冬日之光 冬日之光 8.3分

罗杰伊伯特评《冬日之光》

黑白
2018-04-02 02:01:58
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英格玛伯格曼去世的那天,我脑子里想到的第一件事就是他的电影《冬日之光》。这很奇怪,因为自从70年代教授电影课以来,我就再也没有看过它了。在刚刚过去的一周里,我感到重看这部片子的念头一直萦绕在脑海里。关于它我还记得些什么呢?它是伯格曼神之沉默三部曲的第二部,它讲述一位无法抚慰受苦心灵的牧师的困惑,它诞生在伯格曼和他的摄影师斯文·尼科维斯特坐在乡村教堂苦思冥想,探讨如何让光线穿过空间的一个阳光的冬日。

总之,我几乎一点也不记得这部电影,并且曾经那些关于影片零散的记忆并不能勾起我回看的欲望。但是现在,我有了重看的理由。

最终我还是把《冬日之光》从架子上取下来,再次观看,并且依然被它那直面惨淡的勇气所震撼。

首先,电影的内容远比我记忆中总结的要更加复杂。它所表达的不止是上帝的沉默,还是一个男人的沉默。影片中,牧师埃里克森(古纳尔·布约恩施特兰德)说了很多话,却无

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英格玛伯格曼去世的那天,我脑子里想到的第一件事就是他的电影《冬日之光》。这很奇怪,因为自从70年代教授电影课以来,我就再也没有看过它了。在刚刚过去的一周里,我感到重看这部片子的念头一直萦绕在脑海里。关于它我还记得些什么呢?它是伯格曼神之沉默三部曲的第二部,它讲述一位无法抚慰受苦心灵的牧师的困惑,它诞生在伯格曼和他的摄影师斯文·尼科维斯特坐在乡村教堂苦思冥想,探讨如何让光线穿过空间的一个阳光的冬日。

总之,我几乎一点也不记得这部电影,并且曾经那些关于影片零散的记忆并不能勾起我回看的欲望。但是现在,我有了重看的理由。

最终我还是把《冬日之光》从架子上取下来,再次观看,并且依然被它那直面惨淡的勇气所震撼。

首先,电影的内容远比我记忆中总结的要更加复杂。它所表达的不止是上帝的沉默,还是一个男人的沉默。影片中,牧师埃里克森(古纳尔·布约恩施特兰德)说了很多话,却无法真正说出任何对自己或别人有帮助的。渔夫乔纳斯饱受世间恶事的困扰,最终为了证明上帝的存在只是一个骗局,他自杀了。教师马尔塔(英格丽·图林)一心爱着牧师,关心照顾他,迎来的却是冷漠和敌意。影片有两段牧师和教师的对白,更加深了对彼此的伤害。

影片同时也是关于信仰的拷问。牧师由两名男子协助完成他的职责。其中一个是风琴演奏者,习惯了看钟等下班,每每急于结束礼拜,在演奏最后的乐章之前就已经收拾好乐谱。另一个是因铁路事故致残的教堂司事,负责敲钟,点亮蜡烛以及帮助准备祭服等事宜。影片中有一段他的独角戏,讲述他对于耶稣受难的理解。他是电影中唯一将基督思想融入严肃的日常思考中的人。

影片的视觉风格极度朴素。尼科维斯特没有为了达到某种效果而去做单一的摄像机运动。他只是观察,展示。他的镜头创作通常都是固定的,有时带点戏剧性。他使用缓慢的推拉镜头以增加对话的强度。他的凝视是如此的专注,以至于一些镜头会显得无聊,例如开场的献祭和赐酒仪式。渐渐的镜头变得耐人寻味,更多的暗流涌动在领圣餐者之间,超越了仪式本身。在许多的特写和中景镜头下,面孔是尼科维斯特首先关注的焦点,他们甚至是一些长镜头里的真正主题。这种做法也呼应了伯格曼的观点:即电影艺术中最迷人的主题是人类的面孔。

埃里克森牧师从来不苟言笑。因为某件事他生了病(彼得·考伊透露道演员布约恩施特兰德在拍摄期间确实得了流感)。但更重要的是,他为人冷漠孤僻,不近人情。相比之下,特写镜头前的马尔塔会压抑自己的柔情和悲伤。年轻演员古内尔·林德布洛姆,饰演渔夫怀孕的妻子凯伦,看起来脆弱而无助。渔夫乔纳斯则像是已经知道了自己的结局。

身残的教堂司事有着一张虔诚信仰的面孔,他熟读福音书,认为基督在十字架上受难的重点被误解了。基督只受了几个小时的折磨,而他遭受的折磨远比基督要多,但是这些苦难并没有想象中的那么糟糕。基督真正的痛苦应该来自于蒙难地门徒的背叛,来自于他向一个似乎抛弃他的父亲哭诉的时刻。他感到痛苦,因为他害怕没人能理解他的信念,也因为天父的沉默。

在一个大约有八人的会众(包括两名被雇佣的人以及并不信奉上帝的马尔塔)面前背诵祷词时,埃里克森牧师的表情显得既生硬又严厉,仪式结束之后他又恢复成惯常的冷漠样子。但是当凯伦请求他去和她的丈夫谈谈时,尽管时刻被恐惧困扰,牧师还是答应了,约定乔纳斯先将凯伦送回家再返回来。牧师不止一次地说道:“我真的希望他能回来。”

他读起马尔塔给他留下的信,画面突然转变成马尔塔的面孔特写,她正在背诵整封信,镜头显得真实而悲伤,这里暗示了牧师的冷酷无情。

后来,当乔纳斯返回教堂并向牧师倾诉他对世界将毁灭于核爆炸之下的恐惧,牧师所能表达的只有“我们必须相信主”这种话。之后当他站起身,尼科维斯特的镜头倾斜地摆在他桌子上的手指前,记录着它的犹疑和颤抖。牧师向乔纳斯坦白道,他不是一个好牧师,他也正饱受上帝沉默之煎熬,几乎失去了信仰。而后乔纳斯离开不久,就传来他驾车到河边用枪自杀的消息。

牧师决定去见见凯伦和她的孩子。马尔塔劝他先回学校吃感冒药,期间她向牧师敞开心扉并试图让他接纳自己的感情。牧师拒绝了她,声称他唯一的真爱已经在四年前随亡妻而去。接着,是一段令人心碎的中伤,他尽其所能地历数了马尔塔令他厌恶的事情:她的过分讨好,她的哀泣,她手上和脸上的皮疹(使人不禁联想到基督的伤痕)。他是如此无情以致气冲冲的走到了门口,但是犹豫之下,他出乎意料地又邀请她一同去见渔夫的遗孀。

应当说,此片的沉默更甚于上帝的沉默。牧师的亡妻被包裹在坟墓的沉默中。牧师陷于无法回应渔夫的沉默中。除了沉默和拒绝,他不知如何回应马尔塔的爱。风琴演奏者的沉默是他对仪式的毫不关心以及渴望它的结束。而那些没有沉默的人,例如渔夫和他的妻子,渴望得到帮助却一无所获。

不过还有一位教堂司事,在这群人中,似乎只有他更多地思考基督所受的苦难,甚于他本身的苦难。他对基督激情之所在的洞察是极具说服力的,但是牧师不能听进去,他选择用冷漠将自己包裹起来。

彼得·考伊提到过一个片段,当时马尔塔和牧师正停在路上等待火车通过,他告诉她:“我的父母希望我能成为一名牧师。”考伊认为在那一刻牧师代表了伯格曼本人——一位严厉的路德派牧师的儿子,他一面要在教堂里聆听父亲道貌岸然的布道,一面又要遭到父亲回家后严苛的惩罚。

我怀疑伯格曼是否还有其他方式来表现牧师这个角色。我们都知道他结婚多次,常常会就女性的问题自省。在由他编剧的电影《狂情错爱》(丽芙·乌曼于2000执导完成)中,他设定了一位老导演的角色,片中他雇佣一位女演员来帮助完成自己的故事——一个关于他是如何虐待女人并且想要得到宽恕的故事。是否《冬日之光》就是一次对这种男人的刻画?抑或是一位害怕不被理解的艺术家的悲泣?还是说他的艺术是关于被上帝抛弃的故事?又或者,他已迷失在自己的声望之中,无力去帮助那些真正需要他的人?

我们将永远不能确定,《冬日之光》能不能算是他某种程度上的自传。只知道他创造出一个试图把自己当成上帝,却失败了的艺术形象。

原文:

On the day Ingmar Bergman died, the first film of his that came into my mind was "Winter Light." Odd, because I had not seen it since teaching a film class in the 1970s. In the weeks that passed, I found it lingering there, asking to be seen again. What did I remember about it? That it was part of Bergman's "Silence of God" trilogy. That it was about a pastor who was unable to comfort a man in dread of nuclear holocaust. That the pastor rejected a woman who sought to comfort him. That Bergman and his cinematographer, Sven Nykvist, sat in a rural church for a winter day to note how the sunlight moved through the space.

In short, I hardly remembered the film at all, because those sparse memories were not enough to ignite a need to see it again. Yet I felt one.

Finally I took "Winter Light" (1962) down from the shelf, watched it again, and was awestruck by its bleak, courageous power.

It is, first of all, much more complex than the broad outlines I held in memory. It is about more than God, silent or not. It is about the silence of a man, Pastor Tomas Ericsson (Gunnar Bjornstrand), who speaks enough in the film but is unable to say anything of use to himself or anyone else. About another man, the fisherman Jonas (Max Von Sydow), obsessed by evil in the world, who calls God's bluff, so to speak, by killing himself. About Marta, a schoolteacher (Ingrid Thulin) who cares for the pastor, loves him, worries about him, and is thanked by coldness and hostility. And it is about two monologues in which the pastor and the teacher describe their real feelings, and deeply wound each other.

But it is also about faith. The pastor is assisted in his duties by two men. One, the organist, is a clock-watcher, eager to see a service over with, already packing away his music while playing the final notes. The other, Algot (Allan Edwall), a man whose body has been crippled by a railroad accident, is the sexton who rings the bells, lights the candles, helps with the vestments. He has a monologue, too, about the passion of Christ, and he is the only character in the film who seems to have allowed the Christ story into his meaningful daily thoughts.

The film's visual style is one of rigorous simplicity. Nykvist does not use a single camera movement for effect. He only wants to regard, to show. His compositions, while sometimes dramatic, are mostly static. He uses slow push-ins and pull-outs to underline dialogue of intensity. His gaze is so unblinking that sequences with the potential to be boring, like the opening scenes of the consecration and distribution of hosts and wine, become fascinating: More is going on here than ritual, and there are buried currents between the communicants. Nykvist focuses above all on faces, in closeup and medium shot, and they are even the real subject of longer shots, recalling Bergman's belief that the human face is the most fascinating study for the cinema.

Pastor Tomas never smiles. He is sick, for one thing (and Peter Cowie reveals in an introduction that the actor Bjornstrand really had the flu during the filming). But more than that, he is cold, detached, unable to care. Marta, in contrast, trembles in closeups with suppressed tenderness and grief. The younger actress Gunnel Lindblom, as the pregnant Karin, the fisherman's wife, looks vulnerable and confused. The fisherman Jonas looks as if he has already seen his end.

The sexton, the little twisted man, alone has a face that is alive with wonder at the mystery of faith. He has been reading the Gospels, he says, and thinks the emphasis on Christ's suffering on the cross is all wrong. Christ only suffered a few hours, he says, while he, Algot, has suffered more and longer, and it is not so bad. No, the real suffering of Christ came when his disciples betrayed him at Gethsemane, and when he cried out to a father who seemed to have forsaken him. He suffered because he feared no one had heard or understood his message. Christ suffered because he, too, was dismayed by the silence of God.

Pastor Tomas is stiff and harsh as he recites the words of the service, before a congregation of perhaps eight people, including two who are paid to be there and Marta, who does not believe in God. After the service, he is dismissive and curt. But when Karin asks him to speak with her husband, who has been troubled by his fears, the pastor agrees; Jonas will drive Karin home to their three children, and return. "I really hope he returns," Tomas says more than once.

He reads a letter Marta has left for him, and Bergman shows Thulin reciting the entire letter in a six-minute closeup that is true, sad, and hard upon herself, but by implication merciless about Tomas.

Later, when Jonas returns and describes his fears that the world will end in nuclear destruction, all Tomas can say is "we must trust in the lord." Then, when he stands up, Nykvist's camera tilts down to his fingers on the desk, hesitating, trembling, and then Tomas confesses to Jonas: He feels he is a bad pastor, he is anguished by the silence of God, he has lost his faith. Jonas leaves, and soon word comes that he drove to a nearby river and shot himself with his rifle.

Tomas resolves to visit Karin and the family. Marta drives him. They stop at her home for cold medicine, and she embraces him and urges him to accept her love. Tomas rejects her, citing his one true love, his wife who died four years earlier. And then, in a passage of lacerating cruelty, he enumerates everything he finds disgusting about Marta -- her fussing, her weeping, her rashes on hands and head (recalling the wounds of Christ). He is pitiless, then storms out, hesitates, and unexpectedly asks her to join him in going to the fisherman's widow.

There is more silence here than the silence of God. Tomas' late wife is wrapped in the silence of the grave. Tomas is silent to the need of the fisherman. He cannot respond to Marta's love except by stern silence and rejection. Fredrik, the church organist, is silent in the way he pays no attention to the service and wishes for it to be over. Those who are not silent, such as the fisherman and his wife, ask for help and receive none.

But then there is Algot, the crooked sexton. He alone of all these people seems to have given more thought to the suffering of Christ than to his own suffering. His insights into Christ's passion are convincing and empathetic, but the pastor cannot hear him, is wrapped in his own cold indifference

Cowie speaks of a moment when Marta and Tomas are stopped on the road for a train to pass. "My parents dreamed of me becoming a pastor," he tells her. Cowie thinks that the pastor stands for Bergman at that moment -- Bergman, the son of a strict Lutheran who listened to his father's sanctimonious sermons in church and then came home to cruel punishments.

I wonder if there are other ways in which Bergman speaks through the character of the pastor. We know that he was much married, and thought of himself before his women. In his screenplay for "Faithless" (2000), directed by Liv Ullmann, he plays an old director who hires an actress to help him visualize a story about how he mistreated women, and wants to be forgiven. Is "Winter Light" also not a portrait of a man who is cruel to a woman who only wants to love and help him? Is it not the cry of an artist who fears his message has not been heard? Is his art the father who has forsaken him? Has he been powerless to help those who came to him in real need, while focusing on his career and his reputation?

To the degree that "Winter Light" is autobiographical, and that we will never know, it is the portrait of a man who thought he was God, and failed himself.

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