死亡诗社 死亡诗社 9.0分

死亡诗社里的一段话,四首诗

woodyallen
2006-12-24 看过
写在诗社”宝书”的扉页上的那段话来自美国作家THOREAU(1818-1862)的《瓦尔登湖》.

1845年,28岁的THOREAU在好友EMERSON的林地里的WALDEN湖畔盖了座木屋住下,此后两年多里他过着清心寡欲,自给自足的生活,并时常记下自己的所思所想所悟,于是就有了这样一本书.

中文版里徐迟的本子算是最最有名的了(上海译文和吉林人民出版社都出过,包装不同,内容是一样的).个人以为这样的书非徐迟这样有底气又有定力的老一辈学者(我见过他的照片,一个清澄平和的老人)不能译.毕竟是150多年前的文章了,而且讲的又是”人如何通过纯感官与具有神性的大自然交流沟通”的超验主义问题,不实际得一塌糊涂,不和时宜得一塌糊涂.现在的译者心都比较活泼,对待此类作品的态度怕只会是句简单的”理你都傻”.

I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to practise resignation, unless it was quite necessary. I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner, and reduce it to its lowest terms, and, if it proved to be mean, why then to get the whole and genuine meanness of it, and publish its meanness to the world; or if it were sublime, to know it by experience, and be able to give a true account of it in my next excursion. For most men, it appears to me, are in a strange uncertainty about it, whether it is of the devil or of God, and have somewhat hastily concluded that it is the chief end of man here to "glorify God and enjoy him forever."

Henry David Thoreau:Walden,or Life in the Woods

我到林中去,因为我希望谨慎地生活,只面对生活的基本事实,看看我是否学得到生活要教育我的东西,免得到了临死的时候,才发现我根本就没有生活过。我不希望度过非生活的生活,生活是那样的可爱;我却也不愿意去修行过隐逸的生活,除非是万不得已。我要生活得深深地把生命的精髓都吸到,要生活得稳稳当当,生活得斯巴达式的,以便根除一切非生活的东西,划出一块刈割的面积来,细细地刈割或修剪,把生活压缩到一个角隅里去,把它缩小到最低的条件中,如果它被证明是卑微的,那么就把那真正的卑微全部认识到,并把它的卑微之处公布于世界;或者,如果它是崇高的,就用切身的经历来体会它,在我下一次远游时,也可以作出一个真实的报道。因为,我看,大多数人还确定不了他们的生活是属于魔鬼的,还是属于上帝的呢,然而又多少有点轻率地下了判断,认为人生的主要目标是“归荣耀于神,并永远从神那里得到喜悦”。(徐迟译)

ROBIN WILLIAMS念的《哦,船长!我的船长!》是纪念大胡子林肯的,WHITMAN(1819-1892)原作,出自《草叶集:纪念林肯总统》LEAVES OF GRASS:Memories of President Lincoln.我手头没有中文译文,但问题不大,WHITMAN的诗还是挺好懂的.他活在一个人们可以自由自在地理直气壮地粗俗的时代,粗俗得纯粹,粗俗得磅礴,粗俗得欣欣向荣,粗俗得可爱之极.之后美国文学便由浪漫主义转入现实主义, 从W.D.HOWELLS到MARK TWAIN到HENRY JAMES到JACK LONDON主题渐渐深沉,情节渐渐复杂,作家那支笔也渐渐拖泥带水起来.随后的自然主义作品行文虽稍稍松了口气,主题却达到了凝重的极至.WHITMAN的时代一去不返.

O CAPTAIN! MY CAPTAIN!

O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done,
The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won,
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring;

But O heart! heart! heart!
O the bleeding drops of red,
Where on the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;
Rise up&emdash;for you the flag is flung&emdash;for you the bugle trills,
For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths&emdash;for you the shores a-crowding,
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;
Here Captain! dear father!
The arm beneath your head!
It is some dream that on the deck,
You've fallen cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still,
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will,
The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done,
From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won:
Exult O shores, and ring O bells!
But I with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

ROBERT FROST(1874-1963)的诗,我一直比较感兴趣,大三时上美国文学课,听到他和HENRY JAMES的名字时就会莫名地兴奋上好一阵子.和FAULKNER一样,FROST也算是个大器晚成的人,11岁丧父后随母迁居新英格兰,曾在哈佛求学,但学业未竟.1900-1909年,他闲居乡里,,养鸡,喝酒,种田,写诗,度过一段惬意却挺没出息的生活.1912年他去了LONDON,结识了初期意象派诗人F.S.FLINT,EZRA POUND,EDWARD THOMAS等人.1913年,他发表了第一部诗集A BOY’S WISH,从此开始了他的诗人生涯,随即一路发达:中年时担任哈佛的诗学教授,4次获得普利策奖,成为美国最负声名的诗人.FROST认为作家的职责在于说出”人民所明白却说不出来的东西”.他常以新英格兰的点点滴滴为题材作诗, 从生活中汲取象征和隐喻,并将当地的口语语言融入诗的表现风格,因此作品显的平朴而恬淡,意味却深远,就是所谓”小生活中的大道理”吧.

THE ROAD NOT TAKEN是他的名作之一,令人想到我国古代杨朱见歧路而哭的传说.其实我想在面对选择面对分岔路时,我们嘴上说不知该如何是好,心里却总还是有些底的.真真假假的犹豫过后,最终总会迈出脚步踏上一条路.而之后若是再念叨FROST的这首诗,很明显的就只是为了让自己好过一点而已了.

THE ROAD NOT TAKEN

Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler,long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;

Then took the other,as just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim;
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that,the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,

And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh,I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if I should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence;
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,and I—
I took the less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.



最后还要提到的是莎士比亚的第18号十四行诗和拜伦的”她在美中步履姗姗”.当死亡诗社山洞里来了两个女生时,两个男生为恭维她们甩出的漂亮句子实际上来自于这两首不朽佳作.无论如何,MM们听到好诗的那一瞬散发出的光彩绝对是眩目而令人难忘的!
          Sonnet 18

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

William Shakespeare
莎翁此诗,一译便死.尤其是最后两句!

She Walks In Beauty
She walks in beauty,like the night
Of cloudless climes and starry skies;
And all that’s best of dark and bright
Meet in her aspect and her eyes;
Thus mellow’d to that tender light
Which heaven to gaudy day denies.

One shade the more,one ray the less,
Had half impair’d the nameless grace
Which waves in every raven tress,
Or softly lightens o’er he face;
Where thoughts serenely sweet express
How pure,how dear their dwelling-place.

And on that cheek,and o’er that brow,
So soft,so calm,yet eloquent,
The smiles thatv win,the tints that glow,
But tell of days in goodness spent,
A mind at peace with all below,
A heart whose love is innocent!

George Gorden Byron

她在美中步履姗姗
拜伦
她在美中步履姗姗,
像星空和无云的夜晚;
光明和黑暗的精华,
在她的脸上和眼里交叉;
这样化为柔和的光,
上天不准浮华的白日分享.

多一份阴影,少一份光,
那就会半损半伤
在她发上波动,脸上放辉,
那种无名的优美;
脸上静穆清新的思想
表现它来自多么纯洁的地方.

在那面颊上,在那眉宇间,
那样温存,那样宁静,胜过巧语花言,
引人爱的微笑,灿灿的光彩,
表示年华在善良中稳度过来,
心地和平,与世无争,
心灵光明,爱情纯净.

李霁野 译
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