英美文学考点

魏特兰蒂斯 2011-01-06 15:54:54

[英国』Chapter1 The Renaissance period(14世纪至十七世纪中叶)文艺复兴
1. Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance.人文主义是文艺复兴的核心。
2. the Greek and Roman civilization was based on such a conception that man is the measure of all things.人文主义作为文艺复兴的起源是因为古希腊罗马文明的基础是以“人”为中心,人是万物之灵。
3. Renaissance humanists found in then classics a justification to exalt human nature and came to see that human beings were glorious creatures capable of individual development in the direction of perfection, and that the world they inhabited was theirs not to despise but to question, explore, and enjoy.人文主义者们却从古代文化遗产中找到充足的论据,来赞美人性,并开始注意到人类是崇高的生命,人可以不断发展完善自己,而且世界是属于他们的,供他们怀疑,探索以及享受。
4. Thomas More, Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare are the best representatives of the English humanists.托马斯.摩尔,克利斯朵夫.马洛和威廉.莎士比亚是英国人文主义的代表。
5. Wyatt introduced the Petrarchan sonnet into England.怀亚特将彼特拉克的十四行诗引进英国。
6. The first period of the English Renaissance was one of imitation and assimilation.英国文艺复兴初期只是一个学习模仿与同化的阶段。
7. The goals of humanistic poetry are: skillful handling of conventions, force of king1970uage, and, above all, the development of a rhetorical plan in which meter, rhyme, scheme, imagery and argument should all be combined to frame the emotional theme and throw it into high relief.人文主义诗歌的主要目标是对传统习俗的熟练运用,语言的力度与气概,而最重要的是发展了修辞模式,即将格律,韵脚(式),组织结构,意象(比喻,描述)与议论都结合起来勾画出情感主题,并将其极为鲜明生动的表现出来。
8. The most famous dramatists in the Renaissance England are Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, and Ben Jonson.文艺复兴时期英国最著名的戏剧家有克利斯朵夫.马洛,威廉.莎士比亚与本.约翰逊。
9. Francis Bacon (1561-1626), the first important English essayist.费兰西斯.培根是英国历史上最重要的散文家。
(I)Edmund Spenser埃德蒙.斯宾塞
10. the theme of Redcrosse is not“Arms and the man,”but something more romantic-“Fierce wars and faithful loves.”《仙后》的主题并非“男人与武器”,而是更富浪漫色彩的“残酷战争与忠贞爱情”。
11. It is Spenser’s idealism, his love of beauty, and his exquisite melody that make him known as“the poets’poet.”正是斯宾塞的理想主义,对美的热爱以及精美优雅的诗文韵律是他成为“诗人中的诗人”。
(II)Christopher Marlowe克利斯朵夫.马洛
12. As the most gifted of the“University Wits,”Marlowe composed six plays within his short lifetime. Among them the most important are: Tamburlaine, Parts I & II, Dr.Faustus, The Jew of Malta and Edward II.马洛是当时“大学才子”中最富才华的人,在他短暂的一生中,他完成了六部剧本的创作。其中最负盛名的是:《帖木尔》,《浮士德博士的悲剧》,《马耳他岛的犹太人》以及《爱德华二世》。
13. Marlowe’s greatest achievement lies in that he perfected the blank verse and made it the principal medium of English drama.马洛的艺术成就在于他完善了无韵体诗,并使之成为英国戏剧中最重要的文体形式。
14. Marlowe’s second achievement is his creation of the Renaissance hero for English drama.马洛的第二项贡献是他创造了文艺复兴时期的英雄形象。
15. His brilliant achievement as a whole raised him to an eminence as the pioneer of English drama.他对戏剧发展的贡献是不可磨灭的,为此,它被后世尊为英国戏剧的先驱。
16. The passionate shepherd to his love激情的牧人致心爱的姑娘
This short poem is considered to be one of the most beautiful lyrics in English literature.这首短诗是英国文学诗中最优美的抒情诗。
(III)William Shakespeare威廉.莎士比亚
17. The first period of his dramatic career, he wrote five history plays: Henry VI, Parts I, II, and III, Richard III, and Titus Andronicus; and four comedies: The Comedy of Errors, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew, and Love’s Labour’s Lost.在他戏剧创作生涯的第一个阶段,他创作了五部历史剧:《亨利六世》,《理查三世》,《泰托斯.安东尼》以及四部喜剧:《错误的戏剧》,《维洛那二绅士》,《驯悍记》和《爱的徒劳》。
18. In the second period, he wrote five histories: Richard II, King John, Henry IV, Parts I and II, and Henry V; six comedies: A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and The Merry Wives of Windsor; and two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet and Julius Caesar.在第二阶段,他写了五部历史剧:《理查三世》,《约翰王》,《亨利四世》,《亨利五世》以及六部喜剧《仲夏夜之梦》,《威尼斯商人》,《无事生非》,《皆大欢喜》,《第十二夜》,《温莎的风流娘儿们》,还有两部悲剧:《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《裘利斯.凯撒》。
19. Shakespeare’s third period includes his greatest tragedies and his so-called dark comedies. The tragedies of this period are Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, Troilus and Cressida, and Coriolanus. The two comedies are All’s Well That Ends and Measure for Measure.第三阶段诞生了莎翁最伟大的悲剧和他自称的黑色喜剧(或悲喜剧),悲剧有:《哈姆雷特》,《奥赛罗》,《李尔王》《麦克白》《安东尼与克利奥佩特拉》《特罗伊勒斯与克利西达》及《克里奥拉那斯》。两部喜剧是《终成眷属》和《一报还一报》。
20. The last period of Shakespeare’s work includes his principle romantic tragicomedies: Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale and The Tempest; and his two plays: Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen.最后一个时期的作品主要有浪漫悲喜剧:《伯里克利》《辛白林》《冬天的故事》与《暴风雨》。他最后两部剧是《亨利八世》与《鲁克里斯受辱记》。
21. Shakespeare’s sonnets are the only direct expression of the poet’s own feelings.这些十四行诗都是莎翁直抒胸臆的成果。
22. Shakespeare’s history plays are mainly written under the principle that national unity under a mighty and just sovereign is a necessity.莎翁的历史剧都有这样一个主题:在一个强大英明的君主统领下的国家,统一是非常必要的。
23. In his romantic comedies, Shakespeare takes an optimistic attitude toward love and youth, and the romantic elements are brought into full play.在他的浪漫喜剧中,莎士比亚以乐观的态度对待爱情与青春,并将浪漫色彩渲染到极致。
24. The successful romantic tragedy is Romeo and Juliet, which eulogizes the faithfulness of love and the spirit of pursuing happiness.莎翁在其成功的浪漫主义悲剧《罗密欧与朱丽叶》,颂扬了对爱的忠贞及对幸福的追求。
25. Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies are: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth. They have some characteristics in common. Each portrays some noble hero.莎士比亚的四大悲剧是:《哈姆雷特》《奥赛罗》《李尔王》《麦克白》
26. “The King’s government must be carried on”—but carried on for the good of the nation, not for the pleasure of the king.“国王的统治一定要万古不变”----但是这种流传百世万古不变的统治是有利于国家利益的,而不是只为国王自己服务。
27. Thus, he finds no way to solve the social problems. In the end, the only thing he can do as a humanist is to escape from the reality to seek comfort in his dream.正因如此,他才无力寻求到医治各种社会痼疾的灵丹妙药,最后,他作为人文主义所能做的唯一事情便是逃避现实,从梦幻中找安慰。
28. He holds that literature should be a combination of beauty, kindness and truth, and should reflect nature and reality.他认为文学应该是真善美的结合,应该反映天性与现实。
29. Shakespeare is above all writers in the past and in the present time.古往今来,没有一个作家能与莎士比亚媲美,他对后世文学家的潜移默化也是无可估量的。
30. Almost all English writers after him have been influenced by him either in artistic point of view, in literary form or in king1970uage.在他之后几乎所有的英国文学家都在艺术观点,文学形式及语言技巧方面受到他的影响。
31. Sonnet 18 is one of the most beautiful sonnets written by Shakespeare.十四行诗第十八首诗莎翁最出色的十四行诗。
(IV)Francis Bacon弗兰西斯.培根
32. The most import works of his first group include The Advancement of Learning, Written in English; Novum Organum , an enlarged Latin version of The Advancement of Learning.培根的作品可分为三类:第一类中最重要的作品有《学术的进展》(用英文著述)《新工具》(是《学术的进展》的拉丁文增补版)
33. One is the knowledge obtained from the Divine Revelation, the other is the knowledge from the workings of human mind.他将知识分为两种:一种是通过神的启示获得的知识,另一种是通过人类用脑思考而获得的知识。
34. According to Bacon, man’s understanding consists of three parts: history to man’s memory, poetry to man’s imagination and creation, and philosophy to man’s reason.培根认为,人类的认识与学问分为三部分:基于人类回忆的历史学,基于人类想象力创造力的诗歌与基于人类理性的哲学。
35. Bacon, as a humanist intellect, shows the new empirical attitudes toward truth about nature and bravely challenges the medieval scholasticist.作为人文主义者的培根展示了自己对于自然界真理的实验主义态度,并向中世纪的经院哲学家们提出挑战。
36. Bacon’s essays are famous for their brevity, compactness and powerfulness.培根的散文以简洁,紧凑,有力度而著名。
37. The essays are well-arranged and enriched by biblical allusions, metaphors and cadence.这些散文不仅结构巧妙还大量使用了《圣经》的典故,隐喻和基调。
38. Of Studies论学习
Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.读书使人充实,讨论使人机智。
(V)John Donne约翰.邓恩
39. The imagery is drawn from the actual life.诗中的意象都是从现实生活中提取的。
40. His poems give a more inherently theatrical impression by exhibiting a seemingly unfocused diversity of experiences and attitudes, and a free range of feelings and moods.他的诗歌给人一种固有的戏剧性,展示了看上去零散多样的经历与观念,以及漫无边际的情感与心境。
41. The Sons and Sonnets, by which Donne is probably best known, contains most of his early lyrics.《歌与短歌》是邓恩最有名的诗集,囊括了他早期大多数爱情诗作。
42. In his gloomy poem“Farewell to love,”we can see his disillusionment.在忧伤的诗作《告别爱情》中,我们就可以感受到他对爱情幻想的破灭。
43. With the brief, simple king1970uage, the argument is continuous throughout the poem.议论依附于一种简洁平白的语言,并贯穿于整首诗作。
(VI)John Milton约翰.弥尔顿
44. he was entirely occupied with the thoughts of fighting for human freedom.他头脑中充满了为人类自由而战的思想。
45. Milton’s literary achievements can be divided into three groups: the early poetic works, the middle prose pamphlets and the great poem.弥尔顿的文学作品可分为三类:早期诗作,中期的散文小册子和后期的伟大诗作。
46. Milton wrote his three major poetical works: Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained, and Samson Agonistes.他的三部伟大诗作:《失乐园》《复乐园》和《力士参孙》。
47. The theme of Paradise Lost is the“Fall of Man”. In the fall of man Adam discovered his full humanity.失乐园的主题是人类的沉沦。在沉沦之中,亚当发现了自己身上的人性。
48. Milton held that God created all things out of Himself, including evil.他认为上帝是按照他自己的样子造出的世界,其中也包括罪恶。
49. It opens the way for the voluntary sacrifice of Christ which showed the mercy of God in bringing good out of evil.为基督自愿献身开辟了道路,这也显示出上帝欲将人类从罪恶与苦难中拯救出来的同情心。
50. In Samson Agonistes, the whole poem strongly suggests Milton’s passionate longing that he too could bring destruction down upon the enemy at the cost of his own life.在力士参孙中,整首诗都强烈暗示着弥尔顿渴望他自己也能像参孙一样,以生命为代价,与敌人同归于尽。
51. In his life, Milton shows himself a real revolutionary, a master poet and a great prose writer.弥尔顿毕生都展现了真正的革命精神和非凡的诗歌才华。
52. aradise Lost:人类由于理性不强,意志薄弱,经不起考验,暗示英国自产主义革命失败的原因。
【英国】Chapter2 The Neoclassical Period(1660-1798)新古典主义
1. In short, it was an age full of conflicts and divergence of values.总之,这一时期是矛盾与价值观分歧的时期。
2. The eighteenth-century England is also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason.英国的十八世纪也同时是启蒙主义时代,或曰理性时代。
3. Its purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artistic ideas.运动的主旨便是用当代哲学与艺术思想的晨光启迪整个世界。
4. Enlighteners held that rationality or reason should be the only, the final cause of any human thought and activities. They called for a reference to order, reason and rules.启蒙者主张理性是任何人思想与行动的唯一缘由。他们大力提倡秩序,理性及法律。
5. As a matter of fact, literature at the time, heavily didactic and moralizing, became a very popular means of public education.其实,当时的文学作品种充满了说教与道德理念,就已经成为大众教育的良好工具。
6. Famous among the great enlighteners in England were those great writers like John Dryden, Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele, the two pioneers of familiar essays, Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Henry Fielding and Samuel Johnson.英国著名的启蒙主义文学家有约翰.德莱顿,亚历山大.蒲柏,约瑟夫.艾迪森与理查.斯蒂尔(这两位是现代散文的先驱),乔纳森.斯威夫特,丹尼尔.迪福,理查.B.谢立丹,亨利.费尔丁和塞缪尔.约翰逊。
7. In the field of literature, the Enlightenment Movement brought about a revival of interest in the old classical works.在文学领域,启蒙主义运动还使人们重新对古典时代的著作产生兴趣。
8. They believed that the artistic ideals should be order, logic, restrained emotion and accuracy, and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity.他们认为理想的艺术应基于秩序,逻辑,确切及情感控制的基础上,而文学作品的价值评判标准应该看它是否为人文主义服务。
9. Thus a polite, urbane, witty, and intellectual art developed.由此一种温文尔雅,充满灵性的知识分子文学艺术发展起来。
10. Neoclassicists had some fixed laws and rules for almost every genre of literature.在几乎所有的文学形式中,新古典主义者们都设定了创作的规矩与条框。
11. Drama should be written in the heroic Couplets (iambic pentameter rhymed in two lines); the three unities of time, space and action should be strictly observed; regularity in construction should be adhered to, and type characters rather than individuals should be represented.戏剧必须用英雄体偶剧(抑扬五音步的押韵双行诗)写就;时间,地点,事件三要素必须要遵循;写作的规矩必须要遵守,而作品中的人物要代表一类人,而不是个性化。
12. But it had a lasting wholesome influence upon English literature. (套话)但新古典主义对英国文学史产生过持久的全面的影响。
13. The poetic techniques and certain classical graces such as order, good form, unified structure, clarity and conciseness of king1970uage developed in this period have become a permanent heritage.在这一时期出现的诗歌技巧与古典气质,如秩序,优美的格式,统一的结构,简明的语言都成为永恒的文学传统。
14. The mid-century was, however, predominated by a newly rising literary form---the modern English novel, which, contrary to the traditional romance of aristocrats, gives a realistic presentation of life of the common English people.十八世纪中叶,还兴起一种崭新的文学形式----英国现代小说,这种文学与传统贵族的骑士文学相反,着重描写英国普通百姓的生活。
15. Among the pioneers were Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, Laurence Sterne, Tobias George Smollett, and Oliver Goldsmith.英国现代小说的先驱有丹尼尔.迪福,塞缪尔.理查德,亨利.费尔丁,劳伦斯.斯泰思,托比亚斯.斯摩莱特以及奥立弗.哥尔斯密。
16. From the middle part to the end of the century there was also an apparent shift of interest from the classicliterary tradition to originality and imagination, from society to individual, and from the didactic to the confessional, inspirational and prophetic.从十八世纪中叶至十八世纪末,还出现了古典文学传统向独创性与丰富联想性的转移,社会描写向个性描写的转移,说教向忏悔,鼓励及预示的转移。
17. Gothic novels---mostly stories of mystery and horror.哥特式小说----主要讲述恐怖神秘的故事。
18. Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal being generally regarded as the best model of satire, not only of the period but also in the whole English literary history.乔纳森.斯威夫特的《一个小小的建议》被公认为英国文学史上讽刺作品的经典。
(I)John Bunyan约翰.班扬
19. As a stout Puritan, he had made a conscientious study of the Bible and firmly believed in salvation through spiritual struggle.作为一个坚定的清教徒,他认真学习《圣经》,并深信人一定能通过精神上的奋斗得到拯救。
20. he made it possible for the reader of the least education to share the pleasure of reading his novel and to relive the experience of his characters.他的语言具体生动,情节鲜明真实,连没受过教育的人也能享受到阅读他的作品的乐趣。
21. Bunyan’s other works include Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, The Life and Death of Mr.Badman, The Holy War and The Pilgrim’s Progress, Part II.班扬其他的作品还有《罪人头目的赦免》,《拜得门先生生死录》,《圣战》以及《天路历程》第二部
22. The Vanity Fair.名利场(节选《天路历程》第一部)
The Pilgrim’s Progress is the most successful religious allegory in the English king1970uage. Its purpose is to urge people to abide by Christian doctrines and seek salvation through constant struggles with their own weaknesses and all kinds of social evils.《天路历程》是英文作品中最成功的宗教寓言。它的主旨是让人们遵循基督教教义,并通过不断战胜自身弱点与身外的邪恶来获得拯救。
(II)Alexander Pope亚历山大.蒲伯
23. ope, a very sensitive man, would strike back hard, and in the constant verbal battles he developed a style of biting satire.蒲伯本身是个很敏感的人,自然要用笔墨来反击,在此期间,他发展了犀利的讽刺文体。
24. For him the supreme value was order---cosmic order, political order, social order, aesthetic order, and this emphasis on order found expression in all of his works.对他来说秩序有着至高无上的价值-----宇宙秩序,政治秩序,社会秩序,美学秩序。这种对秩序与理性的强调深入到了他各部作品中。
25. ope made his name as a great poet with the publication of An Essay on Criticism in 1711. The next year, he published The Rape of the Lock, a finest mock epic.1711年,他出版了散文《论批评》,从此奠定了他在诗坛的地位。次年,他又出版了《夺发记》,一部极妙的讽刺史诗。
26. ope was the greatest poet of his time. He strongly advocated neoclassicism, emphasizing that literary works should be judged by classical rules of order, reason, logic, restrained emotion, good taste and decorum.蒲伯是当时最伟大的诗人,他大力提倡新古典主义,强调文学作品的优劣应由古典的秩序尺度,理性,逻辑,情感的克制,高雅的品位以及是否体面,正派来衡量。
27. He worked painstakingly on his poems, developed a satiric, concise, smooth, graceful and well-balanced style.他致力于诗歌创作,发展了讽刺,简练,通顺,优雅,平衡的风格。
(III)Daniel Defoe丹尼尔.
28. His quick mind, abundant energy and never-failing enthusiasm always brought him back on his feet after a fall.他过人的才智,充沛的精力,旺盛而持久的热情总是使他在失败后能重新站起。
29. Robinson Crusoe, an adventure story very much in the spirit of the time, is universally considered his masterpiece.《鲁宾逊漂流记》是一部体现时代精神的游记历险小说,是笛福的代表作。
30. In most of his works, he gave his praise to the hard-working, study middle class and showed his sympathy for the downtrodden, unfortunate poor.在他大部分作品中,他都表达了对勤劳,坚强的中产阶级的赞誉,以及对破落不幸的穷苦人的同情。
31. Defoe was a very good story-teller.笛福很会讲故事。
32. His sentences are sometimes short, crisp and plain, and sometimes long and rambling, which leave on the reader an impression of casual narration.他的语句时而短小干脆,朴素直白,时而又气势磅礴,泼墨如水,为读者留下了叙述自由悠闲的印象。
33. His king1970uage is smooth, easy, colloquial and mostly vernacular.他的措辞简朴易懂又口语化,有时甚至是俗语方言。
34. There is nothing artificial in his king1970uage: it is common English at its beat.他的语言毫无造作,完全是大众英语。
35. Robinson Crusoe: The novel consists actually of three parts.《鲁宾逊漂流记》:整部小说分为三个部分
The realistic account of the successful struggle of Robinson single-handedly against the hostile nature forms the best part of the novel. Robinson is here a real hero: a typical eighteenth-century English middle-class man., the pioneer colonist.其中对鲁宾逊徒手与恶劣的大自然作斗争的描述是小说最精彩的部分。在此,鲁宾逊是真正的英雄:一个典型的英国十八世纪中产阶级人士。
(IV)Jonathan Swift乔纳森.斯威夫特
36. In 1704 he published two powerful satires on corruption in religion and learning, A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books, which established his name as a satirist.1704年,他针对宗教和学术界的腐败出版了两篇犀利的讽刺小品,一为《桶的故事》,一为《书籍的战斗》。这两篇作品奠定了他在讽刺作品中的地位。
37. Even today Swift is still respected as a national hero in Ireland.直至今日,斯威夫特还被尊为爱尔兰的民族英雄。
38. In his opinion, human nature is seriously and permanently flawed. To better human life, enlightenment is needed.他认为人性永远有着严重的瑕疵,为了使人的生活更美好,人们需要启蒙。
39. In his writings, although he intends not to condemn but to reform and improve human nature and human institutions.在他的作品中,他提倡的不是谴责,而是采取行为改良人性与人为的机构。
40. His“A Modest Proposal”is generally taken as a perfect model.他的《一个温和的建议》被认为是一篇完善的典范。
41. Swift is one of the greatest masters of English prose.斯威夫特是一名优秀的散文作家。
42. He defined a good style as“proper words in proper places.”Clear, simple, concrete diction, uncomplicated sentence structure, economy and conciseness of king1970uage mark all his writings---essays, poems and novels.他创立了一种良好的文风,即“在恰当的地方用恰当的词”。无论是散文,诗歌,还是小说,简洁,具体,精确,没有复杂的句式永远是他的写作风格。
43. Swift’s chief works are: A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books, The Drapier’s Letters(noterapier=Swift, alias), Gulliver’s Travels and A Modest Proposal.斯威夫特的作品主要有《桶的故事》,《书籍的战斗》,《德拉皮尔的信》,《格列佛游记》和《一个温和的建议》。
44. Gulliver’s Travels: Jonathan’s best fictional work, the book contains four parts. Its social significance is great and its exploration into human nature profound.《格列佛游记》:是斯威夫特最精彩的一部小说,全书分为四卷,它具有重大的社会意义,同时对人性的探索与揭示也是深刻的。
(V)Henry Fielding亨利.费尔丁
45. During his career as a dramatist, Fielding had attempted a considerable number of forms of play.在他戏剧创作生涯里,费尔丁曾尝试过许多不同的戏剧模式。
46. Of all his plays, the best known are The Coffee-House Politician, The Tragedy of Tragedies, Pasquin, and The Historical Register for the Year 1736.他的作品中最有名的要数《咖啡屋的政治家》,《悲剧中的悲剧》,《巴斯昆》,《1736历史年鉴》。
47. a“comic epic in prose,”whose subject is“the true ridiculous”in human nature.“散文体喜剧史诗”,主题是人类本性中的荒唐,对人性进行了真实的讽刺。
48. The dominating qualities of the novel are its excellent character-portrayal, timely entrances and exits, robustness of tone and hilarious, hearty humor.小说的突出特点是出色的人物刻画,及时的出场退场,笔调的遒劲及令人会心的幽默。
49. “The Great Man, properly considered, is no better than a great gangster”----The History of Jonathan Wild the Great从某种意义上说,伟大的人物无异于“伟大”的匪徒--------《伟大的乔纳森怀尔德》。
50. The History of Tom Jones is a masterpiece on the subject of human nature.费尔丁的代表作《汤姆.琼斯:一个弃儿的故事》主题是对人性的讽刺。
51. the purpose of the novel was not just to amuse, but to instruct, the object of novel was to present a faithful picture of life, “the just copies of human manners,” with sound teaching woven into their texture, so as to teach men to know themselves, their proper-spheres and appropriate manners.,小说不仅供娱乐,而且更有教育意义,他的小说的主旨是要真实地展示生活,使之成为“人类态度的完整拷贝”,并将说教巧妙的引入作品,教导人们认识自己,寻求适宜的人生态度。
52. Fielding has been regarded by some as“Father of the English novel,”for his contribution to the establishment of the form of the modern novel.费尔丁被一些人尊为“英国小说之父”,因为他为现代小说模式的创立作出很大贡献。
53. he was the first to set out , both in theory and practice, to write specifically a“comic epic in prose,”the first to give the modern novel its structure and style.他第一个在理论与实践上创造了“散文体喜剧史诗”,并第一个为现代小说确立了结构和风格。
54. He“thinks the thought”of all his characters, so he is able to present not only their external behaviors but also the internal workings of their minds.作者以角色的口吻去“想”,因此不仅可以表述人物的外在行为,还可深入刻画其内心的思想活动。
55. Fielding‘s king1970uage is easy, unlaboured and familiar, but extremely vivid and vigorous. His sentences are always distinguished by logic and rhythm, and his structure carefully planed toward an inevitable ending.费尔丁的创作语言自然流畅,通俗易懂,同时又栩栩如生并富有活力,他的句子以逻辑性和韵律性见长,小说结尾总是水到渠成,顺理成章。
56. Tom Jones, the novel consists of 18 books. Tom, the titular hero of the story, he became a national hero, he---honest, kind-hearted, high-spirited, loyal, and brave, but impulsive, wanting prudence and full of animal spirits.《汤姆.琼斯》共18卷,汤姆曾一度成为全国人民心中的英雄,他----诚实,善良,高尚,忠诚,勇敢,同时也有着易冲动,鲁莽和野性难驯的缺点。
57. Tom Jones brings its author the name of the“Prose Home.”The panoramic view it provides of the 18th-century English country.《汤姆.琼斯》为费尔丁赢得了“散文荷马”的盛名,小说为读者提供了一幅英国18世纪乡村与城市的宏伟的全景图。
(VI)Samuel Johnson塞缪尔.约翰逊
58. The years between 1737 and 1755, he did translations, wrote poems, essays and so on.1737年至1755年这段时间对他来说充满了艰辛:他做过翻译,写过诗,为书商编书,编辑杂志。
59. In his famous Literary Club, where he was surrounded with respect by the elite of the literary circles.在他的文学社里,周围围满了敬仰他的文学精英。
60. Johnson was an energetic and versatile writer. He had a hand in all the different branches of literary activities.约翰逊精力充沛,多才多艺,他还涉足各种各样的文学领域。
61. His chief works include pomes:“London”, and“The Vanity of Human Wishes”; a romance: The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia; a tragedy: Irene.他的主要作品有诗歌:《伦敦》,《人类欲望的虚幻》骑士浪漫诗:《拉塞拉斯的历史》,《阿比西尼亚王子》;一部悲剧:《艾琳》。
62. As a lexicographer, Johnson distinguished himself as the author of the first English dictionary by an Englishman----A Dictionary of the English king1970uage, a gigantic task which Johnson undertook single-handedly and finished in over seven years.作为词典编撰者,约翰逊是编撰英文词典的第一个英国人,作品为《英文大词典》,这部巨著是塞缪尔.约翰逊花了七年时间独自完成的。
63. Johnson was the last great neoclassicist enlightener in the later eighteenth century. He was very much concerned with the theme of the vanity of human wishes.约翰逊是十八世纪下半叶最后一位新古典主义启蒙文学家,他十分关心人类欲望的虚幻,几乎他所有的作品都含有这样的主题。
64. His sentences are long and well structured, interwoven with parallel words and phrases.他使用的句子一般较长,但结构工整,包含有许多排比,对仗。
65. Reading his works gives the reader the impression that he is talking with a very learned man.读他的小说会给人一种感觉,他在与一位非常博学的人士对话。
(VII)Richard Brinsley Sheridan理查.比.谢立丹
66. The year 1777 saw the appearance of his masterpiece The School for Scandal, which brought him quite a fortune.1777年,谢立丹的代表作《造谣学校》出版,使他大发其财。
67. His plays, especially The Rivals and The School for Scandal, are generally regarded as important links between the masterpiece of Shakespeare and those of Bernard Shaw, and as true classics in English comedy.他的代表作《情敌》和《造谣学校》被认为是上承莎士比亚,下接萧伯纳的纽带,是真正的英国古典派喜剧。
68. In his play, morality is the constant theme.他的作品永恒的主题是道德。
69. The School for Scandal is mainly a story about two brothers, the hypocritical Joseph Surface and the good-natured, imprudent, spendthrift Charles Surface. The play ends with great disgrace for Joseph and double bliss for Charles. It is a sharp satire on the moral degeneracy of the aristocratic-bourgeois society in the eighteenth-century England. No wonder, the play has been Regarded as the best comedy since Shakespeare.《造谣学校》主要讲述了两个兄弟的故事,一个是伪君子约瑟夫.萨尔菲斯,另一个是放荡不羁但心地善良的查尔斯.萨尔菲斯。戏剧的结尾约瑟夫名声扫地,而查尔斯既获得了美人的芳心,又获得了丰厚的遗产,而梯泽尔夫人在丈夫的感化下与其重归于好。《造谣学校》是对18世纪英国贵族资产阶级的道德败坏,对无聊的富人恶意的制造谣言,对上层社会骄奢淫逸的生活以及对在高贵生活方式和高尚道德准则的掩饰下的道德沦丧与虚伪假善的辛辣讽刺。毫无疑问,它被认为是自莎士比亚以来最出色的喜剧。
(VII)Thomas Gray托马斯.格雷
70. he declined the Poet laureateship in 1757.1757年,他竟谢绝了授予他的诗人桂冠奖。
71. In contrast to those professional writers, Gray’s literary output was small.与其余专职作家不同,格雷作品极少。
72. His masterpiece,“Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”was published in 1751. The poem once and for all established his fame as the leader of the sentimental poetry of the day, especially“the Graveyard School”.1757年,他的代表作《写在教堂墓地的挽歌》出版这首诗奠定了他在当时作为感伤主义诗歌创始人的地位,尤其是从此他便成为“墓地诗歌” 流派的代表。
73. His other poems include“Ode on the Spring”,“Ode on the Death of a Favourite cat”and so on. (Ode:….赞,颂)他的其他作品还有《春之颂》,《伊顿公学展望》,《爱猫之死》等等。
74. A conscientious artist of the first rate, Gray wrote slowly and carefully, painstakingly seeking perfection of form and phrase.格雷创作态度认真,作品诞生速度慢,却精益求精。
75. “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” is regarded as Gray’s best and most representative work. In this poem, Gray reflects on death, the sorrows of life, and the mysteries of human life with a touch of his personal melancholy. The poem abounds in images and and arouses sentiment in the bosom of every reader, The poem has been ranked among the best of the eighteenth century English poetry.《写在教堂墓地的挽歌》是雷格最优秀的代表作,创作历时八年,诗中内容与格雷的知己理查.韦斯特的去世有关。其中,格雷揭示了生与死的愁苦与神秘,并略述了自己忧伤的心情。诗中富于比喻,并给读者带来深深的伤感。这首诗被列为英国十八世纪最优秀的诗歌之一。
【英国】Chapter3 The Romantic Period (1798-1832)浪漫主义
1. This urgency was provoked by two important revolutions: the French Revolution of 1789-1794 and the English Industrial Revolution which happened more slowly, but with Astonishing consequences.英国面临着新的发展动力:一是1789-1794年的法国资产阶级大革命,一是同时期英国内部的工业革命。
2. In 1832, the Reform Bill was enacted, which brought the Industrial capitalists into power.1832年“改革法案”在议会通过并实施。
3. The Romantic Movement, whether in England, Germany or France, expressed a more or less negative forward the existing social.浪漫主义运动,无论是在英国,德国还是法国,都表现相互对工业革命时期现存的社会经济制度及城市资产阶级的上升的否定态度。
4. The Romantics demonstrated a strong reaction against the dominant modes of thinking of the 18th-century writers and philosophers. Where their predecessors saw man as a social animal, the Romantics saw him essentially as an individual in the solitary state.文学家摒弃了18世纪盛行的文学及哲学基调---理性,新古典主义文学家认为人是社会性的动物,而浪漫主义文学家认为人应该是独立自由的个体。
5. Thus, we can say that Romanticism actually constitutes a change of direction from attention to the outer world of social civilization to the inner world of the human spirit.因此,我们还可以说浪漫主义其实是将人们的注意力从外部世界—社会文明转移到内部世界---人类自己的精神实质。
6. The Romantic period is an age of poetry.浪漫主义时代也是诗歌的时代。
7. They believed that poetry could purify both individual souls and the society.他们(浪漫主义代表诗人布莱克,华兹华斯,科勒律治,拜伦,雪莱及济恩)认为诗歌是医治社会顽疾的良药,可以净化人的灵魂。
8. Wordsworth defines the poet as a“man speaking to men,”and poetry as“the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings, which originates in emotion recollected in tranquillity.”华兹华斯认为诗人是对着广大人民讲话的人,而诗歌是强烈情感的自发流露,发乎情,止乎静。
9. Imagination, defined by Coleridge, is the vital faculty that creates new wholes out of disparate elements.想象是在全无联系的各种元素上创立新型整体的一种超凡的官能。
10. The Romantics not only extol the faculty of imagination, but also elevate the concepts of spontaneity and inspiration, regarding them as something crucial for true poetry.浪漫主义者不仅推崇想象,还强调灵感与创作的自发性,认为有这两种才智才能创造出真正的诗歌。
11. Romantics also tend to be nationalistic.浪漫主义者们还体现了强烈的民族精神。
12. To the Romantics, poetry should be free from all rules. They would turn to the humble people and the common everyday life for subjects.浪漫主义诗人却打破这些格律,他们会在穷苦百姓及日常生活中找寻素材。
13. The two major novelists of the Romantic period are Jane Austen and Walter Scott.浪漫主义时期的代表小说家有简.奥斯汀与沃尔特.司各特.
14. Jane Austen’s view of life is a totally realistic one.简.奥斯汀对生活抱有完全的现实主义.
15. The major theme of Jane’s novels is love and marriage toward which she holds on a practical idealism---love should be justified by reason and disciplined by self-control. She chooses to stay within the tiny field that she knows best., she has become a popular classic and has been admired for her wit, her common-sense, her insight into characters and social relationships.简.奥斯汀作品的主题为爱情与婚姻,对于这个主题,奥斯汀抱有一种较为实际的理想主义---爱情必须有理智及道德准则的约束,她的作品的背景都很小却都是她熟知的,她的智慧,常识及对人物和人际关系深刻的洞察受到了大批读者的喜爱.
16. Walter Scott showed a keen sense of political and traditional forces and of their influence on the individual. He is the first major historical novelist.司各特表现出对政治与传统的力量及它们对个人的影响深刻的洞察力。他是英国文学史上第一位重要的历史小说家。
17. Gothic novel, a type of romantic fiction that predominated in the late eighteenth century, its principal elements are violence, horror, and the supernatural.哥特式小说也是浪漫主义运动的一部分,它盛行于浪漫主义前期的18世纪末。这种小说的主要题材是暴力,恐怖及对超自然力(鬼神)的描写。
(I)William Blake威廉.布莱克
18. He was often misunderstood by other people, who would regard him as gifted but mad. He was recognized only posthumously.他经常遭到旁人误解,认为他是个天才,又是个疯子,他去世后才被人发掘出来并一举成名。
19. Childhood is central to Blake’s concern in the Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience, and this concern gives the two books a strong social and historical reference.他的两步诗集《天真之歌》和《经验之歌》中,童年是布莱克主要描述的中心,这个描述中心使作品富有社会与历史性的参考价值。
20. Blake’s Marriage of Heaven and Hell marks his entry into maturity. It plays the double role both as a satire and a revolutionary prophecy.布莱克的《天堂与地狱的结合》一诗标志着他创作上的成熟,并担负了讽喻与革命预言的两重角色。
21. The“marriage,”to Black, means the reconciliation of then contraries, not the subordination of the one to the other.婚姻对布莱克意味着矛盾的调和,而并非一方从属于另一方。
22. Blake felt bound to declare that“I know that This World is World of Imagination & Vision”and that“The Nature of my work is visionary or imaginative.”布莱克热切得宣布:“我认为人世凡尘是一个充满想象与幻想的世界,我的作品也如人世凡尘一样充满想象与幻觉。”
23. Blake writes his poems in plain and direct king1970uage.布莱克的语言直白朴素。
24. Symbolism in wide rang is also a distinctive feature of his poetry.大范围地使用象征手法也是他作品的鲜明特征。
(II)William Wordsworth威廉.华兹华斯
25. The poet Robert Southey as well as Coleridge lived nearby, and the three men became known as the“Lake Poets”.诗人骚塞,科勒律治也居住在同一地城,三人并称为”湖畔诗人”。
26. In 1842 he received a government pension, and in the following year he succeeded Southey as Poet Laureate.1842年政府为他发了津贴,次年他压倒骚塞成为了“桂冠诗人”。
27. According to the subject, Wordsworth’s short poems can be classified into two group: poems about nature and poems about human life.按照主题,华的短诗可分为两大类:关于自然的和关于人类生活的。
28. Wordsworth is regarded as a“worshipper of nature.”华被称为”大自然的膜拜者”。
29. Wordsworth thinks that common life is the only subject of literary interest. The joys and sorrows of the common people are his themes.华认为普通人的普通生活应是文学的主题,她的作品大多描述普通百姓的喜怒哀乐。
30. His works contain“The Solitary Reaper”,“To a Highland Girl”,”The Old Cumberland Beggar”and“The Ruined Cottage”.他的作品包括《孤独的收割者》,《致高地姑娘》,《老坎伯兰的乞丐》和《被摧毁的茅屋》。
31. In its daring use of subject mater and sense of then authenticity of the experience of the poorest,“Resolution and Independence”is the triumphant conclusion of ideas first developed in the Lyrical Ballads.通过大胆运用这样的主题,同时对贫苦人民生活经历的描写拥有极大的可信度,“革命与独立”则成为《抒情歌谣集》中成功的结论,这在英国诗歌历史上也是第一次。
32. Wordsworth is a poet in memory of the past .华兹华斯是一个怀旧的诗人。
33. Wordsworth’s deliberate simplicity and refusal to decorate the truth of experience produced a kind of pure and profound poetry which no other poet has ever equaled.华兹华斯对简洁朴素的风格的追求,对粉饰真实的厌恶使他的诗歌具有别人无法企及的纯净与深远之美。
34. he maintained that the scenes and events of everyday life and the speech of ordinary people were the raw material of which poetry could and should be made.他强调诗歌创作最要紧的是把握真实素材的来源,他的创作理论的核心便是普通人的生活经历,普通人的词汇语言都是诗人应该也能够汲取的素材。
35. William Wordsworth is the leading figure of the English romantic poetry, the focal poetic voice of the period.华兹华斯是英国诗歌史上的精英,是浪漫主义时期的杰出代表。
36. The most important contribution he has made is that he has not only started the modern poetry, the poetry of the growing inner self, but also changed the course of English poetry by using ordinary speech of the king1970uage and by advocating a return to nature.他对诗歌的巨大贡献在于开启了现代诗歌,开创了运用百姓生活语言写诗的新道路,并号召人们回归自然。
(III)Samuel Taylor Coleridge塞.泰.科勒律治
37. In 1798, the two men published a joint volume of poetry, Lyrical Ballads, which became a landmark in English poetry. 1798年,他同华兹华斯合作出版《抒情歌谣集》,成为英诗发展的一座里程碑。
38. In addition to“The Ancient Mariner,”he wrote“Kubla Khan,”began writing“Christabel”and composed“This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison,”“Frost at Midnight,”and“The Nightingale,”which are considered to be his best“conversational”poems.他创作了《古航海家之歌》,《忽必烈汗》,《子夜寒霜》,《夜莺》等名诗,这些都是他“对话诗”的代表。
39. hilosophically and critically, Coleridge opposed the limitedly rationalistic trends of the the 18th-century thought.在哲学与文学评论方面,科勒律治反对18世纪那种局限的理性主义潮流。
40. he advocated a more spiritual and religious interpretation of life, based on what he had learnt from Kant and Schelling.他倡导了以坎特与斯凯灵理论的对人类精神化与宗教化的诠释。
41. He believed that art is the only permanent revelation of the nature of reality.他认为艺术是唯一一种能永远揭示现实的形式。
42. Coleridge’s actual achievement as poet can be divided into two remarkably diverse groups: the demonic and the conversational.柯勒律治在诗歌方面的成就可分为不同的两大类,神祗诗与对话诗。
43. Mysticism and demonism with strong imagination are the distinctive features of this group.这些诗歌的显著特点,便是神秘与想象。
44. “Christabel”uses a freer version of the ballad form to create an atmosphere of the Gothic horror at once delicate and sinister.“克丽斯特贝尔”一诗采用了更为自由的抒情诗形式,创造出的是与一种微妙而又邪恶的哥特式恐怖氛围。
45. He sings highly Wordsworth’s “purity of king1970uage,” “deep and subtle thoughts,” “Perfect truth to nature” and his “imaginative power.” But he denies Wordsworth’s claim that there is no essential difference between the king1970uage of poetry and the king1970uage spoken by common people.他高度赞赏华兹华斯那“纯净的语言”,“深邃的思想”,“对自然完美真实的描述”以及他“非凡的想象力”。但是他不赞成华兹华斯所说的“诗歌语言与普通百姓的生活语言没什么两样”。
46. Coleridge was esteemed by some of his contemporaries and is generally recognized today as a lyrical poet and literary critic of the first rank.科勒律治被同时期的诗界所尊崇,直至今日也被奉为第一流的抒情诗人与文学评论家。
47. he was one of the most influential English literary critics and philosophers of the 19th century.他是19世纪浪漫主义文学与哲学的代表。
(IV)George Gordon Byron乔治.戈登.拜伦
48. The publication in 1812 of the first two cantos of Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, brought Byron fame.拜伦早期代表作是长篇叙事诗《恰尔德.哈罗德游记》第一,第二章(1812)。
49. In Geneva, he wrote the third canto of Childe Harold and the narrative poem The Prisoner of of Chillon.在日内瓦,拜伦写下了《哈罗德游记》第三章及叙事诗《齐伦的囚犯》。
50. he produced the verse drama Manfred, the first two cantos of Don Juan.他创作了诗剧《曼弗雷德》,《唐璜》的前两章。
51. Don Juan is Byron’s masterpiece, a great comic epic of the early 19th century.他的代表作《唐璜》是19世纪初期的著名讽刺史诗。
52. Byron invests in Juan the moral positives like courage, generosity and frankness, are virtues neglected by the modern society.拜伦在唐璜身上开发出勇敢,慷慨,诚恳直白等优点。
53. the poet’s true intention is, by making use of Juan’s adventures, to present a panoramic view of different types of society.诗人的创作意旨在于通过唐璜的游历来体现不同的社会情形。
54. Byron’s satire on the English society in the later part of the poem can be compared with Pope’s; and his satire is much less personal than that of Pope’s, for Byron is here attacking not a personal enemy but the whole hypocritical society.拜伦在诗的末尾对英国社会的讽刺与蒲柏相媲美,有过之而无不及,因为拜伦讽刺的不是个人恩怨,而是整个社会的虚伪。
55. As a leading Romanticist, Byron’s chief contribution is his creation of the “Byronic hero,” a proud, mysterious rebel figure of noble origin. Such a hero appears first in Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, and then further developed in later works such as the Oriented Tales, Manfred, and Dan Juan in different guises.作为浪漫主义的代表诗人,拜伦的主要贡献在于他创造了“拜伦式英雄”,高傲,神秘,反叛却带有贵族血统。这种拜伦式英雄出现在《哈罗德游记》,《东方故事集》,《曼弗雷德》及《唐璜》等多部作品中。
56. Actually Byron has enriched European poetry with an abundance of ideas, images, artistic forms and innovations.拜伦以丰富的思想,想象力,艺术形式和创新欧洲的诗歌得到了发展
(V)Percy Bysshe Shelley柏.比.雪莱
57. He held a lifelong aversion to cruelty, injustice, authority, institutional religion and the formal shams of respectable society, condemning war, tyranny and exploitation.他一生都在执著的反抗社会上的残忍与不公,强权与宗教,战争与剥削。
58. He realized that the evil was also in man’s mind.他认为罪恶还存在于人的思想。
59. One of Shelley’s greatest political lyrics is“Men of England. The poem was later to become a rallying song of the British Communist Party.”雪莱最著名的政治抒情诗是“致苏格兰人民”,这首诗在宪章运动时期成为广大工人的战歌。
60. Best of all the well-known lyric pieces is Shelley’s“Ode to the West Wind”; here Shelley’s rhapsodic and declamatory tendencies find a subject perfectly suited to them.雪莱最著名的抒情诗当属“西风颂”,这首诗语气狂热,宜于诵读。
61. “If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?”The poem is written in the terza rima form Shelley derived from his reading of Dante.“如果冬天已经来临,春天还会远吗?”诗人引用了文艺复兴时期意大利诗人但丁的三行诗节隔句押韵法。
62. Shelley’s greatest achievement is his four-act poetic drama, Prometheus Unbound,The play is an exultant work in praise of humankind’s potential, and Shelley himself recognized it as“the most perfect of my products.”.雪莱最有造诣的作品是他的四幕诗剧《解放了的普罗米修斯》,它赞扬了人类自身的潜力,雪莱认识它是自己最出色的作品。
63. Like Blake, he has a reputation as a difficult poet: erudite, imagistically complex, full of classical and mythological allusions.像布莱克一样,由于不同于其他人,他是个备受推崇的诗人,他的作品博学,具有深厚文化底蕴,含有丰富的典故和神灵的暗示。
(VI)John Keats约翰.济慈
64. Endymion, published in 1818, was a poem based on the Greek myth of Endymion and the moon goddess.1818年,济慈出版了长诗<安狄米恩>,该诗以希腊神话为素材,记述了牧人安狄米恩赫月光女神的故。
65. It was this yearning and suffering that quickened his maturity and added a new dimension to his poetry.一连串挫折与内心压抑的情感促使他走向成熟,并使他未来的创作更加丰满。
66. At the heart of these pomes lies Keats’concern with how the ideal can be joined with the real, the imagined with the actual, and man with woman.这些诗歌表达了济慈对如何将理想与现实,想象与实际,男人与女人结合起来的思考。
67. The volume also contain his four great odes:”Ode on Melancholy,”“Ode on a Grecian Urn,”“Ode to a Nightingale,”“Ode a Psyche;”his lyric masterpiece“To Autumn”and the unfinished poem“Hyperion.”这部诗集包括他著名的四首“颂”:“忧郁颂”,“希腊古瓮颂”,“夜莺颂”,“普赛克颂”及他抒情诗的代表作“秋日颂”和未完成的诗作“希波里恩”。
68. The odes are generally regarded as Keats’s most important and mature works.颂诗是济慈最重要也是最成熟的作品。
69. In the great of these works, he also suggests the undercurrent of disillusion that accompanies such ecstasy, the human suffering which forever question the visionary transcendence achieved by art.在这些作品中,他对资本主义社会现实又不满,他的诗歌却常常带有唯美主义色彩。
70. “Ode to a Nightingale”expresses the contrast between the happy world of natural loveliness and human world of agony.”夜莺颂”展示了自然界之美与人世之痛苦强烈的反差。
71. “Ode on an Grecian Urn”shows the contrast between the permanence of art and the transience of human passion.“希腊古瓮颂”展示了永恒的艺术与短暂的人类热情之间的对比。
72. Sight, sound, scent, taste and feeling are all taken in to give an entire understanding of an experience.将视,听,嗅,味,触等感觉都转化成绝美的文字,带来一个通透的体验。
73. He draws diction, style and imagery from works of Shakespeare, Milton and Dante.他在措词,风格和比喻上都参考了莎士比亚,弥尔顿和但丁的作品。
74. Keats’s poetry characterized by exact and closely knit construction, sensual descriptions, and by force of imagination, gives transcendental values to the physical beauty of the world.济慈的诗以精确紧凑的造句,有感描写为特色,通过想象,营造了超出人类经验值的自然之美。
魏特兰蒂斯
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