该浊的 g。反过来,经过努力好不容易把英语的 /b,d,g/ “浊”够了,发正确了,一听说/p,t,k/在/s/后面要“浊化”,很多人(包括我们的语音老师)竟会把 sky / spade / start 发成 sgy / sbade/ sdart,那就矫枉过正反成谬误了。其实,/s/后面/p,t,k/的主要语音变化,不是“浊化”,而是失去了原来很强的送气特点罢了,其效果,就成了和汉语 不送气的 [b,d,g]紧贴在/s/后头一样。 3) 是否在音节重读的时候才会出现这种“送气变成不送气”的现象呢?不是的。可以说,哪怕是最强的重读音节里,如 spin中, /p/音都成了不送气的。在非重读音节里,就更不消说了。 4) 从英语语音学(而不是英语音位学)角度分析,这些音质变化也可能可以归入“浊化”范围,但这对我们一般学英语的人来说是没有多少实际意义的,因此不属于本帖讨论范围。 5) 有兴趣的朋友可参考一些权威语音学著作,例如英国Daniel Jones 和A.C. Gimson 的著作等。 三、问答中解释 问:coast中的"t"是否被前面的"s"所浊化为"d"。 答:不是。   1、清辅音浊化只是一种发音现象,不是规则,地道英语教学者都反对专门制定一个规则来说明这个问题。   2、总的发音规则只有一条:按照字典里的注音读,要怎么变化就按地道英语的习惯。   3、s 后面的清辅音被浊化,只是清辅音浊化的一小部分,很多时候不用加 s 也可能被浊化。 如water, happy, meeting, walking等等,地道英语一般将这些单词中间那个清辅音发成对应的浊辅音了,才象英语。   4、S后面的清辅音浊化现象可以这样归纳:清辅音跟着一个元音,前面又有一个 s ,无论是在单词的最前面还是中间,只要是在重读音节或次重读音节里,一般都读成对应浊辅音,如stand, strike, speak, sky 等等,值得一提的是strike不是不用变,而是它“tr”本来所发的音已是浊辅音,但也要变成“dr”所发的那个音 (如dream中的“dr”所发的音)。   其实谁也没有规定要这样读,如果你拿着这个问题问老外,他们大多都答不出来,只是这些相关的单词中的清辅音读着读着自然就会变成浊辅音了。   这种组合如果后面没有元音,就不存在浊化的问题。如grasp,test,desk等,仍发清辅音。   也有例外的,不要说它不符合规则,因为本来就没有规则,硬要定规则的话就行不通。比如student,stupid,如果按那个所谓规则去读成 [sd…],就不好听了,操地道英语的人就会知道问“你是从中国来的吧”。这里的字母“t”一般被习惯发成jeep中 “j”所发的那个音才地道。 四、辅音浊化的规则 在探讨美国英语与英国英语在语音上的差异时,我们通常是将“美国普通话”(General American , 简称GA)与公认的标准英语发音(Received Pronunciation, 简称R.P)进行比较。二者在读音上的差异主要表现在: 1. 在/s/ /F/ /f/ /m/ /n/等辅音之前的字母a,美国英语一般读作/A/ 音,而英国音则发作/B:/。如:美国人将pass (通过),chance(机会)分别读作/pAs/, /tFAns/。 2. 在英国标准音中,字母r在元音前才发音,如real (真实的),而在辅音前或词尾时是不发音的。但在美语中,r在辅音前发明显的卷舌音,在词尾时亦发音,如:farm /fa:rm/ ,car /ka:r/。 3. 使用相同的音标,但发音情况不同,例如:当清辅音[ t ]夹在两个元音之间,前一个是重读元音,后一个是轻读元音时,如writer(作家),美国人习惯将清辅音浊化,所以writer 和rider (骑马人) 发音几乎相同。 类似的例子还有latter(后者)与ladder (梯子);petal (花瓣)与pedal (踏板)。 4. 非重读字母e, 在美语中常读作[e], 而在英国英语中则读。如:美国人将except (除---外)读作/eksept/,英国人则读作/iksept/。 5. 词尾—ile 在美语中读作/il/ 或 /i:l/,而英国人将这一词尾读作/ail/。如:hostile (敌对的) /hRstil/(美); /hRstail/(英)。 6. 美国人说话往往把非重读音节中的元音都读出来,如history /5histEri/, extraordinary /eks5trR:dinEri/。英国人说话则习惯省略其中的音节,读作/5histri/,/iks5trR:dinEri/,在省略后读作/ikstro:dnri/. 过去式的发音单复数的发音规则 一.过去式的发音规则及变化规则 规则动词词尾加-ed有三种读音: 1. 在清辅音后读作[t]。如:asked, helped, watched, stopped 2. 在浊辅音和元音后读作[d]。如:enjoyed, studied, moved, called 3. 在t / d后读作[id]。如:wanted, needed 补充说明: 规则动词的过去式由“动词原形+-ed”构成,具体变化有: 1. 直接在词尾加-ed。如: want—wanted, work—worked, need—needed, clean—cleaned 2. 以不发音的e结尾的在词尾加-d。如:like—liked, live—lived, use—used, move—moved 3. 以一个元音字母加一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节动词,先双写结尾的辅音字母,再加-ed。如:stop—stopped, trip—tripped 4. 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词,先把y变成i,再加-ed。如:study—studied, carry—carried, hurry—hurried, marry—married 不规则动词的过去式大体上归纳有以下六条记忆法: 1. 以t结尾的词,过去式与原形相同。如:put—put, let—let, cut—cut, beat—beat 2. 以d结尾的词,把d变成t。如:build—built, lend—lent, send—sent, spend—spent 3. 以n结尾的词,在词后加t。如:mean—meant, burn—burnt, learn—learnt 4. 以ow / aw结尾的词,把ow / aw变成ew。如:blow—blew, draw—drew, know—knew, grow—grew 5. 含有双写字母的词,将双写改为单写,在词尾加t。如:keep—kept, sleep—slept, feel—felt, smell—smelt 6. 含有元音字母o / i的词,将o / i变成a。如:sing—sang, give—gave, sit—sat, drink—drank 2.单复数的发音规则: 在清辅音后面读s,在浊辅音后面年z 判断清浊的方法可以记个口诀 有气无声清辅音, 有声无气浊辅音 情况 构成方法 读音 例词 一般情况 加 -s 1.清辅音后读/s/; map-maps 2.浊辅音和元音后读 /z/; bag-bags car-cars 以s,sh,ch,x 等结尾的词 加 -es 读 /iz/ bus-buses watch-watches 以ce,se,ze, (d)ge等结尾的词 加 -s 读 /iz/ license-licenses 以辅音字母+y 变y 为i 结尾的词 再加es 读 /z/ baby---babies 名词复数发音规则 以元音音素结尾的加了“s”后发/z/音如:windows \ doors\ computers \centers 以清辅音结尾的加了“S"后发/s/音 如: chicks \ maps\ cups 以字母t结尾的发/ts/音 如:mats \ cats\ aunts 以字母d结尾的发/dz/音 如: birds \ words\ hands 其他辅音音素结尾的都发/z/音。 特殊变化的词根据变化后结尾音变化同上如:butterfly-butterflies变化后结尾音/ai/为元音,所以发/z/音。 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ A.“单数→复数”的规则变化 (1)名词词尾发音为[s, z, , , , ]时,加“-es”(如词尾有“-e”只加“-s”) 并发[-iz]音,形成一个音节,也就是本项名词为单音节时,加了“-es”便成为双音节的单词。 class[kla:s]→classes[kla:siz]班级 phrase[freiz]→phrases[freiziz]短语 dish[di]→dishes[diiz]盘,碟 garage[ 'g&aelig;rɑ: ]→garages['g&aelig;rɑ:iz]车库 watch[ w ]→watches[ w iz]手表 bridge[bri]→bridges[ briiz]桥梁 (2)名词词尾发音为[p, t, k, f, θ]等清辅音时,加“-s”并发[-s]音。例如: cup[kp]→cups[kps]茶杯 cat[kt]→cats[kts]猫 book0[buk]→books[buks]书 roof[ru:f]→roofs[ru:fs]屋顶 month[mnθ]→months[mnθs]月 注:“stomach”(胃),“monarch”(君主)等的复数是词尾加“-s”而不是加“-es”, 因为这些词的词尾“-ch”的发音是[-k]。 (3)名词词尾发音为前二项以外的情形时,亦即为[b, d, g, v, , m, n, , l]等浊辅音及元音时 (词尾为“-o”除外),加“-s”并发[-z]音。例如: herb[hb]→herbs[hbz]药草 bed[bed]→beds[bedz]床 dog[dg]→dogs[dgz]狗 glove[glv]→gloves[glvz]手套 scythe[sai]→scythes[saiz]大镰刀 game[geim]→games[geimz]游戏 can[kn]→cans[knz]罐,桶 king[ki]→kings[kiz]国王 girl[gl]→girls[glz]女孩 \ circles star[sta:]→stars[sta:z]星星 bee[bi:]→bees[bi:z]蜜蜂 igloo['iglu:]→igloos['iglu:z]圆顶冰屋 law[l]→laws[lz]法律 eye[ai]→eyes[aiz]眼睛 day[dei]→days[deiz]日,白昼 cow[kau]→cows[kauz]母牛 blow[blou]→blows[blouz]殴打 boy[bi]→boys[biz]男孩 bear→bears熊 (4)名词词尾为“-y”时: (a)“-元音字母+y”时直接加“-s”并发[-z]音,例如: play[plei]→plays[pleiz]剧本 toy[ti]→toys[tiz]玩具 (b)“-辅音字母+y”时,先把“-y”改为“-i”再加“-es”并发[-iz]音,例如: city[>siti]→cities[>sitiz]城市 lady[>leidi]→ladies[>leidiz]女士 (5)名词词尾为“-o”时: (a)“-元音字母+o”时,加“-s”并发[-z]音,例如: studio[>stju:diou]→studios[>stju:diouz]画室 zoo[zu:]→zoos[zu:z]动物园 (b)“-辅音字母+o”时,加“-es”并发[-z]音,例如: negro[>ni:grou]→negroes[>ni:grouz]黑人 potato[p>teitou]→potatoes[p>teitouz]马铃薯 注:本项也有加“-s”并发[-z]音的,多为外来语,例如: piano[pi>nou]→pianos[pi>nouz]钢琴(意大利语) photo[>foutou]→photos[>foutouz]照片(希腊语) radio[>reidiou]→radios[>reidiouz]收音机(源自拉丁词根-1906) 为什么听不懂老外的发音——原来英语有连读、弱读和缩读 连读   (一)什么是连读。     在连贯地说话或朗读时,在同一个意群(即短语或从句)中,如果相邻的两个词前者以辅音音素结尾,后者以元音音素开头,就要自然地将辅音和元音相拼,构成一个音节,这就是连读。连读时的音节一般不重读,只需顺其自然地一带而过,不可以加音,也不可以读得太重。如:notatall这个短语。连读时听起来就像是一个单词。注意:连读只发生在句子中的同一个意群中。在两个意群之间即使有两个相邻的辅音和元音出现,也不可连读。如:Pleasetakealookatit.这个句子中takealookatit是同一个意群,那么take与a可连读,look与at可连读,at与it可连读。在Thereisabookinit.一句中book与in往往不连读,因为book与in分别在两个不同的意群中。 (二)连读的详细情况     1.在同一个意群中,相邻的两个词,前者以辅音音素结尾,后者以元音音素开头,往往要拼在一起连读。如:     He is a student.(is与a要连读)     That is a right answer.(That与is,is和a,right和answer都可以连读)     I’ll be back in half an hour.(back和in,half和an,an与hour都可以连读)。        2.在同一个意群中的两个单词,如果前面的单词以r或re结尾,后面的单词以元音音素开头,则r或re要发/r/音,并与其后的元音音素相拼。如:hereandthere连读时往往读作/。hiErEnd`TZE/。apairofshoes连读时读作/E`pZErEv`FU:z/.    (三)音的组合任何一个单词都是由音素的不同组合而成。 英语中,同一音节中两个或两个以上相邻的辅音结合在一起,这种结构叫做辅音群(或辅音连缀、辅音丛)。两个、三个辅音的连缀,在英语中是普遍的。像sixths/siksz/这样四个辅音的连缀却比较少。英语单词里,辅音连缀所出现的位置有一定规律,通常只出现在词首或词尾。值得特别注意的是,辅音群中,辅音之间决不能夹有元音;以不发音的元音结尾的词,朗读时,辅音后面也不能附加元音。      请注意以下几个方面:      (1)辅音群中的辅音之间不能加上中元音//。这是初学者常出现的错误,如:blue/blu:/读成/blu:/;flood/fld/读成/fld/。这种错误在三个辅音组成的辅音群中更常见。又如:screen/skri:n/读成了/skri:n/。汉语中,声母/p/、/b/、/m/之后都加有元音。学英语时,这种中国式的语音习惯只有通过大量的练习来改变。练习英语发音时,我们可以将第一个辅音遮住,先读/kri:n/,再加/s/,读/skri:n/。      (2)在辅音 /r/的辅音群中,像/br/,/r/,/r/,初学者常把卷舌音/r/念成舌边音/l/。如:three/ri:/念成/lui:/。其原因是两个音在连接时舌尖没有及时地离开齿龈,作卷舌的动作。      (3)/s/ 3对爆破音,朗读/sp/、/sk/、/st/时,清辅音/p/、/k/、/t/不能念成送气音,而要将它们略微浊化,向/b/、//、/d/*近。而且朗读位于它们之前的/s/时,送气也不能太强。      (4)在以/l/ 另外一个辅音的辅音群中,有的学生不会读浊音的/l~/,而用//来替代。如:film/film/读成/fim/,world/w:ld/读成/w:d/。其原因是舌尖没有抵住上齿龈,舌后部未用力。还有一种是将舌尖卷曲发成浊音的/l~/。这也是不正确的。      (5)在一个辅音 /l/的辅音群中,有些同学往往在辅音与/l/之间加上一个中元音//。如apple/pl/读成/pl/。其原因是舌身在发音活动中移动太慢,舌尖没有及时移到上齿龈浊音的/l~/的位置。      (6)在一个辅音 /n/的辅音群中,有些同学感到困难的是“鼻腔爆破”辅音群/tn/和/dn/。有些人常在/t/、/d/与/n/之间夹中元音//:cotton/ktn/读成/ktn/。这样读的结果是没有实现鼻腔爆破,因为/t/、/d/、是从口腔内与//同时发出的。为了避免这样的发音错误,在/t/与/n/或/d/与/n/连读时,舌尖不要离开齿龈,这样舌身便把气流挡在口腔内,迫使它从鼻腔与/n/一同发出。      四.话语的节奏英语的话语如同音乐一样有一定的节奏。话语中的音乐像音乐的小节一样组成节奏群。每个节奏通常都会含有轻读音节与重读音节。在一个英语句子中,名词、动词、形容词和副词等实词常要强读,而介词、冠词、代词等虚词则一般弱读。英语的节奏规律是*重读音节与轻读音节的组合加重复来体现的。英语口语中的节奏基本体现在各个重读音节(用“”来表示)之间,其时距大体相同。英语是一种以重音计时的语言,各个重音与它跟随的若干轻读音节(用“·”表示)构成一个节奏群,有时一个节奏群是一个空拍(“<”表示)开始的(空拍在英语中也叫做“silentstress”)。节奏群用“/”来标识。我们用大致相同的时间来朗读每个节奏群。因此,为了真正取得节奏效果,碰到轻音少的节奏时,我们就可以念慢些,轻音较多的节奏群则必须念快一些。例如:daylight·/flashlight·.One/Two/Three/Four,/lets·/go/lets·/go.Peters·younger·sister·/leftthe·bagat·home.Thisis·the·/furnit·ure·.两个重音之间的轻读音节越多,我们在每个轻读音节上花的时间便越少。有时一个节奏群是以空拍开始,后面紧跟着几个轻音节,这样的节奏群常见句首或句子中需要停顿的地方。例如:He∧is·a·/student./Yes/Peter·,/he∧was·at·/home.      五.弱读单词在句中可以强读,也可以弱读,主要取决于上下文所表达的意思。有些英语单词本身具有两种或两种以上不同发音。以单词some为例,该词在重读或单独出现时,其元音的发音与单词sum完全一样。但是,当some在句子中作为非重读单词时,其元音就显得短而模糊。弱读音节中最常见的音是中元音//。一个单词在强读或弱读具有不同(两种或两种以上)发音时,这些不同的形式就叫词的强读式或弱读式。英语单词中有强读式和弱读式的单词大约有50多个,而且他们多出现在句子的非重读音节里。从词性上看,它们大多为单音节的限定词、助动词、动词be、介词、关联词和人称代词等。例如:some/sm/→/sm/→/sm/,have/hv/→/hv/→/v/;were/w:/→/w/,must/mst/→/mst,ms/→/mst,ms/;do/du:/→/d/→/du/→/d/,and/nd/→/nd,n/→/n/;of/v/→/v/→/v/,them/m/→/m/→/m/;we/wi:/→/wi/等。      六.音的连读在英语的实际运用中,人们常将属于同一意群的词连在一起,一口气说出来。意群中词与词之间不留空隙,这种读法叫“连读”(用“(”来表示)。      英语有三种连读形式:      (1)辅音(除了/r/、/w/和/j/)元音:单词末尾的辅音同下一个以元音开头的单词连读。例如:readi(t/ri:dit/,brushu(p/brp/。在朗读这种连读时,可以采用这样的技巧:把前面词的末尾辅音移到后一个词的开头来读。如:puti(to(n可读成/pu-ti-tn/。      (2)元音元音:前一个词的末尾元音和后一个词的起首元音连在一起读出,使它们中间不出现停顿。如:doit/du-it/,heatesome/hietsm/,轻轻地滑到下一个元音上。      (3)/r/ 元音:这一类连读分为词末连接音/r/和外加音/r/与元音的连读。a)单词末尾或音节末尾的r在英式英语中是不发音的。但是,在连贯话语里,如果这个单词后面紧跟着一个以元音开头的词,而且两个词在意义上密切相关且中间无停顿隔开时,就可能是原来不发音的字母r读为/r/,并同后一个单词的元音字首相连。例如:thereis/riz/,forever/f:rev/。b)为了避免让两个意义相关的比邻词的末首元音分立而读,我们通常在前一个词的结尾元音和后面单词的起首元音之间加上/r/音,这就是外加音/r/。如:ideaofit/aidirvit/,thesofaoverthere/sufruv-/。七.语调我们说话时可以随意改变音高,使音调上升或下降。我们还可以像歌唱家那样突然抬高话语的音调。音调的这种上扬或下降叫语调。英语有两种基本的语调:升调和降调(分别用符号“.”、“∈”表示)。升降的过程可以是急促的,也可以是缓慢的,还可以形成不同的组合。说话人可以通过语调准确地表达各种信息。(1)升调:升调多用来表示“不肯定”和“未完结”的意思,比如一般疑问句,语气婉转的祈使句,以及用陈述句子形式表示疑问的各类句子。如:a)ShallItellhimtocomeandsee.you?(一般疑问句的正常语调)b)You.like.him?(用于陈述句形式的疑问句中,期待得到对方证实)c).Whathaveyougotthere?(用于特殊疑问句中,语气亲切热情)d).Rightyou.are.(用于某些感叹句中,表示轻快、活泼、鼓励等意义)e)Shebought.red,.yellow,and.greenrugs.(用于排例句中,区别语义)(2)降调:降调表示“肯定”和“完结”。一般用于陈述句、特殊疑问句、命令句和感叹句中。例如:a)Swimmingismyfavourite∈sport.(用于陈述句表示肯定的意义)b)Whatdidyoufind∈there?(降调用于特殊疑问句表示说话人浓厚的兴趣)c)Tellmeallabout∈it.(语气较强的命令)d)Haveyougotthe∈tickets?(降调用于一般疑问句表示说话人的态度粗率、不耐烦或不高兴)e)How∈nice!(用于感叹句,表示感叹)英语中除了升调、降调这两种最基本的语调外,还有降—升调、升—降调、升—降—升调、平调等。我们掌握了基本的降升调后,可以查阅参考书,再增加这方面的知识      连读的条件:相邻的两词在意义上必须密切相关,同属一个意群。连读所构成的音节一般都不重读,只需顺其自然地一带而过,不可读得太重,也不可音。(连读符号:~)      (1)“辅音+元音”型连读   在同一个意群里,如果相邻两词中的前一个词是以辅音结尾,后一个词是以元音开头,这就要将辅音与元音拼起来连读。      I’m~an~English boy.   It~is~an~old book.   Let me have~a look~at~it.   Ms Black worked in~an~office last~yesterday.   I called~you half~an~hour~ago.   Put~it~on, please.   Not~at~all.   Please pick~it~up.   (2)“r/re+元音”型连读   如果前一个词是以-r或者-re结尾,后一个词是以元音开头,这时的r或re不但要发/r/,而且还要与后面的元音拼起来连读。   They’re my father~and mother.   I looked for~it here~and there.   There~is a football under~it.   There~are some books on the desk.   Here~is a letter for you.   Here~are four~eggs.   But where~is my cup?   Where~are your brother~and sister?   但是,如果一个音节的前后都有字母r,即使后面的词以元音开头,也不能连读。   The black clouds are coming nearer and nearer.(nearer与and不可连读)   (3)“辅音+半元音”型连读   英语语音中的/j/和/w/是半元音,如果前一个词是以辅音结尾,后一个词是以半元音,特别是/j/开头,此时也要连读。   Thank~you.   Nice to meet~you.   Did~you get there late~again?   Would~you like~a cup~of tea?   Could~you help me, please?   “音的同化”   —常把/d/+/j/读成/dV/,did you听上成了/dIdVu/,would you成了/wudVu/,could you成了/kudVu/。   (4)“元音+元音”型连读如果前一个词以元音结尾,后一个词以元音开头,这两个音往往也要自然而不间断地连读到一起。   I~am Chinese.   He~is very friendly to me.      She wants to study~English.   How~and why did you come here?   She can’t carry~it.   It’ll take you three~hours to walk there.   The question is too~easy for him to answer.   (5)当短语或从句之间按意群进行停顿时,意群与意群之间即使有两个相邻的辅音与元音出现,也不可连读。   Is~it a~hat or a cat?(hat与or之间不可以连读)   There~is~a good book in my desk. (book与in之间不可以连读)   Can you speak~English or French? (English与or之间不可以连读)   Shall we meet at~eight or ten tomorrow morning? (meet与 at,eight与or之间不可以连读)   She opened the door and walked~in. (door与and之间不可以连读)         失去爆破6个爆破音有3对/p/,/b/,/t/,/d/,/k/,/g/   失去爆破,又叫不完全爆破,就是在某些情况下,只须做出发音的准备,但并不发音,稍稍停顿后就发后面的音。   (1)“爆破音+爆破音”型   6个爆破音【t、d、k、g、p、b】中的任意2个相临时,前一个爆破音会失去爆破,即由相关的发音器官做好这个发音的姿势,稍做停顿后即发后面的爆破音。   The girl in the re(d) coat was on a bla(ck) bike jus(t) now.   The bi(g) bus from the fa(c) tory is full of people.   Wha(t) time does he get up every morning?   This is an ol(d) pi(c)ture of a bi(g) car.   The ol(d) do(c)tor has a ca(t), too.   We’re going to work on a farm nex(t) Tuesday.   What would you like, ho(t) tea or bla(ck) coffee?   It’s a very col(d) day, but it’s a goo(d) day.   You can put i(t) down in the bi(g) garden.   I bought a chea(p) book, but it’s a goo(d) book.   (2)“爆破音+摩擦音”型如果前面是爆破音,其后紧跟着某些摩擦音(如/f/,/s/,/W/,/T/等),那么前面那个爆破音仅有十分轻微的爆破,而后面那个摩擦音则要完全爆破。      6个爆破音有3对/p/,/b/,/t/,/d/,/k/,/g/失去爆破,又叫不完全爆破,就是在某些情况下,只须做出发音的准备,但并不发音,稍稍停顿后就发后面的音。         (1)“爆破音+爆破音”型6个爆破音中的任意2个相临时,前一个爆破音会失去爆破,即由相关的发音器官做好这个发音的姿势,稍做停顿后即发后面的爆破音。   The girl in the re(d) coat was on a bla(ck) bike jus(t) now.   The bi(g) bus from the fa(c) tory is full of people.   Wha(t) time does he get up every morning?   This is an ol(d) pi(c)ture of a bi(g) car.   The ol(d) do(c)tor has a ca(t), too.   We’re going to work on a farm nex(t) Tuesday.   What would you like, ho(t) tea or bla(ck) coffee?   It’s a very col(d) day, but it’s a goo(d) day.   You can put i(t) down in the bi(g) garden.   I bought a chea(p) book, but it’s a goo(d) book.         (2)“爆破音+摩擦音”型如果前面是爆破音,其后紧跟着某些摩擦音(如/f/,/s/,/W/,/T/等),那么前面那个爆破音仅有十分轻微的爆破,而后面那个摩擦音则要完全爆破。   Goo(d) morning, Mr. Bell.   Goo(d) morning, dear.   Uncle Li’s fa(c)tory is qui(te) near to the cinema.   I wen(t) there alone a(t) nine las(t) night.   -Do you know his bi(ke) number? -Sorry, I don’(t) know.   The forty-firs(t) lesson is qui(te) difficult.   Goo(d) luck, Lin Tao.      爆破音+m/n,爆破音也会失爆!   /p/, /t/, /k/开头的音节发 /b/, /d/, /g/   在背诵新东方80篇,总结出来的一点东西:   1. 音标中无重读音节的,要轻轻的读,不要读出有高低调的声音!不要老爱把音节读成渐高调,感觉有点歇斯底里,很难听的!   2. 重音且长音要尽量拖长,发音要饱满,但是[i:]除外,这个音节只需轻轻带过!   ee、啊:、呃:读起来让人听着这个音节很明显。   3. 短音的i有时候不发音,只起到一个连接的作用; 传说中的100句英语可以帮你背7000单词 1. Typical of the grassland dwellers of the continent is the American antelope, or pronghorn. 1.美洲羚羊,或称叉角羚,是该大陆典型的草原动物。 2. Of the millions who saw Haley’s comet in 1986, how many people will live long enough to see it return in the twenty-first century. 2. 1986年看见哈雷慧星的千百万人当中,有多少人能够长寿到足以目睹它在二十一世纪的回归呢? 3. Anthropologists have discovered that fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise are universally reflected in facial expressions. 3.人类学家们已经发现,恐惧,快乐,悲伤和惊奇都会行之于色,这在全人类是共通的。 4. Because of its irritating effect on humans, the use of phenol as a general antiseptic has been largely discontinued. 4.由于苯酚对人体带有刺激性作用,它基本上已不再被当作常用的防腐剂了。 5. In group to remain in existence, a profit-making organization must, in the long run, produce something consumers consider useful or desirable. 5.任何盈利组织若要生存,最终都必须生产出消费者可用或需要的产品。 6. The greater the population there is in a locality, the greater the need there is for water, transportation, and disposal of refuse. 6.一个地方的人口越多,其对水,交通和垃圾处理的需求就会越大。 7. It is more difficult to write simply, directly, and effectively than to employ flowery but vague expressions that only obscure one’s meaning. 7.简明,直接,有力的写作难于花哨,含混而意义模糊的表达。 8. With modern offices becoming more mechanized, designers are attempting to personalize them with warmer, less severe interiors. 8.随着现代办公室的日益自动化,设计师们正试图利用较为温暖而不太严肃的内部装饰来使其具有亲切感。 9. The difference between libel and slander is that libel is printed while slander is spoken. 9.诽谤和流言的区别在于前者是书面的,而后者是口头的。 10. The knee is the joints where the thigh bone meets the large bone of the lower leg. 10.膝盖是大腿骨和小腿胫的连接处。 11. Acids are chemical compounds that, in water solution, have a sharp taste, a corrosive action on metals, and the ability to turn certain blue vegetable dyes red. 11.酸是一种化合物,它在溶于水时具有强烈的气味和对金属的腐蚀性,并且能够使某些蓝色植物染料变红。 12. Billie Holiday’s reputation as a great jazz-blues singer rests on her ability to give emotional depth to her songs. 12. Billie Holiday’s作为一个爵士布鲁斯乐杰出歌手的名声建立在能够赋予歌曲感情深度的能力。 13. Essentially, a theory is an abstract, symbolic representation of what is conceived to be reality. 13.理论在本质上是对认识了的现实的一种抽象和符号化的表达。 14. Long before children are able to speak or understand a language, they communicate through facial expressions and by making noises. 14.儿童在能说或能听懂语言之前,很久就会通过面部表情和靠发出噪声来与人交流了。 15. Thanks to modern irrigation, crops now grow abundantly in areas where once nothing but cacti and sagebrush could live. 15.受当代灌溉(技术设施)之赐,农作物在原来只有仙人掌和荞属科植物才能生存的地方旺盛的生长。 16. The development of mechanical timepieces spurred the search for more accurate sundials with which to regulate them. 16.机械计时器的发展促使人们寻求更精确的日晷,以便校准机械计时器。 17. Anthropology is a science in that anthropologists use a rigorous set of methods and techniques to do*英语易网*ent observations that can be checked by others. 17.人类学是一门科学,因为人类学家采用一整套强有力的方法和技术来记录观测结果,而这样记录下来的观测结果是供他人核查的。 18. Fungi are important in the process of decay, which returns ingredients to the soil, enhances soil fertility, and decomposes animal debris. 18.真菌在腐化过程中十分重要,而腐化过程将化学物质回馈于土壤,提高其肥力,并分解动物粪便。 19. When it is struck, a tuning fork produces an almost pure tone, retaining its pitch over a long period of time. 19.音叉被敲击时,产生几乎纯质的音调,其音量经久不衰。 20. Although pecans are most plentiful in the southeastern part of the United States, they are found as far north as Ohio and Illinois. 20.虽然美洲山河桃树最集中于美国的东南部但是在北至俄亥俄州及伊利诺州也能看见它们。 21. Eliminating problems by transferring the blame to others is often called scape-goating. 21.用怪罪别人的办法来解决问题通常被称为寻找替罪羊。 22. The chief foods eaten in any country depend largely on what grows best in its climate and soil. 22.一个国家的主要食物是什么,大体取决于什么作物在其天气和土壤条件下生长得最好。 23. Over a very large number of trials, the probability of an event's occurring is equal to the probability that it will not occur. 23.在大量的实验中,某一事件发生的几率等于它不发生的几率。 24. Most substance contract when they freeze so that the density of a substance's solid is higher than the density of its liquid. 24.大多数物质遇冷收缩,所以他们的密度在固态时高于液态。 25. The mechanism by which brain cells store memories is not clearly understood. 25.大脑细胞储存记忆的机理并不为人明白。 26. By the middle of the twentieth century, painters and sculptors in the United States had begun to exert a great worldwide influence over art. 26.到了二十一世纪中叶,美国画家和雕塑家开始在世界范围内对艺术产生重大影响。 27. In the eastern part of New Jersey lies the city of Elizabeth, a major shipping and manufacturing center. 27.伊丽莎白市,一个重要的航运和制造业中心,坐落于新泽西州的东部。 28. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman medical doctor in the United States, founded the New York Infirmary, an institution that has always had a completely female medical staff. 28. Elizabeth Blackwell,美国第一个女医生,创建了员工一直为女性纽约诊所。 29. Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the deaf than as the inventor of the telephone. 29. Alexander Graham Bell曾告诉家人,他更愿意让后人记住他是聋子的老师,而非电话的发明者。 30. Because its leaves remain green long after being picked, rosemary became associated with the idea of remembrance. 30.采摘下的迷迭香树叶常绿不衰,因此人们把迷迭香树与怀念联系在一起。 31. Although apparently rigid, bones exhibit a degree of elasticity that enables the skeleton to withstand considerable impact. 31.骨头看起来是脆硬的,但它也有一定的弹性,使得骨骼能够承受相当的打击。 32. That xenon could not FORM chemical compounds was once believed by scientists. 32.科学家曾相信:氙气是不能形成化合物的。 33. Research into the dynamics of storms is directed toward improving the ability to predict these events and thus to minimize damage and avoid loss of life. 33.对风暴动力学的研究是为了提高风暴预测从而减少损失,避免人员伤亡。 34. The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would have the same value as the amount of money borrowed. 34.消除通货膨胀应确保还贷的钱应与所贷款的价值相同。 35. Futurism, an early twentieth-century movement in art, rejected all traditions and attempted to glorify contemporary life by emphasizing the machine and motion. 35.未来主义,二十世纪早期的一个艺术思潮。拒绝一切传统,试图通过强调机械和动态来美化生活。 36. One of the wildest and most inaccessible parts of the United States is the Everglades where wildlife is abundant and largely protected. 36. Everglades是美国境内最为荒凉和人迹罕至的地区之一,此处有大量的野生动植物而且大多受(法律)保护。 37. Lucretia Mott's influence was so significant that she has been credited by some authorities as the originator of feminism in the United States. 37. Lucretia Mott's的影响巨大,所以一些权威部门认定她为美国女权运动的创始人。 38. The activities of the international marketing researcher are frequently much broader than those of the domestic marketer. 38.国际市场研究者的活动范围常常较国内市场研究者广阔。 39. The continental divide refers to an imaginary line in the North American Rockies that divides the waters flowing into the Atlantic Ocean from those flowing into the Pacific. 39.大陆分水岭是指北美洛矶山脉上的一道想象线,该线把大西洋流域和太平洋流域区分开来。 40. Studies of the gravity field of the Earth indicate that its crust and mantle yield when unusual weight is placed on them. 40.对地球引力的研究表明,在不寻常的负荷之下地壳和地幔会发生位移。 41. The annual worth of Utah's manufacturing is greater than that of its mining and farming combined. 41.尤它州制造业的年产值大于其工业和农业的总和。 42. The wallflower is so called because its weak stems often grow on walls and along stony cliffs for support. 42.墙花之所以叫墙花,是因为其脆弱的枝干经常要靠墙壁或顺石崖生长,以便有所依附。 43. It is the interaction between people, rather than the events that occur in their lives, that is the main focus of social psychology. 43.社会心理学的主要焦点是人与人之间的交往,而不是他们各自生活中的事件。 44. No social crusade aroused Elizabeth Williams' enthusiasm more than the expansion of educational facilities for immigrants to the United States. 44.给美国的新移民增加教育设施比任何社会运动都更多的激发了Elizabeth Williams的热情。 45. Quails typically have short rounded wings that enable them to spring into full flight instantly when disturbed in their hiding places. 45.典型的鹌鹑都长有短而圆的翅膀,凭此他们可以在受惊时一跃而起,飞离它们的躲藏地。 46. According to anthropologists, the earliest ancestors of humans that stood upright resembled chimpanzees facially, with sloping foreheads and protruding brows. 46.根据人类学家的说法,直立行走的人的鼻祖面部轮廓与黑猩猩相似,额头后倾,眉毛突出。 47. Not until 1866 was the fully successful transatlantic cable finally laid. 47.直到1866年第一条横跨大西洋的电缆才完全成功的架通。 48. In his writing, John Crowe Ransom describes what he considers the spiritual barrenness of society brought about by science and technology. 48. John Crowe Ransom在他的著作中描述了他认为是由科学技术给社会带来的精神贫困。 49. Children with parents whose guidance is firm, consistent, and rational are inclined to possess high levels of self-confidence. 49.父母的教导如果坚定,始终如一和理性,孩子就有可能充满自信。 50. The ancient Hopewell people of North America probably cultivated corn and other crops, but hunting and gathering were still of critical importance in their economy. 50.北美远古的Hopewell人很可能种植了玉米和其他农作物,但打猎和采集对他们的经济贸易仍是至关重要的。 51. Using many symbols makes it possible to put a large amount of inFORMation on a single map. 51.使用多种多样的符号可以在一张地图里放进大量的信息。 52. Anarchism is a term describing a cluster of doctrines and attitudes whose principal uniting feature is the belief that government is both harmful and unnecessary. 52.无政府主义这个词描述的是一堆理论和态度,它们的主要共同点在于相信政府是有害的,没有必要的。 53. Probably no man had more effect on the daily lives of most people in the Untied States than did Henry Ford a pioneer in automobile production. 53.恐怕没有谁对大多数美国人的日常生活影响能超过汽车生产的先驱亨利.福特。 54. The use of well-chosen nonsense words makes possible the testing of many basic hypotheses in the field of language learning. 54.使用精心挑选的无意义词汇,可以检验语言学科里许多基本的假定。 55. The history of painting is a fascinating chain of events that probably began with the very first pictures ever made. 55.优化历史是由一连串的迷人事件组成,其源头大概可以上溯到最早的图画。 56. Perfectly matched pearls, strung into a necklace, bring a far higher price than the same pearls told individually. 56.相互般配的珍珠,串成一条项链,就能卖到比单独售出好得多的价钱。 57. During the eighteenth century, Little Turtle was chief of the Miami tribe whose territory became what is now Indiana and Ohio. 57.十八世纪时,"小乌龟"是迈阿密部落的酋长,该部落的地盘就是今天的印第安那州和俄亥俄州。 58. Among almost seven hundred species of bamboo, some are fully grown at less than a foot high, while others can grow three feet in twenty-four hours. 58.在竹子的近七百个品种中,有的全长成还不到一英尺,有的却能在二十四小时内长出三英尺。 59. Before staring on a sea voyage, prudent navigators learn the sea charts, study the sailing directions, and memorize lighthouse locations to prepare themselves for any conditions they might encounter. 59.谨慎的航海员在出航前,会研究航向,记录的灯塔的位置,以便对各种可能出现的情况做到有备无患。 60. Of all the economically important plants, palms have been the least studied. 60.在所有的经济作物中,棕榈树得到的研究最少。 61. Buyers and sellers should be aware of new developments in technology can and does affect marketing activities. 61.购买者和销售者都应该留意技术的新发展,原因很简单,因为技术能够并且已经影响着营销活动。 62. The application of electronic controls made possible by the microprocessor and computer storage have multiplied the uses of the modern typewriter. 62.电脑储存和由于电子微处理机得以实现的电控运用成倍的增加了现代打字机的功能。 63. The human skeleton consists of more than two hundred bones bound together by tough and relatively inelastic connective tissues called ligaments. 63.人类骨骼有二百多块骨头组成,住些骨头石油坚韧而相对缺乏弹性的,被称为韧带的结蒂组连在一起。 64. The pigmentation of a pearl is influenced by the type of oyster in which it develops and by the depth, temperature, and the salt content of the water in which the oyster lives. 64.珍珠的色泽受到作为其母体牡蛎种类及牡蛎生活水域的深度,温度和含盐度的制约。 65. Although mockingbirds superbly mimic the songs and calls of many birds, they can nonetheless be quickly identified as mockingbirds by certain aural clues. 65.尽管模仿鸟学很多种鸟的鸣叫声惟妙惟肖,但人类还是能够依其声音上的线索很快识别它们。 66. Not only can walking fish live out of water, but they can also travel short distances over land. 66.鲇鱼不仅可以离开水存活,还可以在岸上短距离移动。 67. Scientists do not know why dinosaurs became extinct, but some theories postulate that changers in geography, climate, and sea levels were responsible. 67.科学家不知道恐龙为何绝种了,但是一些理论推断是地理,气候和海平面的变化造成的。 68. The science of horticulture, in which the primary concerns are maximum yield and superior quality, utilizes inFORMation derived from other sciences. 68.主要目的在于丰富和优质的农艺学利用了其他科学的知识。 69. Snow aids farmers by keeping heart in the lower ground levels, thereby saving the seeds from freezing. 69.雪对农民是一种帮助,因为它保持地层土壤的温度,使种子不致冻死。 70. Even though the precise qualities of hero in literary words may vary over time, the basic exemplary function of the hero seems to remain constant. 70.历代文学作品中的英雄本色虽各有千秋,但其昭世功力却是恒古不变的。 71. People in prehistoric times created paints by grinding materials such as plants and clay into power and then adding water. 71.史前的人们制造颜料是将植物和泥土等原料磨成粉末,然后加水。 72. Often very annoying weeds, goldenrods crowd out less hardy plants and act as hosts to many insect pests. 72.黄菊花通常令人生厌,它挤走不那么顽强的植物,并找来很多害虫。 73. Starting around 7000 B.C., and for the next four thousand years, much of the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than at present. 73.大约从公元前七千年开始,在四千年当中,北半球的温度比现在高。 74. When Henry Ford first sought financial backing for making cars, the very notion of farmers and clerks owning automobiles was considered ridiculous. 74.当亨利.福特最初制造汽车为寻求资金支持时,农民和一般职员也能拥有汽车的想法被认为是可笑的。 75. Though once quite large, the population of the bald eagle across North America has drastically declined in the past forty years. 75.北美秃头鹰的数量一度很多,但在近四十年中全北美的秃头鹰数量急剧下降。 76. The beaver chews down trees to get food and material with which to build its home. 76.水獭啃倒树木,以便取食物并获得造窝的材料。 77. Poodles were once used as retrievers in duck hunting, but the American Kennel Club does not consider them sporting dogs because they are now primarily kept as pets. 77.长卷毛狗曾被用作猎鸭时叼回猎物的猎犬,但是美国Kennel Club却不承认它们为猎犬,因为它们现在大多数作为宠物饲养。 78. As a result of what is now know in physics and chemistry, scientists have been able to make important discoveries in biology and medicine. 78.物理学和化学的一个成果是使得科学家们能在生物学和医学上获得重大发现。 79. The practice of making excellent films based on rather obscure novels has been going on so long in the United States as to constitute a tradition. 79.根据默默无闻的小说制作优秀影片在美国由来已久,已经成为传统。 80. Since the consumer considers the best fruit to be that which is the most attractive, the grower must provide products that satisfy the discerning eye. 80.因为顾客认为最好的水果应该看起来也是最漂亮的,所以种植者必须提供能满足挑剔眼光的产品。 81. Television the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth, is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. 81.电视,这项从迅速变化和成长为标志的最普及和最有影响力的现代技术,正在步入一个新时代,一个极为成熟和多样化的时代,这将重塑我们的生活和世界。 82. Television is more than just an electronics; it is a means of expression_r_r_r_r, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings. 82.电视不仅仅是一件电器;它是表达的手段和交流的载体并因此成为联系他人的有力工具。 83. Even more shocking is the fact that the number and rate of imprisonment have more than doubled over the past twenty years, and recidivism------that is the rate for re-arrest------is more than 60 percent. 83.更让人吃惊的事实是监禁的数目和比例在过去的二十年中翻了一番还有余,以及累犯率——即再次拘押的比例——为百分之六十强。 84. His teaching began at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but William Rainey Harper lured him to the new university of Chicago, where he remained officially for exactly a generation and where his students in advanced composition found him terrifyingly frigid in the classroom but sympathetic and understanding in their personal conferences. 84.他的教书生涯始于麻省理工学院,但是William Rainey Harper把他吸引到了新成立的芝加哥大学。他在那里正式任职长达整整一代人的时间。他的高级作文课上的学生觉得他在课上古板得可怕,但私下交流却富有同情和理解。 85. The sloth pays such little attention to its personal hygiene that green algae grow on its coarse hair and communities of a parasitic moth live in the depths of its coat producing caterpillars which graze on its mouldy hair. Its muscles are such that it is quits incapable of moving at a speed of over a kilometer an hour even over the shortest distances and the swiftest movement it can make is a sweep of its hooked arm. 85.树獭即不讲究卫生,以至于它粗糙的毛发上生出绿苔,成群的寄生蛾生长在它的皮毛深处,变成毛毛虫,并以它的脏毛为食。她的肌肉不能让他哪怕在很短的距离以内以每小时一公里的速度移动。它能做的最敏捷的动作就是挥一挥它弯曲的胳膊。 86. Artificial flowers are used for scientific as well as for decorative purposes. They are made from a variety of materials, such as way and glass, so skillfully that they can scarcely be distinguished from natural flowers. 86.人造花卉即可用于科学目的,也可用于装饰目的,它们可以用各种各样的材料制成,臂如蜡和玻璃;其制作如此精巧,几乎可以以假乱真。 87. Three years of research at an abandoned coal mine in Argonne, Illinois, have resulted in findings that scientists believe can help reclaim thousands of mine disposal sites that scar the coal-rich regions of the United States. 87.在伊利诺州Angonne市的一个废弃煤矿的三年研究取得了成果,科学家们相信这些成果可以帮助改造把美国产煤区弄得伤痕累累的数千个旧煤场。 88. When the persuading and the planning for the western railroads had finally been completed, the really challenging task remained: the dangerous, sweaty, backbreaking, brawling business of actually building the lines. 88.当有关西部铁路的说服和规划工作终于完成后,真正艰难的任务还没有开始;即危险,吃力,需要伤筋动骨和吵吵嚷嚷的建造这些铁路的实际工作。 89. Because of the space crunch, the Art Museum has become increasingly cautious in considering acquisitions and donations of art, in some cases passing up opportunities to strengthen is collections. 89.由于空间不足,艺术博物馆在考虑购买和接受捐赠的艺术品是越来越慎重,有些情况下放弃其进一步改善收藏的机会。 90. The United States Constitution requires that President be a natural-born citizen, thirty-five years of age or older, who has lived in the United States for a minimum of fourteen years. 90.美国宪法要求总统是生于美国本土的公民,三十五岁以上,并且在美国居住了至少十四年。 91. Arid regions in the southwestern United States have become increasingly inviting playgrounds for the growing number of recreation seekers who own vehicles such as motorcycles or powered trail bikes and indulge in hill-climbing contests or in caving new trails in the desert. 91.美国西部的不毛之地正成为玩耍的地方,对越来越多拥有摩托车或越野单车类车辆的,喜欢放纵于爬坡比赛或开辟新的沙漠通道的寻欢作乐者具有不断增长的吸引力。 92. Stone does decay, and so tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the man who made them have disappeared without trace. 92.石头不会腐烂,所以以前的(石器)工具能保存下来,虽然它们的制造者已经消失的无影无踪。 93. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals. 93.昆虫就将会使我们无法在这个世界上居住;如果我们没有受到以昆虫为食的动物的保护,昆虫就会吞嚼掉我们所有的庄稼并杀死我们饲养的禽兽。 94. It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement. 94.确实,他们在探险中遇到了极具威胁性的困难和危险,而他们的装备会让一个现代登山者想一想都会浑身颤栗。不过他们并不是刻意去追求刺激的。 95. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a glorious future before him and old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is where the rub is. 95.老人和年轻人之间只有一个区别:年轻人的前面有辉煌的未来,老年人灿烂的未来却已在它们身后。这也许就是困难之所在。 96. I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things. 96.我们位年强人振奋。它们带有自由的气息,他们不会为狭隘的野心和贪婪享受而孜孜以求。他们不是焦虑的向上爬的人,他们不会对物质性的东西难舍难分。 97. I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield. 97.每次我听说体育运动能够在国家间建立起友好感情,说世界各地的普通人只要能在足球场或板球场上相遇就会没有兴趣在战场上相遇的话,我都倍感诧异。 98. It is impossible to say simply for the fun and exercise: as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are around. 98.没有可能仅仅为了娱乐或锻炼而运动:一旦有了问题,一旦你觉得你输了你和你所属团体会有失体面时,你最野蛮的好斗本能就会被激发出来。 99. It has been found that certain bats emit squeaks and by receiving the echoes, they can locate and steer clear of obstacles------or locate flying insects on which they feed. This echo-location in bats is often compared with radar, the principle of which is similar. 99.人们已经发现,某些蝙蝠发出尖叫声并靠接受回响来锁定和避免障碍物——或者找到它们赖以为生的昆虫。蝙蝠这种回响定位法常拿来和原理与之很相近似的雷达相比。 100. As the time and cost of making a clip drop to a few days and a few hundred dollars, engineers may soon be free to let their imaginations soar without being penalized by expensive failure. 100.随着芯片制造时间和费用降低到了几天和几百美元,工程师们可能很快可以任他们的想象驰骋而不会被昂贵的失败所惩罚。 英语连读规则 “连读”在英语中叫Word Connections,借用法语的词汇时叫Liaison,读音为[li'eizn]——在这里要多说一句:从法语中借来的词读音一般都比较怪,一定要先查字典再去读它,免得搞错,比如debut['deibju:] 连读的意义 连读是语调中非常重要的一个组成要素。而语调是让别人更好听懂、更好理解的重要途径——语调的正确,比发音的准确还要重要。因为语调涉及的内容太多,而且很难用文字来描述,所以在这里只讲连读。 可能有人会认为连读会造成别人的理解困难,他们认为:还是把单词一个挨一个地读清楚更容易听明白。虽然这种说法明显是错误的,但是在这里我也不想浪费文字去反驳,读者们请自行决定是否要阅读或者离开。 一个例子 这里是一个连读的例子。在这个例子里,不仅仅有连读的存在,还包含发音的一些变化,请仔细分辨: 书写英语:They tell me that I’m easier to understand. 口语连读:theytellme thedaimeasier der-undersdand 连读的分类 英语中的连读主要有四种: 1)辅音+元音的连读(Consonant + Vowel) 2)辅音+辅音的连读 3)元音+元音的连读 4)T, D, S 或 Z + Y的连读 1. 辅音+元音的连读 一般来说中国人比较熟悉这种连读——前一个词由辅音结尾,后一个词由元音开头,于是就很自然地连起来了,比如: My name is… [my nay•miz] because I’ve. [b'k'zäiv] pick up on the American intonation… [pi•kə pan the(y) əmer'kə ninətənashən] 不只是句子中,读字母缩写也可以连读: LA [eh•Lay] 读数字时也可以连读: 902 5050 [nai•no•too fai•vo•fai•vo] 再来几个简单例子: hold on [hol don] turn over [tur nover] tell her I miss her [teller I misser] 因为这种连读一般初中生都会,在这里就不详细介绍了,重头戏在后面,马上开演。 2. 辅音+辅音的连读 这个很难用文字描述,放到最后再讲。 3. 元音+元音的连读 如果前一个词是由元音[u]结尾,下一个词由元音开头,那么,在[u]后面加上一个辅音[w] 如果前一个词是由元音[i]结尾,下一个词由元音开头,那么,在[i]后面加上一个辅音[y] 只说规则似乎有点不好理解,看例子就明白了。 Go away. [Go(w)away] 在电影Big Fish中,巨人Carl说过这句话。因为巨人说话又慢又重,所以那个w很明显。 再来看一个例子: I also need the other one. [I(y)also need thee(y)other one] 这种连读不能把辅音w或者j发得太重,否则会显得很傻,但是不发这两个辅音的话又会很难念得顺口。 go anywhere [go(w)anywhere] so honest [so(w)honest] through our [through(w)our] you are [you(w)are] he is [he(y)is] do I? [do(w)I?] I asked [I(y)asked] to open [to(w)open] she always [she(y)always] too often [too(w)often] 4. T, D, S 或 Z + Y的连读 如果前面的单词是以T/D/S/Z结尾,后面的单词是以Y开头(一般是you这个词),那么有如下的连读规则可以使用。 4.1. T + Y = CH What’s your name? [wəcher name] Can’t you do it? [kænt chew do(w)it] Actually [æk·chully] Don’t you like it? [dont chew lye kit] Wouldn’t you? [wooden chew] Haven’t you? [hæven chew] No, not yet. [nou, nä chet] I’ll let you know. [I'll letcha know] Can I get you a drink? [k'näi getchewə drink] We thought you weren’t coming. [we thä chew wrnt kəming] I’ll bet you ten bucks he forgot. [æl betcha ten buxee frgät] Is that your final answer? [is thæchr fin'læn sr] natural [næchrəl] perpetual [perpechə(w)əl] virtual [vrchə(w)əl] 4.2. D + Y = J Did you see it? [didjə see(y)it] How did you like it? [hæo•jə lye kit] Could you tell? [küjə tell] Where did you send your check? [wεrjə senjer check] What did your family think? [wəjer fæmlee think] Did you find your keys? [didjə fine jer keez] We followed your instructions. [we fallow jerin strəctionz] Congratulations! [k'ngræj'lationz] education [edjə·cation] individual [indəvijə(w)əl] graduation [græjə(w)ation] gradual [græjə(w)əl] 4.3. S + Y = SH Yes, you are. [yeshu are] Insurance [inshurance] Bless you! [blesshue] Press your hands together. [pressure hanz d'gethr] Can you dress yourself? [c 'new dreshier self] You can pass your exams this year. [yuk'n pæsher egzæmz thisheer] I’ll try to guess your age. [æl trydə geshierage] Let him gas your car for you. [leddim gæshier cär fr you] 4.4. Z + Y = ZH How’s your family? [hæozhier fæmlee] How was your trip? [hæo·wəzhier trip] Who’s your friend? [hoozhier frend] Where’s your mom? [wεrzh'r mäm] When’s your birthday? [wεnzh'r brthday] She says you’re OK. [she sεzhierou kay] Who does your hair? [hoo dəzhier hεr] casual [kæ·zhyə(w)əl] visual [vi·zhyə(w)əl] usual [yu•zhyə(w)əl] version [vrzh'n] vision [vizh'n] 附录: 音节省略和连读放在一起 I have got to go. I’ve gotta go. I have got a book. I’ve gotta book. Do you want to dance? Wanna dance? Do you want a banana? Wanna banana? Let me in. Lemme in. Let me go. Lemme go. I’ll let you know. I’ll letcha know. Did you do it? Dija do it? Not yet. Nä chet. I’ll meet you later. I’ll meechu layder. What do you think? Whaddyu think? What did you do with it? Whajoo do with it? How did you like it? Howja like it? When did you get it? When ju geddit? Why did you take it? Whyju tay kit? Why don’t you try it? Why don chu try it? What are you waiting for? Whaddya waitin’ for? What are you doing? Whatcha doin’? How is it going? Howzit going? Where’s the what-you-may-call-it? Where’s the whatchamacallit? Where’s what-is-his-name? Where’s whatsizname? How about it? How ’bout it? He has got to hurry because he is late. He’s gotta hurry ‘cuz he’s late. I could’ve been a contender. I coulda bina contender. Could you speed it up, please? Couldjoo spee di dup, pleez? Would you mind if I tried it? Would joo mindifai try dit? Aren’t you Bob Barker? Arnchoo Bab Barker? Can’t you see it my way for a change? Kænchoo see it my way for achange? Don’t you get it? Doancha geddit? I should have told you. I shoulda toljoo. Tell her (that) I miss her. Teller I misser. Tell him (that) I miss him. Tellim I missim. Did you eat? Jeet? No, did you? No, joo? Why don’t you get a job? Whyncha getta job? I don’t know, it’s too hard. I dunno, stoo härd. Could we go? Kwee gou? Let’s go! Sko! 英语发音规则 一、 连读 连读有两种规则,分别为: 1、 以辅音结尾的单词+元音开头的单词:要连读 如:I’d li(ke a)nother bow(l o)f rice. 这里like / laik / 以辅音结尾,another 以元音开头,所以连读 注意: 以辅音结尾 指的是音标中的最后一个音是辅音,而不是单词的结尾,这如同u[ju:.]niversity前面的定冠词必须用a 一样。 2、以辅音结尾的单词 + h开头的单词h不发音,与前面的辅音 what wil(l he) [wili]do? Ha(s he) done it before? Mus(t he) [ti] go? Can he do it? Should he….? Tell him to ask her…. Lea(ve him) [vim]. For him (连读这个词,会发现和forum 很相似) 我第一次知道这一连读规则时,兴奋不已,很容易的听懂了许多以前觉得很难以理解的句子, 并且按照这种连读方式发音省力、轻松了许多。再次证实”Economy”。 二、 音的同化 音的同化也是一种连读的现象,两个词之间非常平滑的过渡,导致一个音受临音影响而变化。主要是以下三种方式: 1、 辅音[d]与[j]相邻时,被同化为[dэ]:Would you....? 2、 辅音[t]与[j]相邻时,被同化为[t∫]: Can’t you:。。。。? 3、 辅音[s]与[j]相邻时, 被同化为[∫]: Miss you 三、 失音 由于失去爆破是失音的一种现象,摩擦音也会被失去,所以统称为失音。 注意: 爆破音并不是完全失去,仍然形成阻碍,把气流堵在里面,但不爆破,直接发出相邻的辅音。 规则: 1、 辅音爆破音或摩擦音后面跟的是爆破音、破擦音和摩擦等,前面的辅音要失去爆破。 这样的例子有很多很多, 红色标注的辅音不发音: Sit down: 发音再次的老师都不会发出 [t] 音 Contact lens: Big cake Dad told me Huge change Good night 四、 浊化 1、[S] 后面的清辅音要浊化 Discussion: [k] 浊化成 [g] Stand: [t] 浊化成[d] Expression: [p]浊化成 2、美音中:[t] 在单词的中间被浊化成[d] 如: writer, 听起来和 rider 的发音几乎没有区别 letter—ladder out of 美国人和加拿大人发音为了省事,习惯清音浊化,尤其是[t]在单词的中间一定会浊化成[d], 但英国人发音不会这样,这也是英音和美音的一大区别。 了解这一浊化原则,会给听力带来一些帮助。 五、 弱读 一般来说: 实词重读,如动词、名词、副词等; 虚词弱读,如介词、代词等 弱读的规则一般是:元音音节弱化成 [E] 或 比如说如下几个单词:for/to/some/does/of 查字典会发现这些词都至少有两种读音,如for: 重读时[fR:] , 弱读时 [fE] 六、 节奏 对于英语的节奏,我也把握不好,而且还为此郁闷不已。在我认为,中国人说普通化,一个句子的标准节奏和语调往往只有一个,我想英语也应该是这样,但是怎么样才是标准语调呢?特意为这个问题问过英语老师,不同的外国人说同一个陈述句会有不同得语调吗?她告诉我是的。不过在看了下面这段话之后,我想她可能误我了。: 老外教你“杀手锏”:注意说话的节奏 十年寒窗苦读英语,为谁辛苦为谁忙?当然是用来和老外“侃”喽。那外国人究竟如何看待中国人说的英语,他们说话有没有诀窍呢?记者请教了克里斯多佛•汉普顿---英国驻上海总领事馆的考官协调,他也是当天演讲比赛的裁判之一。 克里斯多佛一开口就指出了国人学英语最大的“软档” “中国人喜欢在单词的读音上纠缠不休。尤其是年轻人,总希望自己能说一口标准的美式英语,最好是带点纽约口音的美式英语。于是,他们很努力地听广播、看电视,刻意模仿美国人的说话腔调。 经过长时间的磨练,有些人的发音甚至比土生土长的美国人还地道。但是,我就算蒙着眼睛,也能轻易分辨出说话的是中国人,还是美国人。因为中国人说英语没有节奏。” 克里斯多佛所说的节奏并不仅指说话的速度快慢,还包含了许多平时不被重视的小环节,比如语调的升降、词语的重音、句子在何处停顿。中学的中文语文书中倒是有过断句练习,可几乎所有的英语教科书里都没有类似的章节,也鲜有老师会教学生这一套。所以,大多人不知道,英语句子也有自己拆分的规则。发言者要么按照中文的思维习惯,随心所欲把句子“大卸八块”;要么练习肺活量,一句话从头连到尾不喘气。于是,中国人听起来清清楚楚的句子,到外国人耳朵里就变成了“不知所云”。 要改变这个习惯也不难。克里斯多佛认为,只要连续练习几个月,一个英语水平普通的人也能说出漂亮的英语,甚至达到“以假乱真”的程度,和讲母语不分上下。 他的练习方法很简单---找一盒老外读的标准磁带,在录音机里不停顿地播放。然后你看着文字稿,亦步亦趋地跟着他的节奏读。这时候,充分调动你的耳朵,适应外国人的语音语调,还要像个回声筒似地反映出来。久而久之,当你习惯了老外的节奏,只要具备5000个基本单词,就能应付一般的对话 啊,终于写完啦!喝口水,开始写结束语。 我在最初练发音的时候,不知道这些规则,只是喜欢模仿,养成了不少坏习惯,老师总说我喜欢吞音,苦恼极了,以至于我发音开始小心翼翼,字字清楚,但我知道这样肯定是不对的。所以我便开始收集和总结这方面的规则,不但之前的困惑得到解决,发音也有了很大的改善,现在写下这篇音变规则,真心希望它能对你有所帮助!另外如果有错误之处,请不吝赐教! 清辅音浊化——之详细介绍 一、简单认识 按照英语读音的习惯,在s音后面的清辅音会读成相应的浊辅音。这就是清辅音浊化。 例如: spy /spai/ 轻辅音浊化就应该是/sbai/ spoon/spu:n /轻辅音浊化就应该是/sbu:n/ star /sta:/ 轻辅音浊化就应该是 /sda:/ 清辅音在/s/后浊化 如stick 中t读作/d/ 辅音浊化也并非完全的发浊音,它是界于清音和浊音之间那儿!发音并不如浊音那么强烈! 二、理性分析 关于辅音连缀/s/音后头情爆破音所谓"浊化" 这个问题的语音细节挺复杂,三言两语不易讲透。这里仅凭经验试图粗线条式地说几条,希望对说中国话的人学英语有点帮助。 1) 众所周知,同一音节中,紧接在/s/音后头的/p,t,k/和作为音节开头的/p,t,k/语音特点是不同的。国内英语教学界历来普遍把这种语音变化称作“浊化”。我认为这种说法从语音学角度不够准确,至少是以偏概全;从英语教学角度更是容易产生误导效果。 2) 所谓“浊”,无非是与“清”相对。英语/p,t,k/是清爆破辅音,与浊爆破辅音/b,d,g/相对。汉族学生,除了少数方言人士之外,一般都需要花一定的功夫才能正确掌握英语/b,d,g/的发音,学会把“浊”音“浊”够。若不强调模仿这一点,不作特别的“浊化”训练,自然模仿力不强的大部分学生就肯定会用汉语的[b,d,g]来代替英语的/p,t,k/,结果说出来的英语虽然在很多情况下都还不至于叫人误解,但语音效果肯定很差,一句话:不像英语!为什么呢?因为汉语[b,d,g]和[p,t,k]的区别可以说纯粹是送气与不送气的区别。可英语呢?/p,t,k/是强清爆破辅音,在一般情况下发音都伴随较强的送气过程。而 /b,d,g/则示弱浊爆破音,除了一般不送气之外,多半还有喉头声带震动,即所谓浊化。最后这一点,恰恰是汉语所没有的。例如很多人把 a guy 发成十足的“厄盖”,甚至还以为两者发音本来就是一样的,这就是因为他们“浊”不了那个该浊的 g。反过来,经过努力好不容易把英语的 /b,d,g/ “浊”够了,发正确了,一听说/p,t,k/在/s/后面要“浊化”,很多人(包括我们的语音老师)竟会把 sky / spade / start 发成 sgy / sbade/ sdart,那就矫枉过正反成谬误了。其实,/s/后面/p,t,k/的主要语音变化,不是“浊化”,而是失去了原来很强的送气特点罢了,其效果,就成了和汉语 不送气的 [b,d,g]紧贴在/s/后头一样。 3) 是否在音节重读的时候才会出现这种“送气变成不送气”的现象呢?不是的。可以说,哪怕是最强的重读音节里,如 spin中, /p/音都成了不送气的。在非重读音节里,就更不消说了。 4) 从英语语音学(而不是英语音位学)角度分析,这些音质变化也可能可以归入“浊化”范围,但这对我们一般学英语的人来说是没有多少实际意义的,因此不属于本帖讨论范围。 5) 有兴趣的朋友可参考一些权威语音学著作,例如英国Daniel Jones 和A.C. Gimson 的著作等。 三、问答中解释 问:coast中的"t"是否被前面的"s"所浊化为"d"。 答:不是。   1、清辅音浊化只是一种发音现象,不是规则,地道英语教学者都反对专门制定一个规则来说明这个问题。   2、总的发音规则只有一条:按照字典里的注音读,要怎么变化就按地道英语的习惯。   3、s 后面的清辅音被浊化,只是清辅音浊化的一小部分,很多时候不用加 s 也可能被浊化。 如water, happy, meeting, walking等等,地道英语一般将这些单词中间那个清辅音发成对应的浊辅音了,才象英语。   4、S后面的清辅音浊化现象可以这样归纳:清辅音跟着一个元音,前面又有一个 s ,无论是在单词的最前面还是中间,只要是在重读音节或次重读音节里,一般都读成对应浊辅音,如stand, strike, speak, sky 等等,值得一提的是strike不是不用变,而是它“tr”本来所发的音已是浊辅音,但也要变成“dr”所发的那个音 (如dream中的“dr”所发的音)。   其实谁也没有规定要这样读,如果你拿着这个问题问老外,他们大多都答不出来,只是这些相关的单词中的清辅音读着读着自然就会变成浊辅音了。   这种组合如果后面没有元音,就不存在浊化的问题。如grasp,test,desk等,仍发清辅音。   也有例外的,不要说它不符合规则,因为本来就没有规则,硬要定规则的话就行不通。比如student,stupid,如果按那个所谓规则去读成 [sd…],就不好听了,操地道英语的人就会知道问“你是从中国来的吧”。这里的字母“t”一般被习惯发成jeep中 “j”所发的那个音才地道。 四、辅音浊化的规则 在探讨美国英语与英国英语在语音上的差异时,我们通常是将“美国普通话”(General American , 简称GA)与公认的标准英语发音(Received Pronunciation, 简称R.P)进行比较。二者在读音上的差异主要表现在: 1. 在/s/ /F/ /f/ /m/ /n/等辅音之前的字母a,美国英语一般读作/A/ 音,而英国音则发作/B:/。如:美国人将pass (通过),chance(机会)分别读作/pAs/, /tFAns/。 2. 在英国标准音中,字母r在元音前才发音,如real (真实的),而在辅音前或词尾时是不发音的。但在美语中,r在辅音前发明显的卷舌音,在词尾时亦发音,如:farm /fa:rm/ ,car /ka:r/。 3. 使用相同的音标,但发音情况不同,例如:当清辅音[ t ]夹在两个元音之间,前一个是重读元音,后一个是轻读元音时,如writer(作家),美国人习惯将清辅音浊化,所以writer 和rider (骑马人) 发音几乎相同。 类似的例子还有latter(后者)与ladder (梯子);petal (花瓣)与pedal (踏板)。 4. 非重读字母e, 在美语中常读作[e], 而在英国英语中则读。如:美国人将except (除---外)读作/eksept/,英国人则读作/iksept/。 5. 词尾—ile 在美语中读作/il/ 或 /i:l/,而英国人将这一词尾读作/ail/。如:hostile (敌对的) /hRstil/(美); /hRstail/(英)。 6. 美国人说话往往把非重读音节中的元音都读出来,如history /5histEri/, extraordinary /eks5trR:dinEri/。英国人说话则习惯省略其中的音节,读作/5histri/,/iks5trR:dinEri/,在省略后读作/ikstro:dnri/. 过去式的发音单复数的发音规则 一.过去式的发音规则及变化规则 规则动词词尾加-ed有三种读音: 1. 在清辅音后读作[t]。如:asked, helped, watched, stopped 2. 在浊辅音和元音后读作[d]。如:enjoyed, studied, moved, called 3. 在t / d后读作[id]。如:wanted, needed 补充说明: 规则动词的过去式由“动词原形+-ed”构成,具体变化有: 1. 直接在词尾加-ed。如: want—wanted, work—worked, need—needed, clean—cleaned 2. 以不发音的e结尾的在词尾加-d。如:like—liked, live—lived, use—used, move—moved 3. 以一个元音字母加一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节动词,先双写结尾的辅音字母,再加-ed。如:stop—stopped, trip—tripped 4. 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词,先把y变成i,再加-ed。如:study—studied, carry—carried, hurry—hurried, marry—married 不规则动词的过去式大体上归纳有以下六条记忆法: 1. 以t结尾的词,过去式与原形相同。如:put—put, let—let, cut—cut, beat—beat 2. 以d结尾的词,把d变成t。如:build—built, lend—lent, send—sent, spend—spent 3. 以n结尾的词,在词后加t。如:mean—meant, burn—burnt, learn—learnt 4. 以ow / aw结尾的词,把ow / aw变成ew。如:blow—blew, draw—drew, know—knew, grow—grew 5. 含有双写字母的词,将双写改为单写,在词尾加t。如:keep—kept, sleep—slept, feel—felt, smell—smelt 6. 含有元音字母o / i的词,将o / i变成a。如:sing—sang, give—gave, sit—sat, drink—drank 2.单复数的发音规则: 在清辅音后面读s,在浊辅音后面年z 判断清浊的方法可以记个口诀 有气无声清辅音, 有声无气浊辅音 情况 构成方法 读音 例词 一般情况 加 -s 1.清辅音后读/s/; map-maps 2.浊辅音和元音后读 /z/; bag-bags car-cars 以s,sh,ch,x 等结尾的词 加 -es 读 /iz/ bus-buses watch-watches 以ce,se,ze, (d)ge等结尾的词 加 -s 读 /iz/ license-licenses 以辅音字母+y 变y 为i 结尾的词 再加es 读 /z/ baby---babies 名词复数发音规则 以元音音素结尾的加了“s”后发/z/音如:windows \ doors\ computers \centers 以清辅音结尾的加了“S"后发/s/音 如: chicks \ maps\ cups 以字母t结尾的发/ts/音 如:mats \ cats\ aunts 以字母d结尾的发/dz/音 如: birds \ words\ hands 其他辅音音素结尾的都发/z/音。 特殊变化的词根据变化后结尾音变化同上如:butterfly-butterflies变化后结尾音/ai/为元音,所以发/z/音。 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ A.“单数→复数”的规则变化 (1)名词词尾发音为[s, z, , , , ]时,加“-es”(如词尾有“-e”只加“-s”) 并发[-iz]音,形成一个音节,也就是本项名词为单音节时,加了“-es”便成为双音节的单词。 class[kla:s]→classes[kla:siz]班级 phrase[freiz]→phrases[freiziz]短语 dish[di]→dishes[diiz]盘,碟 garage[ 'g&aelig;rɑ: ]→garages['g&aelig;rɑ:iz]车库 watch[ w ]→watches[ w iz]手表 bridge[bri]→bridges[ briiz]桥梁 (2)名词词尾发音为[p, t, k, f, θ]等清辅音时,加“-s”并发[-s]音。例如: cup[kp]→cups[kps]茶杯 cat[kt]→cats[kts]猫 book0[buk]→books[buks]书 roof[ru:f]→roofs[ru:fs]屋顶 month[mnθ]→months[mnθs]月 注:“stomach”(胃),“monarch”(君主)等的复数是词尾加“-s”而不是加“-es”, 因为这些词的词尾“-ch”的发音是[-k]。 (3)名词词尾发音为前二项以外的情形时,亦即为[b, d, g, v, , m, n, , l]等浊辅音及元音时 (词尾为“-o”除外),加“-s”并发[-z]音。例如: herb[hb]→herbs[hbz]药草 bed[bed]→beds[bedz]床 dog[dg]→dogs[dgz]狗 glove[glv]→gloves[glvz]手套 scythe[sai]→scythes[saiz]大镰刀 game[geim]→games[geimz]游戏 can[kn]→cans[knz]罐,桶 king[ki]→kings[kiz]国王 girl[gl]→girls[glz]女孩 \ circles star[sta:]→stars[sta:z]星星 bee[bi:]→bees[bi:z]蜜蜂 igloo['iglu:]→igloos['iglu:z]圆顶冰屋 law[l]→laws[lz]法律 eye[ai]→eyes[aiz]眼睛 day[dei]→days[deiz]日,白昼 cow[kau]→cows[kauz]母牛 blow[blou]→blows[blouz]殴打 boy[bi]→boys[biz]男孩 bear→bears熊 (4)名词词尾为“-y”时: (a)“-元音字母+y”时直接加“-s”并发[-z]音,例如: play[plei]→plays[pleiz]剧本 toy[ti]→toys[tiz]玩具 (b)“-辅音字母+y”时,先把“-y”改为“-i”再加“-es”并发[-iz]音,例如: city[>siti]→cities[>sitiz]城市 lady[>leidi]→ladies[>leidiz]女士 (5)名词词尾为“-o”时: (a)“-元音字母+o”时,加“-s”并发[-z]音,例如: studio[>stju:diou]→studios[>stju:diouz]画室 zoo[zu:]→zoos[zu:z]动物园 (b)“-辅音字母+o”时,加“-es”并发[-z]音,例如: negro[>ni:grou]→negroes[>ni:grouz]黑人 potato[p>teitou]→potatoes[p>teitouz]马铃薯 注:本项也有加“-s”并发[-z]音的,多为外来语,例如: piano[pi>nou]→pianos[pi>nouz]钢琴(意大利语) photo[>foutou]→photos[>foutouz]照片(希腊语) radio[>reidiou]→radios[>reidiouz]收音机(源自拉丁词根-1906

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