浅谈《纸牌屋》中弗兰西斯·安德伍德的超人哲学

孙正达
2017-09-26 08:26:41
Preamble
说在前面
It took me a day and a half to demolish the first season of this heated-clickedseries. When I was watching the last episode of the first series, in whichFrancis goes to the church to pay to himself, it suddenly occurred to me thatisn’t Francis Underwood the modern Übermensch?
The word Übermensch first came up to me when I was watching theanimated comic “EVA” in senior middle school. Later I read some philosophybooks, some of which referring to Nietzsche, enriching my understanding to Übermensch.Lately, I watched another animated comic “Monster”, enhancing my impressionabout this word. In this animated comic, there is an orphanage for Nazieducation experiment. The operation principle is just following “Übermensch”,to make a superman, or more exactly, an overman among the gifted children. AndJohn, one of the characters in the comic the production of the so calledoverman.
花了一天多的时间看完纸牌屋第一季,特别是看到最后一集,弗兰西斯出现在



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Preamble
说在前面
It took me a day and a half to demolish the first season of this heated-clickedseries. When I was watching the last episode of the first series, in whichFrancis goes to the church to pay to himself, it suddenly occurred to me thatisn’t Francis Underwood the modern Übermensch?
The word Übermensch first came up to me when I was watching theanimated comic “EVA” in senior middle school. Later I read some philosophybooks, some of which referring to Nietzsche, enriching my understanding to Übermensch.Lately, I watched another animated comic “Monster”, enhancing my impressionabout this word. In this animated comic, there is an orphanage for Nazieducation experiment. The operation principle is just following “Übermensch”,to make a superman, or more exactly, an overman among the gifted children. AndJohn, one of the characters in the comic the production of the so calledoverman.
花了一天多的时间看完纸牌屋第一季,特别是看到最后一集,弗兰西斯出现在教堂,“超人哲学”这个词又浮现在我的脑海里。“超人哲学”(Übermensch)这个词,我最是在高中看《新世纪福音战士》的时候第一次听说的,后来又在大学看西方哲学史对尼采的非理性哲学有了一些初步了解。最近又在看《怪物》这部动漫中发现片中纳粹德国的孤儿院中的教育实验也是信奉这一理念的产物,而剧中的约翰即是一个制造出来的所谓的“超人”。
About Übermensch
关于超人哲学
TheÜbermensch of Nietzsche came up when he confronted the Western World at thebeginning of 20th century that divinity and morality has longcollapsed. In literature field, T.S. Eliot called that Western world is a pieceof “waste land”, sterile and lifeless. Standing against the world where God isdead, Nietzsche proposed Übermensch, diverting from another current solution, positivism.To get rid of the state of nihilism, Nietzsche said that human must become Übermenschto create their own values, constantly self-enhancing, ceaselessly exceedingthemselves, and finally become the “NEW Human”, the overman, the Übermensch. Übermenschdoes not have morality, nor good or evil, worship nothing or by nothing. Theworld has no God, neither Hardy’s Indifferent eye watching the world. What wewill have is the callous Übermensch, the stronger striding over the weak.
尼采的超人哲学是尼采面对在20世纪初西方世界神学,道德价值崩溃所提出的。面对“上帝死了”虚无主义的大地,与当时的另一派哲学思路实证主义不同,尼采提出了超人哲学的思想。为了摆脱虚无的处境,人必须变成“超人”,为自我创造价值,不断完善自己,自我超越的,成为“新”的人。超人没有道德,包含人类所有的善与恶,不需要崇拜,也不需要被崇拜。世界上没有上帝,也没有哈代式的“冷漠的上帝”,有的将会是“冷漠的超人”,他们看着弱者被跨过,碾压。
A perspective of Francis Underwood, the Übermensch
弗兰西斯·安德伍德的一个方面:超人哲学
(To heaven or God)Every timeI’ve spoken to you, you’ve never spoken back. Although given our mutualdisdain, I can’t blame you for the silent treatment. Perhaps I am speaking tothe wrong audience.
(To Hell or Demons and then the dead) Can you hear me?Are you even capable of language, or do you only understand depravity?Come out, look in the eye and say what you need to say.
(To the audience and himself) There is no solace aboveor below, only us… small, solitary, striving, battling one another. I pray tomyself, for myself.
--Francis Underwood
(对天堂或者上帝)每次我对你述说,你从未做出过回应。但考虑到我们互相鄙视,我不能责怪你的沉默。或许我找错了对象。
(对地狱或者魔鬼和死人)你听得到吗?我甚至怀疑你是不是会说话,或许说你只知道堕落?出来吧,直视我的眼睛说出你想说的。
(对自己和观众)天堂和地狱都没法给你慰藉,(两者之间)只有我们自己:渺小,孤独,奋斗,彼此斗争。我向自己祈祷,为自己祈祷。
-- 弗兰西斯·安德伍德
There is nodoubt that Francis Underwood is one of the so-called Übermensch. The story allstarts when the majority whip Underwood found himself betrayed and lost hispromised power as the Secretary of State. And he resorts to all sorts of artificesand finally becomes the Vice President. It is a story about how a callouspolitician, through his delicate conspiracy, seizes power. For me, thehighlight of this story is not his delicate plot, but how he, in spite of allthe moralities and ethics and his conscience, “callously” plotting, bribing loyalty, giving up unwanted pawns toget his goals.
毫无疑问,弗兰西斯就是这样一个凌驾于弱者的超人。故事的起因就是多数党鞭弗兰西斯本该成为国务卿,却发现自己被临时出卖,故事讲述了这个无情冷酷的政客,如何谋划布局最后上位成为副总统的故事。对我而言,这部剧的看点不在于他如何谋划,而在于他如何“冷酷无情地”谋划,收买人心,踢掉无用的棋子,坚持贯彻他的超人哲学,达成自己的目标。
So what does ithave to do with Übermensch? As discussed above, Übermensch is a philosophyregardless of dying religion and other ethics, tries to derive values withinoneself and self-enhancing and finally overtops the others. (Though thisversion is not exactly what Nietzsche trying to convince, but it is actuallypracticed by a lot of practitioners.) And this “will to power”, according toNietzsche is the “unexhausted procreative will to life” that make human get ridof nihilism. We can see Francis permeating this kind of power when he has ahunger for the best Washington D.C. ribs. It is a hunger for power, unexhaustedand procreative. Just like Francis in S1E1 did, he felt much hunger and wantsanother portion of rib.
那这一切和超人哲学又有什么关系?在上面已经说过,所谓超人就是摆脱死掉的基督教,和其他世俗道德,从自身出发创造价值观,不断完善,以至于凌驾他人的“人”。(这种说法虽然多少与尼采的本义有一些不一致,但这种概念已经被许多实践者所接纳)而这种凌驾意志,尼采说,是摆脱虚无主义的一种不可或缺的创新的生命力的力量。在弗兰西斯的身上就表现为一种对权力欲望。而这种对权力的欲望又被比喻为一种对最好的美食饥饿,这种对权力的饥饿会无限制的膨胀,以至让人想再来一份。
For the will topower, Francis abandons ethics. (For Übermensch the nihilistic world has God ormoral.) Ranging from his wife, congressmen to cub reporter are all his pawns.For example, his wife, Clare’s non-profit program Clean Water Initiativebecomes a tool for Francis to achieve power. Clare herself is a kind of toolfor Francis, although they really love each other but at the same time Francisis really using Clare. More than that, his wife gives up happy marriage life andget three abortions for their common course. Congressman Russo is plotted diedand Zoe becomes a tool for propaganda and a whore to let off Androgens. Touseful pawns, he coerce, compels, intimidate and possess; and useless, hesimply abandon and strides over.
为了凌驾意志,为了权力弗兰西斯向着以超人的意志摒弃了伦理价值(超人存在于虚无世界之中,没有上帝,没有道德,一切的形而上学由自身创造)。从他的妻子,到国会议员再到实习记者都成为弗兰西斯的棋子。他的妻子,克莱尔的非盈利组织净水工程成为他夺取权力的工具。(虽然这对夫妻真的是相爱的,女人一旦付出就不愿割舍,但是弗兰克实际上确实是在利用妻子,不过是名正言顺的,他们是夫妻。)他的妻子为了他放弃了美好的婚姻,放弃了三个孩子。国会议员罗素因为弗兰西斯计划的失败死于非命,实习接着佐伊则成为他的口舌以及发泄雄性荷尔蒙的工具。对有用的棋子,他勒令,强迫,威胁乃至占有,已达成目的的条件,对不需要的他抛弃然后无情的跨过。
Religion becomesFrank’s weapon to smooth the bereaved parents who intends to sue him for theirlost daughter. When his wife wanders if they should leave something behind theworld, (probably something contributive or humane or specifically a child,)they bothrealize that is being silly. The world, for them, is nihilistic, nothing afore,nothing behind, only Übermensch surpassing the world. (And it is the samephilosophy of John in the animated comic “Monster”. ) There are more than onescene that Francis rowing the boating machine. Actually it is a very trickysymbol, hinting Frank’s philosophy that the world is operating at his rowing,that he is the God of the world, and world is operating within his hand. Hence,Francis says:” I pray to myself, for myself.”
宗教成为弗兰西斯玩弄大众的武器来安抚因在车祸中失去女儿而准备控告他的父母。当他的妻子问他们自己是不是应该给世界留下什么的时候(孩子,或者为人类造福祉什么的),他们都认识到这是在说笑。世界本来就是虚无,不需要留下任何东西,只超人凌驾的存在。(这也是动漫《怪物》中约翰的哲学)剧中多次出现弗兰西斯利用划船机锻炼的镜头,这也暗示着对弗兰西斯的超人哲学来说,宇宙就是他用划船机来运行的,他就是上帝,上帝就是自己。所以他说:“我向自己祈祷,为自己祈祷。”
However, doesFrancis never doubt his Übermensch philosophy? He does not afraid of thenemesis despite all the bloodshed on his altar throne? The answer is NO.Actually he thinks of this more than once. Nemesis occurred in one of theepisode when Francis was at a low ebb and partly because of this he helped hisbodyguard keep his job and at the same time bribes another loyalty. In the lastepisode of the first season, Francis comes to the church to pray. Actually hefirst waver from his philosophy, but at last he regains his regal and blows outthe candlelight.
但是弗兰西斯真的就对自己的超人哲学毫不怀疑吗?他就没有害怕过自己会遭到所谓的天谴吗?他想过的,而且不止一次。“天谴”这个词在剧中出现过,弗兰西斯当时部分因为这个念头帮助他现任的司机保住了职位,再一次收买了一个心腹。最后一集,弗兰西斯在教堂担心副总统一职落败,来到教堂祈祷,自言自语再次怀疑。当他挑衅上帝与恶魔,发现这个世界仍然无动于衷的时候,他摇摆恐惧又重拾了超人的信心。他向自己祈祷之后,吹灭了别人祈祷的蜡烛。
About other perspective of this series
关于此剧的其他视角
CanFrancis sit tight on his bloody altar throne? It remains (at least for me) tosee how this series develops. There are other perspectives to watch thisseries, like the “condition” of modern man. The characters in this series andminiature of modern man’s dilemma, Zoe, Russo, Clare are among the typicalcases. They live in the crevice of ego and id. It is a condition of I being notmyself, that I lead not my life, but I choose to live like this and have to takethis responsibility, a kind of existential not being myself dilemma is onetypical condition of modern man status of quo.
那弗兰西斯的超人的血淋淋的祭坛最终能成为他稳妥扎实的王座吗?这还需要看(至少对我而言)此剧后来的发展。其实这部剧更多的值得思考的是剧中每个人物的生存状态, 佐伊,罗素,克莱尔是其中典型的例子。这些人物所生存的处境是典型的现代人的困境,他们大多都生存在本我与自我的夹缝之中。这种我不是我,我过的生活不是我想要过的,然而我过的生活史我自己选择的,我必须得为自己的选择负责。这种存在主义式的“自己无法做自己的困境”是现代人最典型的特点。
http://tieba.baidu.com/p/2924425955?pn=1
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