知识卡片

Platero y yo
2007-05-25 看过
考据癖如我,边看片子边看剧本边google或wiki整出来的东西,本来只是for my information而已,很不系统,九牛一毛,主要是第二,三季中提到的一些话题或语句。

12. Non-binding Resolution

  A non-binding resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body that cannot progress into a law. The substance of the resolution can be anything that can normally be proposed as a motion.
  
  This type of resolution is often used to express the body's approval or disapproval of something which they cannot otherwise vote on,[1] due to the matter being handled by another jurisdiction, or being protected by a constitution. An example would be a resolution of support for a nation's troops in battle, which carries no legal weight, but is adopted for moral support.
  
   Use
  Non-binding resolutions are usually specific simple or concurrent resolutions that are not passed on to the president to be signed in to law.[2] These resolutions differ from pure concurrent resolutions (that are used for various procedural requests such as adjourning sessions) in that they are designed to formally express and document opinions, not initiate a process.
  
  These resolutions offer a means for elected officials to publicly air the concerns of their constituents[3] and are closely followed by major media outlets. Additionally, these resolutions can be used to state the position of congress, showing a preview of how they will vote on future legislation and budget allocations.

11.KeyWord: Ways and Means Committee

In the English Parliament (later the British Parliament and UK Parliament) between 1641 and 1967, proposals for raising taxation originated in the Committee of Ways and Means, where they were initiated by a Government minister. The committee was copied by the legislature of the United States where it currently exists as the powerful U.S. House Committee on Ways and Means.

With effect from 1967 that Committee was abolished. The Chairman of Ways and Means presided over that Committee; and though Speakers have sometimes presided at Budgets since abolition of the Committee (as, for example, in 1968 and 1989), the Chairman does still generally occupy the chair during the speech.

The Chairman of Ways and Means is the title given to the Deputy Speaker who is appointed on a motion tabled at the beginning of each Parliament by the Leader of the House. The Chairman of Ways and Means has two deputies: the 1st and 2nd Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means. Thus there are three deputy Speakers who may take the Chair in the place of the Speaker.

In the British Parliament, the Speaker and his deputies are considered independent and as such they do not normally vote, except for casting votes, and they are not included in the figures of party strengths within the House of Commons.

The term "Ways and Means" refers to the provision of revenue to meet national expenditure and to forward the objectives of economic policy. Ways and Means are principally provided by the imposition of taxation - the Budget resolutions are Ways and Means resolutions, upon which the Finance Bill is based - but also by the raising of loans and provision made as occasion arises for the payment of sums into the Consolidated Fund or the National Loans Fund.


10.KeyWord:Giselle

在《West Wing3》中,Sam告诉Josh黄石国家公园发生大火。Josh一本正经地问他要去灭火吗,Sam则一本正经地回答说自己不是专业消防员,然后随口说自己小时候倒是想当消防员。这时Josh也顺嘴说他小时候想当芭蕾舞演员。过后Josh意识到说漏嘴了,于是警告Sam不要把芭蕾舞演员的事说出去。过了几幕,CJ要找Tony单独说话,但Josh正好在旁边。于是CJ低声对Josh说:Giselle~,果然很见效,Josh立刻就走了。

Giselle是一个著名的浪漫主义时期的芭蕾剧的名字,也是剧中女主角的名字。剧情是由Slavs神话改编而来的,它的内容梗概为:
In the first act, a young, innocent village maiden named Giselle is in love with a man she knows only as Loys. In reality, the man is Albrecht, a nobleman disguised as a peasant, and who is betrothed to Bathilde, daughter of the Duke. When Giselle discovers the deceit, she is inconsolable and goes mad, then dies of a broken heart. In the second act, her undying love for Albrecht saves him from the wicked magic of the wilis, vampiric ghosts of betrothed girls who have died before their wedding day. Though their leader, Myrtha, Queen of the Wilis, forces Albrecht to dance again and again, Giselle intervenes long enough to spare his strength and allow him to survive until the dawn. At sunrise, wilis must return to their grave; Giselle must return as well but not before showing Albrecht that she forgives him for his treachery. The two pledge their love to each other and she descends back into her grave, but will forever be separated. Giselle is now a wili for the rest of eternity.

Slavs神话是3000年前由东欧起源的神话传说,在这个神话里,上帝让魔鬼用大海海底的沙子建成陆地。而作为一个宗教,Slavs是一个二重体系。它有两个神:黑上帝管诅咒,白上帝管仁慈;另外雷火神也占重要地位。

关于Slavs里的精灵,这里着重介绍一下:

歌声甜美的Wila
In Polish mythology, the Wila (VEE-lah) are believed to be female fairy-like spirits who live in the wilderness and sometimes clouds. They were believed to be the spirits of women who had been frivolous in their lifetimes and now floated between here and the afterlife. They sometimes appear as the swans, snakes, horses, falcons, or wolves that they can shapeshift into but usually appear as beautiful maidens, naked or dressed in white with long flowing hair.

It is said that if even one of these hairs is plucked, the Wila will die, or be forced to change back to her true shape. A human may gain the control of a Wila by stealing feathers from her wings. Once she gets them back, however, she will disappear. (Compare Swan maiden.)

The voices of the Wila are as beautiful as the rest of them, and one who hears them loses all thoughts of food, drink or sleep, sometimes for days. Despite their feminine charms, however, the Wila are fierce warriors. The earth is said to shake when they do battle. They have healing and prophetic powers and are sometimes willing to help human beings. At other times they lure young men to dance with them, which according to their mood can be a very good or very bad thing for the lad. They ride on horses or deer when they hunt with their bows and arrows and will kill any man who defies them or breaks his word. Fairy rings of deep thick grass are left where they have danced which should never be trod upon (bad luck).

Offerings for Wila consist of round cakes, ribbons, fresh fruits and vegetables or flowers left at sacred trees and wells and at fairy caves.

捉弄旅行者的Vila
The Vila, or Willi or Veela, are the Slavic versions of nymphs, who have power over storms, which they delight in sending down on lonely travelers. They are known to live in meadows, ponds, oceans, trees, and clouds (cf. Leimakids, Limnades, Oceanids, Dryads, Nephele). They can appear as swans, horses, wolves, or, of course, beautiful women.

The Vilia is the Celtic version of this woodland spirit. She enjoys captivating passing men with her beauty, but then abandoning them. In a love song titled Vilia, from "The Merry Widow" by Lehar and Ross, a hunter pines for Vilia, "the witch of the wood".

女吸血鬼Wili
Among the Slavic creatures of folklore, for the English-speaking world the wilis are indelibly connected with the Romantic ballet Giselle, first danced in Paris in 1840, with its spectral wilis, young girls who have died on their wedding days, who almost snatch away the hero's life-breath, but must disappear at the break of dawn.

These wilis have been adapted from a poem of Heinrich Heine, who claimed to be using a Slavic legend. Meyer's Konversationslexikon defines Wiles or Wilis as female vampires, the spirits of betrothed girls who die before their wedding night. According to Heine, wilis are unable to rest in their graves because they could not satisfy their passion for dancing when they were alive. They therefore gather on the highway at midnight to lure young men and dance them to their death. In Serbia they were maidens cursed by God; in Bulgaria they were known as samovily, girls who died before they were baptized; and in Poland they are beautiful young girls floating in the air atoning for frivolous past lives.

湖中魂魄Rusałka
In Slavic mythology, a Rusałka was a female ghost, water nymph, succubus or mermaid-like demon that dwelled in a lake. She was considered a being of the unclean force or нечистая сила (nechistaya sila). The ghostly version is the soul of a young woman who had died in or near a lake (many of these rusalki had been murdered by lovers) and came to haunt that lake; this undead Rusałka is not invariably malevolent, and will be allowed to die in peace if her death is avenged. In most versions, the Rusałka is an unquiet dead being. According to Zelenin, people who die violently and before their time, such as young women who commit suicide because they have been jilted by their lovers, or unmarried women who are pregnant out of wedlock, must live out their designated time on earth (срок, srok) as a spirit. Another theory is that rusalki are the female spirits of the unclean dead; this includes suicides, unbaptized babies, and those who die without last rites. (Under this theory male unclean dead were said to become vodianoi).

深水精灵Vodianoi
The vodianoi is a male water spirit of Slavic origin. He is viewed to be particularly malevolent, existing almost exclusively to drown swimmers who have angered him by their boldness. Reports of his appearance vary; some tales define him as a naked old man, bloated and hairy, covered in slime, covered in scales, or simply as an old peasant with a red shirt and beard. He is also reported to have the ability to transform into a fish.

The vodianoi lives in deep pools, often by a mill, and is said to be the spirit of unclean male dead (this definition includes those who have committed suicide, unbaptized children, and those who die without last rites). As previously stated, the vodianoi would drown those who angered him with boasts or insults. However, this was no certain protection, as the spirit was particularly capricious. Peasants feared the vodianoi and would often attempt to get rid of the spirit or, failing that, appease him.

The only people who were generally safe from the vodianoi's anger were millers and fishermen. Millers in particular were viewed to be so close to the vodianoi that they often became seen as sorcerous figures. This may be influenced by the belief that millers yearly drown a drunk passerby as an offering to the vodianoi. Fishermen were somewhat less suspect, offering only the first of their catch with an incantation. If a vodianoi favored a fisherman he would herd fish into the nets. [1]

The Czech and Slovak equivalent is called a vodník. A similar figure appears in German mythology as a Wasserman or nix.

风雪女神Sky Women
In Polish mythology, sky women were the warm-weather incarnations of the rusalki. Slavic women would go out in the first snowfall and build snow women to honor them, as snow is believed to be brought by the sky women. One belief has it that the thunder and lightning of springtime are brought on by Sky Women mating with the thunder gods; hence spring festivals included a celebration of the return of the rusalki from the waters with the placing of wreaths on the waters, and with circle dances and fire festivals.


9. KEYWORD: line-item veto

In government, the line-item veto is the power of an executive to nullify or "cancel" specific provisions of a bill, usually budget appropriations, without vetoing the entire legislative package. The line-item vetoes are usually subject to the possibility of legislative override as are traditional vetoes.


8. KEYWORD: ERA

ERA是Equal Rights Amendment 的缩写。具体来说,它主张的是:Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex。所以它相当于是一个妇女平等权利和义务修正案,而它也是一个备受争议,至今仍未批准通过的宪法修正案。不要从字面上以为广大美国劳动妇女都积极拥护支持它,因为它不光使得男女权利平等,也使得男女义务平等。一方面它能够促进女性在许多社会领域获得更平等的机会;另一方面它无视男女天生的差异,尤其在劳工、军役等对女性有特别保护的领域里,它大大削弱了女性的权益。


7. KEYWORD:Mary Jane

大麻的俗称。


6. KEYWORD: ALMA MATER

指母校。Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother". It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary.
This term is taken from the motto ("Alma Mater Studiorum") of the oldest European university, the University of Bologna, in Italy, founded in A.D. 1088, and located in the city of Bologna.
In many modern languages it is usually and principally heard as a term of academia; thus, in the English language, it is used as a sobriquet for the university or college a person has attended. In American English, it is also heard in reference to a high school or elementary school.


5. KEYWORD: Bob Marley ,Wailers

Bob marley is a reggae singer, songwriter, guitarist. Wailers is a musical group founded by Bob Marley. 他和他的组合信仰一种宗教叫astafarianism. 这种宗教遵循一种严格的规定:他们拒绝酒精和毒品,但是崇拜大麻,他们认为大麻是一种圣草能够给人以启迪。这就是为什么Josh和刚刚对外流露支持大麻合法化意向的卫生部长的对话:

JOSH
Did you know that 69% of Americans oppose legalization? Only 23% support it.

DR. GRIFFITH
The number gets a lot higher than that if you ask people under 30.

JOSH
Well, that's a shock. Did you know that the number gets even higher than that if youlimit the polling sample to Bob Marley ad the Whalers?


4. KEYWORD: FILIBUSTER

以前对这个词的理解仅仅是单词书上那个莫名奇妙的解释“阻碍议案通过”。这才知道原来它是这么的搞笑。

filibuster是最大化地利用了“议员在议会上发言,想说多久就可以说多久”这个规矩,片中的老议员为了抗议政府没有给自闭症儿童拨款,站在讲台上夜以继日不眠不休不上厕所地发言(读菜谱,狄更斯,打牌规则等等...),这样拖延时间,使议会无法进行下面的议程。本来看片时有点儿怀疑此招的真实性,后来查了一下才发现真实生活中还有更有光泽、更持久的议员。最长的个人演讲历史纪录创造于1957年,一位议员为反对民权法在讲台上说了足足24小时18分钟。当然还有更有组织有纪律的filibuster,那就是一帮子议员联合起来拖时间:你方唱罢我登场。众人拾柴火焰高,这个法子显然更有效。下面是wiki上列举的许多filibuster的案例:

In 1789, the first U.S. Senate adopted rules allowing the Senate "to move the previous question," ending debate and proceeding to a vote. In 1806, Aaron Burr argued that the motion regarding the previous question was redundant, had only been exercised once in the preceding four years [4], and should be eliminated. The Senate agreed, and thus the potentiality for a filibuster sprang into being. Because the Senate created no alternative mechanism for terminating debate, the filibuster became an option for delay and blocking of floor votes.
The filibuster remained a solely theoretical option until 1841, when the Democratic minority tried to block a bank bill favored by the Whig majority by using this political tactic. Senator Henry Clay, a promoter of the bill, threatened to change Senate rules to allow the majority to close debate. Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton rebuked Clay for trying to stifle the Senate's right to unlimited debate and he was unsuccessful in eliminating the filibuster with a simple majority vote.
In 1917 a rule allowing for the cloture of debate (ending a filibuster) was adopted by the Democratic Senate[5] at the urging of President Woodrow Wilson.[6] From 1917 to 1949, the requirement for cloture was two-thirds of those voting.


3. KEYWORD: LSD

应该是迷幻药的意思。Lsd is the abbreviation for lysergic acid diethylamide, a synthetic hallucinogenic drug discovered by Albert Hofmann in 1938. By disrupting the action of serotonin in the brain, LSD produces markedly abnormal behavior, including psychotic episodes that can last anywhere from hours to several days. The drug is usually administered through the tongue, although it can be absorbed through any of the mucous membranes.


2. KeyWord: Algonquin Round Table

The Algonquin Round Table was a group of New York City writers, critics, actors and wits that met from 1919 until about 1929, though its legacy endured long afterward.
They met for lunch every day at a round table at the Algonquin Hotel and traded quips; many of these sayings are still repeated today. The group began meeting in June 1919 when several of its members returned from World War I where they met on the Army newspaper Stars and Stripes.


1. KeyWord:Puerto Rico,statehood,commonwealth:

波多黎各原为印第安人居住地。1493年C.哥伦布航行至此。1509年沦为西班牙殖民地。1869年波多黎各人民起义,宣布成立共和国,遭西班牙殖民军镇压。1897年实现内部自治。1898年美西战争后成为美国殖民地。1917年美国把“美国公民籍”加于波多黎各人民。1950年人民武装起义,宣布成立波多黎各共和国。1952年美国给予波多黎各自由联邦的地位,实行自治,但外交、国防、关税等重要部门由美国控制。1977年美国总统G.R.福特向国会提交了《1977年波多黎各立州法》,主张把波多黎各变成美国的第51州。1982年11月R.W.里根总统发表声明,支持波多黎各成为美国的一个州。1993年11月,波多黎各再次就与美国的关系举行全民公决,结果多数人仍主张维持美国的自由联邦地位。1992年佩得罗·罗塞洛当选为总督。根据1952年由美国制定的宪法,总督为最高行政长官,由选举产生,任期4年,下设部长会议。美国国会有权废除波多黎各议会通过的法律。议会分参、众两院。该岛选举出地方专员常驻美国国会,但只能在众院委员会参加表决。主要政党有:①人民民主党,执政党。成立于1938年。主张维持波多黎各“自由联邦”地位,要求在美国主权下成立地方自治政府。②新进步党,1967年成立。主张波多黎各成为美国的一个州。③波多黎各独立党,1946年成立。主张波多黎各独立,建立社会主义民主共和国。
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