《飞越疯人院》的真实故事背景

Yakiho
2016-05-23 看过
原文链接
正如海报上的文字所言,
如果你珍视你的思想和生活,
就不要对这部电影背过身去。

《提提卡失序记事》由著名纪录片导演,60年代“直接电影”的主要推动者Frederick Wiseman在1967年拍摄制作完成。纪录片深入美国马萨诸塞州主要由罪犯构成的精神病院Massachusetts Correctional Institution Bridgewater,用镜头直接、忠实记录发生在那里的故事。

直接电影
“直接电影”是1960年之后在美国出现的一个纪录片的流派,最初是由《时代》杂志公司旗下一个名叫罗伯特·德鲁的人组建的电视节目制作公司(德鲁有限公司)招募专业人员制作新闻纪录片而开始的。他们提出这样的电影主张:摄影机永远是旁观者,不干涉、不影响事件的过程,永远只作静观默察式的记录;不需要采访,拒绝重演,不用灯光,没有解说,排斥一切可能破坏生活原生态的主观介入。直接电影一种现场拍摄、非虚构、细观的电影类型,使用轻型的摄影机和录音机,记录事件实际发生的状况,只用本身的声音。特点是:1.旁观的美学2.视听同步的需求3.沉默的主体。

纪录片片名取自机构举办的一场才艺秀Titicut Follies,Follies是由百老汇的富丽秀发展而来的一种歌舞剧,又带着“愚蠢”的意义在里头;Titicut是医院附近的Taunton河在美国当地土著Wampanoag语中的发音。纪录片由这场才艺秀开始,最后又以这场才艺秀结束。

那么Titicut Follies里面有什么类型的人?歌舞秀之后的对话让我们认识了第一位病人——他在酒后猥亵了一名11岁少女。在与医生的对话中他坦言甚至对自己的女儿也施行过猥亵。他的妻子觉得可能来这里会比较适合他,对他的精神会有帮助。此时他的脸很平静,丝毫看不出有任何精神问题。

之后我们会看到情绪喷发病人。
在自己的Cell里情绪不稳定的病人。
还有很多让人屏息的“行尸走肉”。

这位病人显然是属于“知道得太多”的类型,讨论肯尼迪,之后还讨论越南战争(S-O-VIETNAM;SOVIETNAM;SOVIET NAME)和国际形势,他的观点非常值得回味。
I'm a communist because I expound my views about the world conditions? It is the duty of every citizen to expound his views or her views of what goes on in the world. If more expounded their views about the conditions in the world, Less chaotic conditions would exist, and a nuclear war is in the offing. Because... Not what I say, not what all these warmongers or peacemongers, blab about, because all through the ages, you will find every time a new weapon was put out: They say these dreadnoughts is the end of war. They said the submarine was the end of war - what happened? The gas masks put an end to war -what happened? They got gas masks. What about these submarines that are supposed to control the seas? What happened? They got airplanes that dropped depth charges. You look through the ages, you'll find that for every new weapon put out, somebody puts out a counter-weapon. But the nuclear weapon doesn't stop because people are stockpiling. Anybody that starts stockpiling weapons... eventually uses them. They get tired of stockpiling. And then they're just like a bunch of little kids. They figure they've got toys to play with, they're going to play with those toys! But at the first chance you get, you wait till 1967 and the 1970s, you're gonna see the greatest nuclear war of all time.
你能想象这些话出自一个精神失常的精神病人之口么?

这位叫Vladimir的从监狱转到这所精神病院的年轻人让我想到了《飞越疯人院》的主人公。
D: You take a little bit some time and with medication...
慢慢来,做一点冥想。

V: But that's what I'm taking, I mean, now you give me the same story again. "We are going to help you. " May I ask just why I need this help that you are literally forcing on me?
我在做的啊!现在你又跟我讲“我们会帮助你的”,我能问为什么我需要接受这种你们强加给我的帮助?

D: I'm not forcing anything...
我没有强迫任何事情...

V: Obviously, I talk well, I think well,I am well, and you are ruining me.
很明显,我说话正常,思考正常,我很正常,而你在毁掉我。

D: May I say something? We are not forcing you - if you say "I don't want to take... "
我能澄清一下吗?我们没有在强迫你,如果你想说“我不想接受...”

V: No, no, no! I don't want to stay here, I am a prisoner.
我一点不想!我不想待在这里,我是个罪犯!

D: If you say, "I do not want to take the medication... " We agree, you do not have to take it.
如果你说“我不想冥想”,我们同意,你不一定要去接受。

V: But that's not the principle, Doctor. The principle is that I am here, obviously well and healthy and I am getting ruined. If we send me back to the prison, where I might be able to get there on the street, As I should have.
但医生,这并不是重点。重点是一个健康的我在这里在慢慢被摧毁。如果你把我送回到监狱,我今后还可能重回大街,那才是我应该得的。

D: If I send you back to prison today, you might be able to get back in the same day to Bridgewater. If we send you back to Walpole today, you're coming back tomorrow... Or maybe even tonight.
如果我把你在今天送回监狱,你非常有可能在明天,甚至今晚就被送回来。

V: But why are you so certain that I should be back tonight or tomorrow?
为什么你这么确定我会在今晚或明天被送回来?

D: Because they look at you and they know that there is something wrong.
因为他们看到你就知道哪里不对劲了。

V: But Doctor, you are saying that I would be back here tonight or tomorrow. Obviously I have been weakened since I have been here.
但是医生,你说我在今晚或明天会再回到这里。很明显我在这里之后情况越来越不好。

后来医生和Vladimir又进行了一次对话。
D:Vladimir, as I promised you before, if I see enough improvement in you...
Vladimir,我答应过你,如果我在你身上看到了改善...

V:But how can I improve when I'm getting worse. I've been trying to tell you, day by day I am getting worse. Because of the circumstances,because of the situation. Now you tell me - until you see improvement - each time I get worse! So obviously it's the treatment that I'm getting or the situation, or the place... Or the patients, or the inmates.I do not know which. I just want to go back to the prison where I belong. I was supposed to only come down here for observation. What observation did I get? You call me up a couple of times, and you say, "Well take some medication, medication for the mind. " I'm supposed to take medication if I have some bodily injury, not for the mind. My mind's fit. I'm obviously logical,I know what I'm talking about. And I am excited, yes, that's the only fault you might find with me. And I have a perfect right to be excited, I have been here for a year and a half. And this place is doing me harm. Every time I come in here, you tell me I look crazy. Now, if you don't like my face that's another story. But that has nothing to do with my mental stability. I have an emotional problem now, yes, which I did not have.
但我的情况在每况愈下的时候如何谈改善?我一直在尝试告诉你,我的情况一天不如一天,是因为这里的环境,这里的情况。你现在告诉我等我有好转的时候?我现在的情况变得越来越差!很明显是因为我所接受的治疗、这里的情况或是这个地方,或是这里的病人,囚犯。我不知道是哪个,我只想回到原本属于我的监狱。我来这里本应只是来接受观察的,我得到了什么观察?你好几次叫我过来跟我说“来,做一下冥想”,我做冥想也应该是因为我身体受了伤,而不是思想,我的思想很正常。我思想有着明显的逻辑性,我知道我在说什么,我只是有点激动,这可能是你在我身上能发现的唯一缺陷。但我有权利激动,我在这里都待了一年半了,这个地方对我很不好。每次我来这里,你都跟我说我看起来跟疯了一样。如果你不喜欢我的脸,那就另当别论,但这与我的精神稳定毫无关系。我现在有情绪上的问题,但那之前我并没有。
Vladimir的案例让我想到了一个问题:
假如有天你被抓进精神病院,你要如何证明自己没病?

看过电影《飞越疯人院》的人都知道,由Jack Nicholson扮演的、装疯来到机构治疗的的McMurphy最后失去了自己的自由意志,印第安“酋长”最后逃离了机构。Angelina Jolie在电影《换子疑云》中饰演一个丢失了儿子的母亲。腐败的洛杉矶警方给她安排了一个儿子想草草了解此案。她屡次要求警方澄清事实,帮她找回真正的儿子,却一次次受到阻挠和指责,甚至以妨碍警方公务的罪名被送入精神病院。若不是有个强有力的牧师Gustav Briegleb和其他律师、记者的帮助,她的余生可能就要在精神病院中度过了。这个故事发生在100年前的美国,而类似的故事却在我国上演。

若权力得到滥用,若民主法治只是空头支票...

没有旁白,没有参与,只有观察,只有记录,Wiseman深入Bridgewater机构内部,呈现给我们机构内部那些令人深感不适的画面。这部纪录片在1967年纽约电影节展出之前,曾因“发行问题”被禁。马萨诸塞州政府认为这部纪录片侵犯了病人的隐私和尊严——纪录片有很多病人裸体走来走去的画面,尽管Wiseman获得了所摄病人和医院负责人的同意。不过纽约州法院同意了这部记录片的发行。然而在1968年,马萨诸塞州高级法院法官Harry Kalus出于该周对病人隐私和尊严的考虑,下令召回所有的发行并销毁所有副本。Wiseman响应法院要求,在1969年,只有医生、律师、法官、医护专业人员、专业社工和该领域的学生才有资格看到这部电影。Wiseman曾上诉纽约高级法院,不过纽约高级法院对此案件已不予回应。

这部1967年摄制完成的纪录片其实跟Goffman在60年代的The Total Institution Model遥相呼应,有兴趣的可以做一些相关阅读和了解。

最后,即使你精神失常,也没人能够剥夺你思想的权利。
6 有用
0 没用
提提卡失序记事 - 豆瓣

提提卡失序记事

8.1

1177人评价

查看豆瓣评价 >

查看更多豆瓣高分电影电视剧

评论 0条

添加回应

提提卡失序记事的更多影评

推荐提提卡失序记事的豆列

了解更多电影信息

豆瓣
免费下载 iOS / Android 版客户端