影片”暴雨将至”(Before the Rain)我看了两遍,由于影片中三个故事不是以时间顺序讲述,我又心不在焉,第一遍时并未太懂,还因此迁怒导演Manchevski. 直到读到他的一篇文章,讲述此片从构思到拍摄到自己所思所想,被他优美的文笔折服,才又将”暴雨将至”重温,终于彻底看懂. 影片情节其他影评已描述得很详细讨论的很完善,我就不再赘述.只将Manchevski的这篇文章做些摘录整理.
Manchevski对此片的初步构思源自他为看望家人而从纽约返回家乡马其顿的一次旅程, 那是1991年,也是他定居纽约后六年的首次.当时的前南斯拉夫共和国尚未解体,马其顿尚属其中,但局势已处在爆发边缘,空气中都是巨大变革来临前的压力, Manchevski将它形容做”好似暴雨在降临前人们无法呼吸的压迫感”--而这也是影片名字”暴雨将至”的由来. 人们对迫在眉睫的,无法逃脱的剧变面前倍感焦虑和渺小,但也或多或少,心存期待.
"… a sense of impending doom. I am not sure doom is the right word, because it was more a feeling of impending something – a change, an explosion, something bad, but also perhaps something promising and optimistic...It felt sort of like the pressure you feel on the inside of your mouth before it rains.
I decided the best way to describe this feeling was by calling it before-the-rain feeling, like when you wait for the skies to open and bring down something hard, but also – potentially – something cleansing. Like rain."
电影真正开拍时前南斯拉夫已解体,马其顿宣布独立-- 暴雨已经落下.国内国境间擦枪走火不可避免,但没有爆发大规模战争,电影也在此复杂情势下艰难诞生.Manchevski对影片的成功感情复杂,一方面觉得辛苦有所回报,一方面害怕评论将影片按照纪录片来解读.他在文中反复强调从头到尾他的拍摄目的都于记录无关,为此他还特意将影片场景诗意化,童话化,为与纪录片区分开来. "The country was made to look like a fairy-tale land in the way it was photographed... Special effects were utilized (moon, stars). The music was quite dramatic. We even created new geography of the country... we wanted to create even more heightened reality composed solely of wonderful landscapes, a place obviously unreal, closer to a mythical land than to current-day Macedonia."
在这段叙述中,Manchevski顺便谈及了对”纪录片”(documentary film)是否真的能够”客观”(objective)的看法,而这也是全文我最喜欢的讨论.他说"纪录片"永远不可能达到完全的客观,因为:何时开拍, ,何时停止, 如何取景,如何后期剪辑,音效 -- 都取决于导演的决定,而一个取决于个人或一个团队主观意向的事物,如何能称作客观?所以不管导演多么拼命想公正,拍出的也不过是他对题材的主观理解.被人脑重新组合演绎过的信息,永远不会真正客观.换一种说法就是,也许”纪录片”根本不存在.
"Many people believe that there is no such thing as a documentary film. The moment you decide when to press the button and where to point the camera you are making a choice that affects the ‘documentary’ aspect of your creation. Not to mention editing or voice-over, that further enhance the filmmaker’s manipulation of the story. Every film is a work of fiction, no matter how hard its makers try to be objective. That’s the nature of the beast. What is ‘being objective’, after all?"
"In the first third, the country was made to look like a fairy-tale land in the way it was photographed. Blues and visuals suggestive of Byzantine art dominated the first third; the middle section was glassy, gray and milky; the third part was brown, warm, even hot, pagan: sticks, mud and grass."
最后,虽然毫不犹豫给五星但并不太推荐此片,除非你有极大热情.兴趣平平者应该会觉得影片缓慢又混乱吧 -- 比如第一次看的我.
Rainmaking and Personal Truth, Milcho Manchevski, 2000. Rethinking History, The Journal of Theory and Practic, volume 4, issue 2, page 129-134.