2012-08-23 看过
1. to the ends of the earth

the icy world of arctic(北极的) and antarctic(南极的)are as alien to most of us as

the surface of another planet.

they are places of superlatives(最佳的)

It has the ice caps that hold nearly 80% of our planet's fresh water.

they are like the places borrowed from fairytales.

they are the places that feed our imaginations

that is the last wilderness ( [ˈwildənis] n.荒地, 废墟) of our planet.

Nowhere is colder, windier or more hostile (恐怖的) to life

the temperature can reduce to minus 70 degree centigrade.

a race to breed before the sun departs

polar bear, the most powerful land predator is on the prowl(正在独自寻觅)

he seems to relish (享受) her scent(气味), even though she is miles away

grunt [grʌnt]v.嘟哝;作呼噜声 n.呼噜声,嘟哝
snort:v.哼着鼻子说,轻蔑(或气愤)地哼 n.鼻息声
growl [graul]v./ n.狂吠,怒吼;低声咆哮着说话,狺狺声

courting polar bears : 求爱中的北极熊

the mating moment might be the only tender encounter(遇见) in the male polar bears's

solitary life.

a rival suitor:
rival [ˈraivəl]
n.竞争对手 a.竞争的 vt.竞争;与…匹敌
suitor [ˈsu:tə, ˈsju:-]

courtship has to be put on hold(求爱的过程必须要先放到一边)

the male polar bear is almost spent after the courtship(not only for the mating, but

also for the bloody battles with other rival suitors )

shearwaters travel from australia to the arctic ocean and form the largest gathering

of birds in the world.

greenland is the largest island in the world, and in the middle of the island, the

ice is almost 2 miles thick. It is a bleak(凄凉的) quiet world.

sapphire-blue melt-lakes are the first sign that a dynamic process is under way.
sapphire [ˈsæfaiə]
n.青玉,蓝宝石 a.天蓝色的

when the water from the melt-lakes carves its way across the icy delta, it looks like

the blood flowing along the arteries of a stirring cold-blooeded monster
stirring [ˈstə:riŋ]

the melt water lubricates(润滑) the junction between the ice and the rock floor

beneath,leading the entire ice sheet sliding dowhill into the ocean.

this makes the glacier destroy everything on its drive downwards towards the sea,

even cutting its way through Greenland's great mountain ranges

this iceberg would dwarf the biggest mankind building.

the first land that can be reached from arctic is a bleak, treeless wilderness known

as tundra

The trees in the treelines is crushingly(艰难的) difficult.

it could take hundreds of years for a seedling to grow into a stunted(发育不正常的)


the wolves want to ambush the bison in the woods.

the wolf pack can feed on one cub bison for several days.

each crystal forms around a particle of dust.All have a six-fold symmetry.

Each snowflake is water waiting to be released in spring.


Taiga, the forest which contaisn one-third of all the trees on Earth.

starkly(完全) different

Penguins are found only in the Southern Hemishpere.

hoot [hu:t]
v.& n.鸣笛;狂笑

Gentoo penguins

humpbacks would travel 4000 miles from the equator to the antarctic to feed, to

hearvest the richest ocean in the world.

feel the lure of the world, but the explorers were confronted(遭遇) by the highest,

driest and coldest territory on Earth.

bellow [ˈbeləu]
vi.咆哮 vt.大声喝道 n.喊声[-s]风箱

weddell seals are more docile and easier to tackle.

the whale pod: 鲸群

unleash(发泄) a powerful wave:

sideswipes create violent underwater turbulence.

lunge to the seal's tail

the most southen vocalno may even be a home for hitherto unknown life forms
hitherto [ˌhiðəˈtu:]

the wind in the antarctic are the fastest on earth, they can reach 200 miles an hour

this sculptured spire is a remnant of a mountain, eroded from all sides by the

ferocious elements
ferocious [fəˈrəuʃəs]

the antarctic ice cap is 3 miles in depth and imprisons 70% of the world's fresh


bone-chilling cold

ultimate in human endeavour(n.努力,尽力,尝试) and endurance

2. Spring

Adelie Penguin

 they come to the bare rock to breed.
pebbles are needed to build a decent nest.

the spring wind blowing from the center of the continent to the coast are very

ferocious(凶猛的,残暴的;极度的,十分强烈的) on the planet, which makes the spring

the deadliest season.

the den of the polar bear.

rise all the cubs to independence can be a rare achievement.

one cub is underweight(体重不足),so it would be fortunate for it to survive.

the cub is a welcome snack, but the seals are the mainstay of his diet, cause spring

is the time for the seals to have pups(幼崽).

although it is more exposed up on the ice surface, but it is easier to see an

approaching bear.

nine out of ten polar bear hunts end in failure.

as spring advances, the ice of the northern river begin to stir.

 the dam bursts, and the river is unleashed.

millions of tons of ice grind their way downstream driven by the unstoppable force of

the meltwater.

the vast floods of the northern river in the arctic continent contains 10% of the

world's fresh water.

soon a huge area of ice, the size of australia would vanish and give their place to

the sea water.

it is not an easy job for the mother polar bear to catch a seal with the two cubs in


fearsome hunter

the mother can be nursing for 4 months without eatting once

narwhal , the unicore of the arctic ocean.

one side concedes(让步).

what is the use of tusk of the narwhals? it is still mysteric

bizzare creatures appear as if from nowhere.They eat the tiny planktons fuelled by

the increasing warmth of the sun and is fertilised by the nutrients brought down by

the great rivers and released from the melting sea-ice.

sea gooseberry(海醋栗) strain(拉紧) the water with their stinging filaments(细丝).
Their beating cilia(纤毛) scatter the sun's rays into dazzling burst of color.
 scatter [ˈskætə]
vt.撒(播);使散开,驱散 vi.分(消)散

predatory sea slug flies through the water on translucent(半透明的) it is on the

trail of a swimming snail.

the most voracious of the plankton eaters are the arctic cod (鳕鱼)

for this short period the newly the combination of the strengthening sun flowing

rivers and the breaking sea ice, make the arctic ocean teem with life

by tracking the sun, arctic poppies罂粟 catch its rays around the clock.

the warmth in the flower is even more precious than nectar(甘露) if they are to stay

active in the cold.

woolly bear caterpillar does not need the warmth from the flowers to kick-start its


caterpillar [ˈkætəˌpilə]


the caterpillar transform itself into a moth after it got enough reserves from the

plants.the caterpillar would freeze solid when winter comes, first its gut, then its


its days become frantic()
frantic [ˈfræntik]
a.慌乱不安的,紧张纷乱的;发疯似的 and it starts to weave a silk cocoon(蝉茧)

birds chirping
chirp [tʃə:p]

the influx of life is good news for the local residents.

wolves howling
cubs yelping(咆哮)

the wolf pack

vicious water wash the Georage island in the antarctic range.

the albatross needs 13 months to fledge (长出羽毛,成熟), after getting their fluffy

down, they would step up to the challenge of getting into the air.

as the winter storms subsides, life begin to return.

Macaroni Penguins (黄眉毛的企鹅)

the albatross's courtship has the most elaborate display

renew the bond after apart, and they can spend a further 50 years together, one of

the longest parterships in the animal world.

harem(闺房,后宫), the harem of an elephent seal can contain 50 females, coveted(觊

觎) by others.
the rival is its equal.

when these titans crash, bones crunch.

the maiden(处女) flight is very crucial for the albatross.

the ocean beckon (召唤) the albatross.

After laying the egg, the female penguins leave the job of incubating(酿造) them to

the males while they go down the sea for fishing.

whale whining()

whine [wain]

3. summer

the melting ice sheet can be 150 miles long

as the season advances, the frozen surface of the ocean disintegrates.

a watery world

the polar bears will be dependent on their mother for 2 year 6 months before they

earn their own lives. + 10 months for the pregnancy.

the polar bear is hungry and searchs the ice maze(迷宫) for seals.(swims 50 miles a


In the open water, the odds are in the seal's favor

the fur of the polar bear is so dense that the water is easy to shake off. and ice

absorbs water like a towel.

the red phalaropes flow all the way from the tropics to feed in these rich arctic

waters. the tiny creatures flourish in the arctic water.

tern: 燕鸥

the center of the colony is hardly tranquil place to rise the young.

have a feisty(谨慎) attitute to life
feisty ['faisti]
adj.易怒的, 活跃的

in a single raid, a bear can destroy hundreds of nests.

the terns can draw blood from the polar bear's muzzle.

the ducklings(小鸭子) begins their sprint(疾跑) to new life.

snowy owl finds plenty of lemmings for his mate.

scruffy young of owls (the owlet小猫头鹰) eat two lemmings a day.

these owlets keep their parents work around the clock

the owls use their talons to resist from the skua's attack.
 talon [ˈtælən]

skua ['skju:ə]

musk oxen are immensely powerful, and their sharp horns can kill.
immensely [iˈmensli]

so killing a musk oxen is a formidable task

a calf(小牛犊)

for the musk oxen, it is like one for all, and all for one, and this spirit makes the

wolf's attack futile
futile [ˈfju:tail]

a parent penguin, back with food, must recognizes his chick's call amongst a chorus

of 400000 birds.

chorus [ˈkɔ:rəs]
n.合唱队;合唱;副歌 vt.齐声说,随声附和

penguins honk

honk [hɔŋk]

when the tempture reach a sizzling 17 degrees centigrade, the penguins may get

sizzle ['sizl]
v.(油煎食物时)发出咝咝声, 嘶嘶作响
v.使 ...烧得咝咝作响

these penguins indulge themselves with the full treatment of the spa (with glorious

indulge [inˈdʌldʒ]

for the fully feathered adult penguins, their way of staying out of the heatstroke is

cleaner and more invigorating, the bracing water of the ocean.
invigorate [inˈvigəreit]

bracing [ˈbreisiŋ]

seal groans
groan [grəun]
vi./ n.呻吟,抱怨;(发出)呻吟般的声音

the sharp teeth of the seals inflict terrible injuries.
inflict [inˈflikt]

both algae and krill flourish in the summer sun.

the humpbacks drive the krill to the surface and then strain it from the water with

the baleen(恶意的) sieves(筛子) in their mouths.

the male killer whale can have a long dorsal(背部的) fin as high as 2 meters.

they fan out across the strait(海峡) in search of their quarry(猎场)

the whale beach itself(搁浅).

as the minke whale tires, the battering and biting begins.
batter [ˈbætə]
v.连续猛击 n.(用鸡蛋等调制的)面糊

birds caw [kɔ:]
n.& vi.乌鸦叫(声)

whale squeal [skwi:l]
n.& v.长而尖的叫声

dinghy [ˈdiŋgi]

cautious [ˈkɔ:ʃəs]

3. autumn
tempers will flare:

over a half a ton of a bear slams into another.
slam [slæm]
v.砰地关上(放下);猛烈抨击 n.砰的一声

fight to death over the mates: 为了交配争斗到死

maroon [məˈru:n]

being marooned on land, these bears are no longer able to catch the seals under the

ice, so they just scrape whatever they can find.

turn vegetarin.

polar bears delicately picking out berries from between the thorns when the ice is

gone. And they do not need to squabble over them, as there are plenty of berries.

squabble [ˈskwɔbəl]

these famous loners are revealing a social playful side in autumn.

boisterous [ˈbɔistərəs]

belugas, the white whales of the north.

the belugas rely on the open water to reach an ancient rendezvous

ride piggy-back

ridding piggy-back, the baby beluga can be put on their mother's slipstream.

slipstream ['slipˌstri:m]

thousands of belugas are being drawn to one special estuary in the Canadian Arctic

for persoanl hygiene.
estuary [ˈestʃuəri]

hygiene [ˈhaidʒi:n]

they flail around with enthusiasm and afte a body scrub.

the gravel acts as a loofah and thrashing their bodies across it helps to get rid of

their old skin. This treatment can keep them clean and streamlined.
gravel [ˈgrævəl]
loofah ['lu:fə]
n. 丝瓜
thrash [θræʃ]

bliss [blis]

before the guillemots can leave, their chicks must fledge.
guillemot ['gilimɔt]

stubby wings

he falls short and survived the crashed landing.

the chicks are manna from heaven for an Arctic fox.

 manna ['mænə]
n.吗哪(圣经中古以色列人经过荒野所得的神赐食物), 精神食粮, 天赐, 木蜜,甘露

Aquatic landings are gentler for the seabirds and the fox can not reach them out


the first storm from the autumn brings an unexpected bonanza for the few that remain.

bonanza [bəˈnænzə]

carcase [kɔ:ps]

the tastiest morsel of the carcase are often underwater.

 morsel [ˈmɔ:səl]


everyday, over 20 000 square miles of water turn to ice as the cold spreads south.

after six months, the cubs have survived the hazards of melting sea-ice in spring and

lack of food in summer. and now they are in their element again.
hazard [ˈhæzəd]
n.危险,公害 vt.尝试着做;冒…风险

the bush plants stop to produce the green pigment that harnesses the sun's energy.

And red and yellow pigments build up in their leaves.

the tundra blazes with color and the whole landscape is transformed.
blaze [bleiz]
vi.熊熊燃烧;发光;迸发 n.火焰;光辉

the bull musk oxen breeds in the autumn. They graze the last of the summer grasses.

graze [greiz]
vi.吃青草 vt.放牧;擦伤;掠过 n.擦伤(处)

the resident must take the intruder's challenge.

intruder [inˈtru:də]

this clash of polar Titans could become a fight to the death.
clash [klæʃ]
vi.冲突;不协调;砰地相撞 n.冲突;不协调

the impact of a rush musk oxen is like a car crash at 30 miles an hour.

a heavy skull and a helmet of horn four inches thick, these musk oxen are like the

most professional fighting athletes.

the advantage between these two fighting musk oxen ebbs and flows.and they try to

finish the duel.

ebb and flow
duel [ˈdju:əl]

if one can turn the other and gore its flank, the fight is then over.
gore [gɔ:]
flank [flæŋk]
n.肋,(动物的)侧边;侧翼 vt.位于…的侧面

the stakes rise as the risk of injury or even death increases.
stake [steik]
n.桩;利害关系,股份;赌注 vt.打赌

the rival is out-manoeuvred.: 对手黔驴技穷。

as the autumn approaching, the moisture in the air freezes and hoarfrost(霜)

decorates the leaves.

ice crystals are like diamonds, growing in every twig.
twig [twig]

glassy cathedrals form ad the remaining water becomes locked up as ice.

caribou [ˈkæribu:]

hooves and ice are never meant to go together.
hoof [hu:f]

frisky [ˈfriski]

decisive [diˈsaisiv]

a decisive victory for the big male.

autumn in antarctic can be a particularly savage and unpredictable time.

 The seal carcase is a price woth braving the surf for.

Giant petrels are the vultures of antarctic.

vulture [ˈvʌltʃə]

the word is out and the hords move in.

horde [hɔ:d]

after the feast, it is time for a rinse and spin.

rinse [rins]
v.漂洗,冲洗 n.漂(冲)洗;染发剂
spin [spin]
v.旋转;晕眩;纺,织;甩干 n.旋转

a storm is an omen about the things to come.

omen [ˈəumən]

rear [riə]
n./ a.后部(面,方)(的) vt.养,种

work around the clock

buoyancy control is clearly a skill that needs practice.
buoyancy ['bɔiənsi]
n.浮力, 弹性,心情愉快

the great white wilderness is empty

squeeze through the narrow gaps

toboggan [tə'bɔgən]
v.乘长雪橇滑行, 骤跌

their colony is in the lee of icebergs trapped in the frozen ocean.

lee [li:]

newly formed pairs promenade together.
promenade [ˌprɔməˈnɑ:d, ˈprɔmənɑ:d]
n.& v.散步,开车兜风

courtship of emperor penguins demands that both partners strike and hold a variety of

poses.It is an important process, as the bond between the couple will have to be an

exceptionally strong one.

emperor [ˈempərə]

The final act lacks the elegance of the prelude.
prelude [ˈprelju:d]


ordeal [ɔ:ˈdi:l]

survive in the most brutal conditions on Earth.

walloping towards us
wallop [ˈwɔləp, ˈwɑ:ləp]
v.& n.重击,猛打

so there is a lot of adrenaline [ə'drenəlin]

hassle ['hæsl]
n.困难, 争吵
penguins keep outsmarting us

outsmart [aut'smɑ:t]

go scuba diving
scuba ['skju:bə]
abbr. 水中呼吸器 (=Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)

enchanting [inˈtʃɑ:ntiŋ]

belly flop

5. winter.

plunging temperature:
 plunge [plʌndʒ]
v./ n.(纵身)投入(水);猛冲;猛跌,骤降

catch more insulation

predator can tackle them

yearling ['jiəliŋ]
n.一岁的动物, 一岁马

winter uses thick snow to smother the forest.

raven [ˈreivən]
n.渡鸦 vi.抢劫;贪食


wolvorine has another name called glutton [ˈglʌtn]

snow can be an ally for some animals

insulator [ˈinsjuleitə]

vole [vəul]

the weasel is the vole's nemesis
nemesis [ˈnemisis]


a time to scrape by, to wait.
scrape by


aurora [ɔ:ˈrɔ:rə]

after travelling millions of miles in the space, solar winds, attracted by the

magnetic pull of the poles, collide with the earth's atmosphere.

Trillions of charged particles dance in the sky.

the Aurora Borealis
the northern lights
adj. 北的

in the south, it is the Aurora Australis, the southern lights.

the weddel seal would also remain in the antarctic continent in the winter.

they need to rasping away fresh build-ups with special wide-gaped jaws.

sponge [spʌndʒ]
n.海绵 vt.用湿海绵(或布)擦,揩

swirling patterns in the water reveal the presence of the constant danger in the

antarctic ocean in the winter times. That is made by brine, super-concentrated salt

brine [brain]
n.盐水, 海水

the lethal cold of winter

the female penguins return sleek and fat after fishing all winter.
sleek [sli:k]

the female's need for nurture remains strong, any chick that strays from its parent

is at grave risk of being kidnapped.
stray [strei]
vi.走失;走神 a.迷路的 n.走失的家畜
nurture [ˈnə:tʃə]
vt./ n.养育,培育,滋养

the chaos may be a consequence of frustrated parental urge.
frustrate [frʌˈstreit]

choose between dexterity or warmth.

aerial team
aerial [ˈeəriəl]
a.飞机(航空)的;空中的 n.天线

Watching these two animals engaged in this massive life and death struggle was one

of the most powerful things I have watched in the wildhos.

all of them have been humbled by witnessing an extraordinary winter struggle for

humble [ˈhʌmbəl]
a.谦逊的;卑贱的;简陋的 vt.使谦恭

dexterity [dekˈsteriti]

6. the last frontier

hostile to life
hostile [ˈhɔstail]

Longyearbyen: the most northerly town on Earth.

the full moon shed the light into the darkness.

In Siberia, the Russian Arctic, the minerals have given rise to large cities.

Norilsk: the coldest city on Earth.

the benefits could outweigh the pain.

The Dolgan lives on the tundra of the Arctic region.and they are reindeer people

the children has to be swen into their clothes to prevent instant frostbite.

The Dolgan use reindeer fur to insulate their huts.
insulate [ˈinsjuleit]

round up their strongest animals with lassoes

lasso [læˈsu:]

Some Inuit men live in Chukotka(the northeastern corner of Russia)
they fight their way through a dangerous maze.
maze [meiz]

the ice floes can crash their boat like eggshells

puffs of steamy air

puff [pʌf]
v.喘气;抽烟;喷出 n.(抽)一口烟;喘息

a tow-tonne seal with formidable tusks.
formidable [ˈfɔ:midəbəl]

walrus [ˈwɔ:lrəs]
the parpoon sticks firmly in the walrus's thick layer of blubber and floats attached

to it prevent the animal from diving.
harpoon [hɑ:ˈpu:n]

blubber ['blʌbə]
v.哭号, 痛哭流涕
n.哭号, 鲸脂, 肥胖

parcel up the meat in bags made of the animal's skin.
parcel up
vt. 打包(捆扎)

walrus-skin boat

guillemot ['gilimɔt]

works his way back up the crumbling rock face.
crumble [ˈkrʌmbl]
vt.弄碎 vi.崩溃,瓦解

the frozen ground never thaws to allow these arctic peopleto grow plants.
thaw [θɔ:]
v.(使)融化;(使)变得友善 n.融化;缓和

the reindeer move in the summer not only to find fresh pasture, but also to avoid the

summer swarm of bloodsucking flies. The local herders drive their reindeers to the

sea to keep them healthy.

pasture [ˈpɑ:stʃə]
n.牧草地,牧场 vt.放牧

walrus' meat has been fermenting in its skin bags for two months.
ferment [fəˈment]
v.& n.使发酵,骚动

the herders barter reindeer skins for walrus meat
barter [ˈbɑ:tə]
a fry-up of guillemot eggs is all the better when shared with old friends.

the arctic people have devised ways to deal with the hostile and changing conditions,

which have stood the test of time.

devise [diˈvaiz]

patrol [pəˈtrəul]
v.巡逻,巡查 n.巡逻,巡查;巡逻队

the men are totally dependent on the stamina of their dogs, which will keep on

running all through the bitter cold of the winter.

stamina [ˈstæminə]

crevasse [krə'væs]
n.裂缝, 破口, 崩溃处

the Aurora Borealis were dancing spirits. Now we know it is caused by electrically

charged particles streaming from the sun attracted by the magnetic pull of the

Earth's poles.

understanding the aurora is vital
vital [ˈvaitl]

Alaska use rockets to study the Lights.

the smoke is blown by fierce winds,which are generated by the aurora.

how this unearthly spectacle affects our atmosphere.
spectacle [ˈspektəkəl]
n.(大规模)场面;壮观[ pl.]眼镜

they monitor the aurora to help protect us from its effects.

99% of the land in Antarctica are permanently blanketed by ice.Antarctica is so

utterly remote and inhospitable.

splendor [ˈsplendə]

the lure of adventure still draws intrepid travellers today.
intrepid [inˈtrepid]

scenery in Antarctica is magnificent and dramatic.
magnificent [mægˈnifisənt]
dramatic [drəˈmætik]
a.戏剧的,戏剧性的 n.( pl.)戏剧作品,戏曲

international treaty

nimble [ˈnimbəl]

creep above -30 degrees centigrade.
creep [kri:p]

Steam from the vents of the vocalno is constantly sculpting this labyrinth that

extends deep under the ice.

labyrinth [ˈlæbərinθ]

scientists work on the very rim of Erbus crater
rim [rim]
n.(圆形物体的)边,缘 vt.绕...边缘
crater [ˈkreitə]

cling film
n. 食品薄膜

Scott hauled their sleds over 100 miles up a glacier, the Beardmore.

haul [hɔ:l]
vt./ n.(用力)拖,拉;(用车等)拖运,运送

the Antarctica plateau,covered by an unbroken sheet of ice larger than Western

Europe, is the coldest, the windiest, the most lifeless place on Earth.

plateau [ˈplætəu]

stargazer ['stɑ:ˌgeizə]
n.空想家,占星师,天文学家, 看星星的人

open up the last frontier

take their lives in their hands everyday to find the food.
intestine [inˈtestin]

the cliff can be treacherous
 treacherous [ˈtretʃərəs]

If he fell on that, it is absolutely horrendous.
horrendous [hɔˈrendəs]

sketchy [ˈsketʃi]

most hardcore thing

7. on thin ice

Norwegian team
yearly health check

anaesthetic injection from a dart gun without hurting the bear.
n.麻醉剂, 麻醉
anesthetic [ˌænisˈθetik]

lolling about unconscious on the ice is not a good sign for the polar bears.
loll [lɔl]

the condition of the local bear deteriorate
deteriorate [diˈtiəriəreit]

apprehensive [ˌæpriˈhensiv]

the pup of the ringed seal

As the ice dwindles, so the bear's chances of a successful hunt.

it is a case of sink or swim.

blanket toss

For the animals and people, it will be those who can adapt who will thrive in a

changing Arctic.

As the ice can reflect 90% of the sun's energy, it is called albedo effect. That is

why we see the heat haze in the Arctic even when the air feels cold.

The whole Arctic works as a huge reflector bouncing back the sun's heat into space.

The whole Arctic absorbing heat rather than reflecting it, makes it the region the

size of North America.

rumble [ˈrʌmbl]
vi./ n.(发)隆隆声(行进) vt.察觉,识破

the running water flowing from the sappphire-blue lakes come to an abrupt end.
abrupt [əˈbrʌpt]

Mulin is a pipe through the thick ice sheet which flows lots of water through.
tonnes of water cascade down this pipe that is effectively plummeting to the depths

of the ice sheet through over a kilometer of vertical ice.

moulin [mu:'læn]

they travel back in time, 40 meters down, they reach the ice that formed from the

snow that fell 10, 000 years ago, in the last ice age.

swamp most of the world's low-lying islands.

the study of the ice retreat was unwittingly begun on an expedition led by the great

earliest expleror Ernest Shackleton

in tribute to Schackleton and his boatmen

the penguins number are in decline.

a one kilogram of pentolite explosive can be used to generate a shockwave.
pentolite ['pentəlait]
n. 烈性炸药

record the echoes that come back from underneath the ice.

I gauge when the river is going to hit here.
gauge [geidʒ]
n.测量仪表;直径;规格 vt.估计;计量

8. sciences at the end of the earth.

the vegetables are grown using a system of hydroponics
hydroponic [ˌhaidrə'pɔnik]
adj. 水栽法的

Inside here is a comfortable 25 degrees Celsius


meteorology [mi:tiəˈrɔlədʒi]

specimen [ˈspesəmən]


the appalling surface of the transantarctic mountains in the antarctic region.
appalling [əˈpɔ:liŋ]


the achievement was tainted by the fact that the Norwegian team got there first.

Scott and others perished on their return journey.

the dome was superseded. Its panels dismantled and removed without trace in 2010.

supersede [ˌsu:pəˈsi:d, ˌsju:-]

modern ground-penetrating radar which can effectively see through the ice.
penetrate [ˈpenitreit]

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