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素食菜谱 素食菜谱 4201小青菜

素食者营养主要来源

狄米 2010-07-25
1. Protein
Women need about 45g of protein a day (more if pregnant, lactating or very active), men need about 55g (more if very active). Vegetarians obtain protein from:

* Nuts: hazels, brazils, almonds, cashews, walnuts, pine kernels etc.
* Seeds: sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, linseeds.
* Pulses: peas, beans, lentils, peanuts.
* Grains/cereals: wheat (in bread, flour, pasta etc), barley, rye, oats, millet, maize (sweetcorn), rice.
* Soya products: tofu, tempeh, textured vegetable protein, veggieburgers, soya milk.
* Dairy products: milk, cheese, yoghurt (butter and cream are very poor sources of protein).
* Free range eggs.

大部分的氨基酸都自然产生于人体,但有8种是人体无法自产的,必须靠食物补充。不同的食物相互综合能够产生不同氨基酸,所以即便是低蛋白“没营养”的食物一样可以帮助人体产生氨基酸。保持吃不同种类食物是重要的。

2. Carbohydrate

The World Health Organisation recommends that 50-70% of energy should come from complex carbohydrates. The exact amount of carbohydrate that ...
1. Protein
Women need about 45g of protein a day (more if pregnant, lactating or very active), men need about 55g (more if very active). Vegetarians obtain protein from:

* Nuts: hazels, brazils, almonds, cashews, walnuts, pine kernels etc.
* Seeds: sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, linseeds.
* Pulses: peas, beans, lentils, peanuts.
* Grains/cereals: wheat (in bread, flour, pasta etc), barley, rye, oats, millet, maize (sweetcorn), rice.
* Soya products: tofu, tempeh, textured vegetable protein, veggieburgers, soya milk.
* Dairy products: milk, cheese, yoghurt (butter and cream are very poor sources of protein).
* Free range eggs.

大部分的氨基酸都自然产生于人体,但有8种是人体无法自产的,必须靠食物补充。不同的食物相互综合能够产生不同氨基酸,所以即便是低蛋白“没营养”的食物一样可以帮助人体产生氨基酸。保持吃不同种类食物是重要的。

2. Carbohydrate

The World Health Organisation recommends that 50-70% of energy should come from complex carbohydrates. The exact amount of carbohydrate that you need depends upon your appetite and also your level of activity. Contrary to previous belief a slimming diet should not be low in carbohydrates. In fact starchy foods are very filling relative to the number of calories that they contain.

3. Dietary Fibre
Dietary fibre or non-starch polysaccharide (NSP), as it is now termed, refers to the indigestible part of a carbohydrate food. Fibre can be found in unrefined or wholegrain cereals, fruit (fresh and dried) and vegetables. A good intake of dietary fibre can prevent many digestive problems and protect against diseases like colon cancer and diverticular disease.

4.Fats & Oils
Vegetable fats tend to be more unsaturated and this is one of the benefits of a vegetarian diet. Mono-unsaturated fats, such as olive oil or peanut oil, are best used for frying as the poly-unsaturated fats, like sunflower or safflower oil are unstable at high temperatures. Animal fats (including butter and cheese) tend to be more saturated than vegetable fats, with the exception of palm oil and coconut oil.

5.Vitamins
The main vegetarian sources are listed below:

Vitamin A (or beta carotene): Red, orange or yellow vegetables like carrots and tomatoes, leafy green vegetables and fruits like apricots and peaches. It is added to most margarines.

B Vitamins: This group of vitamins includes B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cyanocobalmin), folate, pantothenic acid and biotin.

All the B vitamins except B12 occur in yeasts and whole cereals (especially wheat germ), nuts & seeds, pulses and green vegetables.

Vitamin B12 is the only one that may cause some difficulty as it is not present in plant foods. Only very tiny amounts of B12 are needed and vegetarians usually get this from dairy produce and free range eggs. It is sensible for vegans and vegetarians who consume few animal foods to incorporate some B12 fortified foods in their diet. Vitamin B12 is added to yeast extracts, soya milks, veggieburgers and some breakfast cereals.

Vitamin C: Fresh fruit, salad vegetables, all leafy green vegetables and potatoes.

Vitamin D: This is vitamin is not found in plant foods but humans can make their own when skin is exposed to sunlight. It is also added to most margarines and is present in milk, cheese and butter. These sources are usually adequate for healthy adults. The very young, the very old and anyone confined indoors would be wise to take a vitamin D supplement especially if they consume very few dairy products.

Vitamin E: Vegetable oil, wholegrain cereals, eggs.

Vitamin K: Fresh vegetables, cereals and bacterial synthesis in the intestine.

6.Minerals
Details of the some of the most important minerals are listed below:

Calcium: Important for healthy bones and teeth. Found in dairy produce, leafy green vegetables, bread, tap water in hard water areas, nuts and seeds (especially sesame seeds), dried fruits, cheese. Vitamin D helps calcium to be absorbed.

Iron: Needed for red blood cells. Found in leafy green vegetables, wholemeal bread, molasses, eggs, dried fruits (especially apricots and figs), lentils and pulses. Vegetable sources of iron are not as easily absorbed as animal sources, but a good intake of vitamin C will enhance absorption.

Zinc: Plays a major role in many enzyme reactions and the immune system. Found in green vegetables, cheese, sesame and pumpkin seeds, lentils and wholegrain cereals.

Iodine: Present in vegetables, but the quantity depends on how rich the soil is in iodine. Dairy products also have plenty of iodine. Sea vegetables are a good source of iodine for vegans.
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