1. to the ends of the earth
the icy world of arctic（北极的) and antarctic（南极的）are as alien to most of us as
the surface of another planet.
they are places of superlatives(最佳的)
It has the ice caps that hold nearly 80% of our planet's fresh water.
they are like the places borrowed from fairytales.
they are the places that feed our imaginations
that is the last wilderness ( [ˈwildənis] n.荒地, 废墟) of our planet.
Nowhere is colder, windier or more hostile (恐怖的) to life
the temperature can reduce to minus 70 degree centigrade.
a race to breed before the sun departs
polar bear, the most powerful land predator is on the prowl(正在独自寻觅)
he seems to relish (享受) her scent（气味）, even though she is miles away
grunt [grʌnt]v.嘟哝；作呼噜声 n.呼噜声，嘟哝
growl [graul]v./ n.狂吠，怒吼；低声咆哮着说话，狺狺声
courting polar bears : 求爱中的北极熊
the mating moment might be the only tender encounter(遇见) in the male polar bears's
a rival suitor:
n.竞争对手 a.竞争的 vt.竞争；与…匹敌
suitor [ˈsu:tə, ˈsju:-]
courtship has to be put on hold(求爱的过程必须要先放到一边)
the male polar bear is almost spent after the courtship(not only for the mating, but
also for the bloody battles with other rival suitors )
shearwaters travel from australia to the arctic ocean and form the largest gathering
of birds in the world.
greenland is the largest island in the world, and in the middle of the island, the
ice is almost 2 miles thick. It is a bleak(凄凉的) quiet world.
sapphire-blue melt-lakes are the first sign that a dynamic process is under way.
when the water from the melt-lakes carves its way across the icy delta, it looks like
the blood flowing along the arteries of a stirring cold-blooeded monster
the melt water lubricates(润滑) the junction between the ice and the rock floor
beneath，leading the entire ice sheet sliding dowhill into the ocean.
this makes the glacier destroy everything on its drive downwards towards the sea,
even cutting its way through Greenland's great mountain ranges
this iceberg would dwarf the biggest mankind building.
the first land that can be reached from arctic is a bleak, treeless wilderness known
The trees in the treelines is crushingly(艰难的) difficult.
it could take hundreds of years for a seedling to grow into a stunted(发育不正常的)
the wolves want to ambush the bison in the woods.
the wolf pack can feed on one cub bison for several days.
each crystal forms around a particle of dust.All have a six-fold symmetry.
Each snowflake is water waiting to be released in spring.
Taiga, the forest which contaisn one-third of all the trees on Earth.
Penguins are found only in the Southern Hemishpere.
humpbacks would travel 4000 miles from the equator to the antarctic to feed, to
hearvest the richest ocean in the world.
feel the lure of the world, but the explorers were confronted(遭遇) by the highest,
driest and coldest territory on Earth.
vi.咆哮 vt.大声喝道 n.喊声[-s]风箱
weddell seals are more docile and easier to tackle.
the whale pod: 鲸群
unleash(发泄) a powerful wave:
sideswipes create violent underwater turbulence.
lunge to the seal's tail
the most southen vocalno may even be a home for hitherto unknown life forms
the wind in the antarctic are the fastest on earth, they can reach 200 miles an hour
this sculptured spire is a remnant of a mountain, eroded from all sides by the
the antarctic ice cap is 3 miles in depth and imprisons 70% of the world's fresh
ultimate in human endeavour(n.努力，尽力，尝试) and endurance
they come to the bare rock to breed.
pebbles are needed to build a decent nest.
the spring wind blowing from the center of the continent to the coast are very
ferocious(凶猛的，残暴的；极度的，十分强烈的) on the planet, which makes the spring
the deadliest season.
the den of the polar bear.
rise all the cubs to independence can be a rare achievement.
one cub is underweight(体重不足)，so it would be fortunate for it to survive.
the cub is a welcome snack, but the seals are the mainstay of his diet, cause spring
is the time for the seals to have pups(幼崽).
although it is more exposed up on the ice surface, but it is easier to see an
nine out of ten polar bear hunts end in failure.
as spring advances, the ice of the northern river begin to stir.
the dam bursts, and the river is unleashed.
millions of tons of ice grind their way downstream driven by the unstoppable force of
the vast floods of the northern river in the arctic continent contains 10% of the
world's fresh water.
soon a huge area of ice, the size of australia would vanish and give their place to
the sea water.
it is not an easy job for the mother polar bear to catch a seal with the two cubs in
the mother can be nursing for 4 months without eatting once
narwhal , the unicore of the arctic ocean.
one side concedes(让步).
what is the use of tusk of the narwhals? it is still mysteric
bizzare creatures appear as if from nowhere.They eat the tiny planktons fuelled by
the increasing warmth of the sun and is fertilised by the nutrients brought down by
the great rivers and released from the melting sea-ice.
sea gooseberry(海醋栗) strain(拉紧) the water with their stinging filaments(细丝).
Their beating cilia(纤毛) scatter the sun's rays into dazzling burst of color.
predatory sea slug flies through the water on translucent(半透明的) it is on the
trail of a swimming snail.
the most voracious of the plankton eaters are the arctic cod (鳕鱼)
for this short period the newly the combination of the strengthening sun flowing
rivers and the breaking sea ice, make the arctic ocean teem with life
by tracking the sun, arctic poppies罂粟 catch its rays around the clock.
the warmth in the flower is even more precious than nectar(甘露) if they are to stay
active in the cold.
woolly bear caterpillar does not need the warmth from the flowers to kick-start its
the caterpillar transform itself into a moth after it got enough reserves from the
plants.the caterpillar would freeze solid when winter comes, first its gut, then its
its days become frantic()
a.慌乱不安的，紧张纷乱的；发疯似的 and it starts to weave a silk cocoon(蝉茧)
the influx of life is good news for the local residents.
the wolf pack
vicious water wash the Georage island in the antarctic range.
the albatross needs 13 months to fledge (长出羽毛，成熟), after getting their fluffy
down, they would step up to the challenge of getting into the air.
as the winter storms subsides, life begin to return.
Macaroni Penguins (黄眉毛的企鹅)
the albatross's courtship has the most elaborate display
renew the bond after apart, and they can spend a further 50 years together, one of
the longest parterships in the animal world.
harem(闺房，后宫)， the harem of an elephent seal can contain 50 females, coveted（觊
觎） by others.
the rival is its equal.
when these titans crash, bones crunch.
the maiden(处女) flight is very crucial for the albatross.
the ocean beckon (召唤) the albatross.
After laying the egg, the female penguins leave the job of incubating(酿造) them to
the males while they go down the sea for fishing.
the melting ice sheet can be 150 miles long
as the season advances, the frozen surface of the ocean disintegrates.
a watery world
the polar bears will be dependent on their mother for 2 year 6 months before they
earn their own lives. + 10 months for the pregnancy.
the polar bear is hungry and searchs the ice maze(迷宫) for seals.（swims 50 miles a
In the open water, the odds are in the seal's favor
the fur of the polar bear is so dense that the water is easy to shake off. and ice
absorbs water like a towel.
the red phalaropes flow all the way from the tropics to feed in these rich arctic
waters. the tiny creatures flourish in the arctic water.
the center of the colony is hardly tranquil place to rise the young.
have a feisty(谨慎) attitute to life
in a single raid, a bear can destroy hundreds of nests.
the terns can draw blood from the polar bear's muzzle.
the ducklings（小鸭子） begins their sprint(疾跑) to new life.
snowy owl finds plenty of lemmings for his mate.
scruffy young of owls (the owlet小猫头鹰) eat two lemmings a day.
these owlets keep their parents work around the clock
the owls use their talons to resist from the skua's attack.
musk oxen are immensely powerful, and their sharp horns can kill.
so killing a musk oxen is a formidable task
for the musk oxen, it is like one for all, and all for one, and this spirit makes the
wolf's attack futile
a parent penguin, back with food, must recognizes his chick's call amongst a chorus
of 400000 birds.
when the tempture reach a sizzling 17 degrees centigrade, the penguins may get
these penguins indulge themselves with the full treatment of the spa (with glorious
for the fully feathered adult penguins, their way of staying out of the heatstroke is
cleaner and more invigorating, the bracing water of the ocean.
the sharp teeth of the seals inflict terrible injuries.
both algae and krill flourish in the summer sun.
the humpbacks drive the krill to the surface and then strain it from the water with
the baleen(恶意的) sieves（筛子） in their mouths.
the male killer whale can have a long dorsal(背部的) fin as high as 2 meters.
they fan out across the strait（海峡） in search of their quarry(猎场)
the whale beach itself(搁浅).
as the minke whale tires, the battering and biting begins.
birds caw [kɔ:]
whale squeal [skwi:l]
tempers will flare:
over a half a ton of a bear slams into another.
fight to death over the mates: 为了交配争斗到死
being marooned on land, these bears are no longer able to catch the seals under the
ice, so they just scrape whatever they can find.
polar bears delicately picking out berries from between the thorns when the ice is
gone. And they do not need to squabble over them, as there are plenty of berries.
these famous loners are revealing a social playful side in autumn.
belugas, the white whales of the north.
the belugas rely on the open water to reach an ancient rendezvous
ridding piggy-back， the baby beluga can be put on their mother's slipstream.
thousands of belugas are being drawn to one special estuary in the Canadian Arctic
for persoanl hygiene.
they flail around with enthusiasm and afte a body scrub.
the gravel acts as a loofah and thrashing their bodies across it helps to get rid of
their old skin. This treatment can keep them clean and streamlined.
before the guillemots can leave, their chicks must fledge.
he falls short and survived the crashed landing.
the chicks are manna from heaven for an Arctic fox.
n.吗哪(圣经中古以色列人经过荒野所得的神赐食物), 精神食粮, 天赐, 木蜜,甘露
Aquatic landings are gentler for the seabirds and the fox can not reach them out
the first storm from the autumn brings an unexpected bonanza for the few that remain.
the tastiest morsel of the carcase are often underwater.
everyday, over 20 000 square miles of water turn to ice as the cold spreads south.
after six months, the cubs have survived the hazards of melting sea-ice in spring and
lack of food in summer. and now they are in their element again.
the bush plants stop to produce the green pigment that harnesses the sun's energy.
And red and yellow pigments build up in their leaves.
the tundra blazes with color and the whole landscape is transformed.
the bull musk oxen breeds in the autumn. They graze the last of the summer grasses.
vi.吃青草 vt.放牧；擦伤；掠过 n.擦伤(处)
the resident must take the intruder's challenge.
this clash of polar Titans could become a fight to the death.
the impact of a rush musk oxen is like a car crash at 30 miles an hour.
a heavy skull and a helmet of horn four inches thick, these musk oxen are like the
most professional fighting athletes.
the advantage between these two fighting musk oxen ebbs and flows.and they try to
finish the duel.
ebb and flow
if one can turn the other and gore its flank, the fight is then over.
the stakes rise as the risk of injury or even death increases.
the rival is out-manoeuvred.: 对手黔驴技穷。
as the autumn approaching, the moisture in the air freezes and hoarfrost(霜)
decorates the leaves.
ice crystals are like diamonds, growing in every twig.
glassy cathedrals form ad the remaining water becomes locked up as ice.
hooves and ice are never meant to go together.
a decisive victory for the big male.
autumn in antarctic can be a particularly savage and unpredictable time.
The seal carcase is a price woth braving the surf for.
Giant petrels are the vultures of antarctic.
the word is out and the hords move in.
after the feast, it is time for a rinse and spin.
a storm is an omen about the things to come.
n./ a.后部(面，方)(的) vt.养，种
work around the clock
buoyancy control is clearly a skill that needs practice.
the great white wilderness is empty
squeeze through the narrow gaps
their colony is in the lee of icebergs trapped in the frozen ocean.
newly formed pairs promenade together.
promenade [ˌprɔməˈnɑ:d, ˈprɔmənɑ:d]
courtship of emperor penguins demands that both partners strike and hold a variety of
poses.It is an important process, as the bond between the couple will have to be an
exceptionally strong one.
The final act lacks the elegance of the prelude.
survive in the most brutal conditions on Earth.
walloping towards us
wallop [ˈwɔləp, ˈwɑ:ləp]
so there is a lot of adrenaline [ə'drenəlin]
penguins keep outsmarting us
go scuba diving
abbr. 水中呼吸器 (=Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)
catch more insulation
predator can tackle them
winter uses thick snow to smother the forest.
wolvorine has another name called glutton [ˈglʌtn]
snow can be an ally for some animals
the weasel is the vole's nemesis
a time to scrape by, to wait.
after travelling millions of miles in the space, solar winds, attracted by the
magnetic pull of the poles, collide with the earth's atmosphere.
Trillions of charged particles dance in the sky.
the Aurora Borealis
the northern lights
in the south, it is the Aurora Australis, the southern lights.
the weddel seal would also remain in the antarctic continent in the winter.
they need to rasping away fresh build-ups with special wide-gaped jaws.
swirling patterns in the water reveal the presence of the constant danger in the
antarctic ocean in the winter times. That is made by brine, super-concentrated salt
the lethal cold of winter
the female penguins return sleek and fat after fishing all winter.
the female's need for nurture remains strong, any chick that strays from its parent
is at grave risk of being kidnapped.
vi.走失；走神 a.迷路的 n.走失的家畜
the chaos may be a consequence of frustrated parental urge.
choose between dexterity or warmth.
Watching these two animals engaged in this massive life and death struggle was one
of the most powerful things I have watched in the wildhos.
all of them have been humbled by witnessing an extraordinary winter struggle for
6. the last frontier
hostile to life
Longyearbyen: the most northerly town on Earth.
the full moon shed the light into the darkness.
In Siberia, the Russian Arctic, the minerals have given rise to large cities.
Norilsk: the coldest city on Earth.
the benefits could outweigh the pain.
The Dolgan lives on the tundra of the Arctic region.and they are reindeer people
the children has to be swen into their clothes to prevent instant frostbite.
The Dolgan use reindeer fur to insulate their huts.
round up their strongest animals with lassoes
Some Inuit men live in Chukotka(the northeastern corner of Russia)
they fight their way through a dangerous maze.
the ice floes can crash their boat like eggshells
puffs of steamy air
a tow-tonne seal with formidable tusks.
the parpoon sticks firmly in the walrus's thick layer of blubber and floats attached
to it prevent the animal from diving.
n.哭号, 鲸脂, 肥胖
parcel up the meat in bags made of the animal's skin.
works his way back up the crumbling rock face.
the frozen ground never thaws to allow these arctic peopleto grow plants.
the reindeer move in the summer not only to find fresh pasture, but also to avoid the
summer swarm of bloodsucking flies. The local herders drive their reindeers to the
sea to keep them healthy.
walrus' meat has been fermenting in its skin bags for two months.
the herders barter reindeer skins for walrus meat
a fry-up of guillemot eggs is all the better when shared with old friends.
the arctic people have devised ways to deal with the hostile and changing conditions,
which have stood the test of time.
the men are totally dependent on the stamina of their dogs, which will keep on
running all through the bitter cold of the winter.
n.裂缝, 破口, 崩溃处
the Aurora Borealis were dancing spirits. Now we know it is caused by electrically
charged particles streaming from the sun attracted by the magnetic pull of the
understanding the aurora is vital
Alaska use rockets to study the Lights.
the smoke is blown by fierce winds,which are generated by the aurora.
how this unearthly spectacle affects our atmosphere.
they monitor the aurora to help protect us from its effects.
99% of the land in Antarctica are permanently blanketed by ice.Antarctica is so
utterly remote and inhospitable.
the lure of adventure still draws intrepid travellers today.
scenery in Antarctica is magnificent and dramatic.
a.戏剧的，戏剧性的 n.( pl.)戏剧作品，戏曲
creep above -30 degrees centigrade.
Steam from the vents of the vocalno is constantly sculpting this labyrinth that
extends deep under the ice.
scientists work on the very rim of Erbus crater
Scott hauled their sleds over 100 miles up a glacier, the Beardmore.
the Antarctica plateau,covered by an unbroken sheet of ice larger than Western
Europe, is the coldest, the windiest, the most lifeless place on Earth.
open up the last frontier
take their lives in their hands everyday to find the food.
the cliff can be treacherous
If he fell on that, it is absolutely horrendous.
most hardcore thing
7. on thin ice
yearly health check
anaesthetic injection from a dart gun without hurting the bear.
lolling about unconscious on the ice is not a good sign for the polar bears.
the condition of the local bear deteriorate
the pup of the ringed seal
As the ice dwindles, so the bear's chances of a successful hunt.
it is a case of sink or swim.
For the animals and people, it will be those who can adapt who will thrive in a
As the ice can reflect 90% of the sun's energy, it is called albedo effect. That is
why we see the heat haze in the Arctic even when the air feels cold.
The whole Arctic works as a huge reflector bouncing back the sun's heat into space.
The whole Arctic absorbing heat rather than reflecting it, makes it the region the
size of North America.
vi./ n.(发)隆隆声(行进) vt.察觉，识破
the running water flowing from the sappphire-blue lakes come to an abrupt end.
Mulin is a pipe through the thick ice sheet which flows lots of water through.
tonnes of water cascade down this pipe that is effectively plummeting to the depths
of the ice sheet through over a kilometer of vertical ice.
they travel back in time, 40 meters down, they reach the ice that formed from the
snow that fell 10, 000 years ago, in the last ice age.
swamp most of the world's low-lying islands.
the study of the ice retreat was unwittingly begun on an expedition led by the great
earliest expleror Ernest Shackleton
in tribute to Schackleton and his boatmen
the penguins number are in decline.
a one kilogram of pentolite explosive can be used to generate a shockwave.
record the echoes that come back from underneath the ice.
I gauge when the river is going to hit here.
8. sciences at the end of the earth.
the vegetables are grown using a system of hydroponics
Inside here is a comfortable 25 degrees Celsius
the appalling surface of the transantarctic mountains in the antarctic region.
the achievement was tainted by the fact that the Norwegian team got there first.
Scott and others perished on their return journey.
the dome was superseded. Its panels dismantled and removed without trace in 2010.
supersede [ˌsu:pəˈsi:d, ˌsju:-]
modern ground-penetrating radar which can effectively see through the ice.