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Medical English Medical English 418成员

老师给的医学英语词根,对不起老师了~~

一度 2010-07-22
1.人体主要器官前缀
名称 通用名 前(后)缀 常用形容词 示例
心 heart cardiao- cardial cardium/carditis/cardiology
脑 brain encepholo- cerebral cerebrum/encephalitis/encephalology
肺 lung pulmo- pulmonary pulmontiis/pulmonectomy/pulmonology
肝 liver hepato- hepatic hepatitis/hepatobiliary/hepatology
胃 stomach gastro- gastric gastritis/gastrointestinal/gastrology
胆 gallbladder chole- biliary holecystitis/cholinergic/cholecystectomy
肠 intestine entero- intestinal enteritis/enterectomy/enterology
脾 spleen splen- splenic splenitis/splenectomy/splenology
胰 pancreas pancreato- pancreatic pancreatitis/pancreatectomy
肾 kidney nephro- renal/nephric nephritis/nephropathy/nephrology







2.与人体系统、器官有关的前(后)缀
名称 通用名 前(后)缀 示例
血 blood hemo-/hemato hematology/hemoglobin/hematoma
血管 vessel vaso- vasopressor/cardiovasology/verebrovascular
静脉 vein veno- venography/intravenous/venoconstriction
动脉 artery arterio- arteriology/arteriole/arteriosclerosis
肌 muscle myo- mycology/my...
1.人体主要器官前缀
名称 通用名 前(后)缀 常用形容词 示例
心 heart cardiao- cardial cardium/carditis/cardiology
脑 brain encepholo- cerebral cerebrum/encephalitis/encephalology
肺 lung pulmo- pulmonary pulmontiis/pulmonectomy/pulmonology
肝 liver hepato- hepatic hepatitis/hepatobiliary/hepatology
胃 stomach gastro- gastric gastritis/gastrointestinal/gastrology
胆 gallbladder chole- biliary holecystitis/cholinergic/cholecystectomy
肠 intestine entero- intestinal enteritis/enterectomy/enterology
脾 spleen splen- splenic splenitis/splenectomy/splenology
胰 pancreas pancreato- pancreatic pancreatitis/pancreatectomy
肾 kidney nephro- renal/nephric nephritis/nephropathy/nephrology







2.与人体系统、器官有关的前(后)缀
名称 通用名 前(后)缀 示例
血 blood hemo-/hemato hematology/hemoglobin/hematoma
血管 vessel vaso- vasopressor/cardiovasology/verebrovascular
静脉 vein veno- venography/intravenous/venoconstriction
动脉 artery arterio- arteriology/arteriole/arteriosclerosis
肌 muscle myo- mycology/myositis/myocarditis
髓 marrow myel-/myelo- myelocyte/myelitis/myeloma
神经 nerve neur-/neyro- neurology/neuritis/neuron
细胞 cell cyto-/-cyte cytology/cytoma/leukocyte
尿 urine uro-/ur- urology/urosurgery/urogenital
体 body somato-/some somatology/somatopsychic/chromosome





3.与数字有关的前缀
数字 前缀 示例
一(单) mono-/uni- monomer/monoclone/carbon monoxide/unidirectional
二 bi-/di- bilateral/biphasiccarbon dioxide/dipeptide
三 tri- trilateral/triphasic/trigeminal nerve
四 tetra- tetramer/tetracycline/tetraplegia
五 penta- pentagon/pentachromic/pentachloride
六 hexa- hexachromic/benzene hexachloride(666)/hexacycliccompiund
七 hepta- heptachromic/heptaploid/heptavalent
八 octa- octahedral/octal system
九 nona- nonapeptide/nonagon
十 deca- decade/decagram/decaliter
注:十位数的表示一般为:个位数前缀+deca,如:hexadecanol(十六烷醇),tetradecapeptide
gastrin(十四肽胃泌素),octadecanoic acid(十八烷酸)





4.颜色及与颜色有关的前缀
颜色 通用名 前缀 示例
色 color chrom-/chromo- chromosome/chromatin/chromatometer
红 red erythro- erythrocyte/erythrocyturia/erythrometer
白 white leuko- leukocyte/leukemia/leukocytuira
黑 black melano- melena/melanoma/melanoderma
黄 yellow xantho- xanthopsin/xanthosis/xanthoma
蓝 blue cyan-/cyano cyanosis/cyanopsia/cyanemia
紫 violet/purple
绿 green
棕 brown brown mixture/brown ring
橙 orange Victoria orange/ethyl orange/orange G
粉红 pink oink frothy sputum
绯红 crimson
青铜 bronzed bronzed diabetes
注:有些病名的“蓝”“紫”“青”为同义,其前缀都为“cyano-”.




5.与疾病和疾患有关的前(后)缀(1)
含义 前(后)缀 形容词 示例
病 patho- pathogen/pathology/pathogenesis
/-pathy -pathic neuropathy/nephropathy/adenopathy
病态 -osis -otic neurosis/tuberculosis/schistosomiasis
增多 leukocytosis/erythrocytopenia/granulocytosis
减少 -penia -penic leukocytopenia/erythrocytopenia/granulocytopenia
无 a-/an- atypical/anuria/agranulocytopenia
小/微 -let droplet/platelet/leaflet
micro- microscopy/microorganism/micronucleus
大/巨 macro- macroscopic/macronucleus/macrophage
-megaly splenomegaly/acromegaly/hepatomegaly
复合/多 poly- polyuria/polymer/polyopia
全/泛 pan- pancolectomy/panmyelosis/pandemic




6.与疾病和疾患有关的前(后)缀(2)
含义 前(后)缀 示例
相反 dis- disease/disorder/disability
困难/障碍 dys- dysfunction/dyspepsia/dyspnea
不良 mal- malfunction/malnutrition/malpractice
炎症 -it is appendicitis/bronchitis/arthritis
瘤/块 -oma lymphoma/adenoma/hematoma
血症 -emia leukemia/septisemia/bacteremia
痛 -algia/-algesia/alge-/algo- analgesia/hypoalgesia/algometer
麻痹 -plegia hemipleia/pamplegia/myoplegia
流出 -rrhea diarrhea/hypermenorrhea/rhinorrhea
坏死 -necrosis necro-/necr- hepatonecrosis/myonecrosis/necrospermia
结石 litho-/-lith lithiasis/lithogenesis/cholelithes




7.与方位有关的前缀
含义 通用词 前缀 示例
上 upper/superior pi-/supra- epidemic/epithelium/supracostal
下 lower/inferior nfra-/sub- infracostal/subclavicular/subcutaneous
前 front/anterior/prior fore-/ante- forehead/anteroposterior/precirrhosis
/pre-
后 back/posterior post-/retro- posthepatic/postprandial/retrocardiac
内 inner/internal in-/endo-/ento- inhalation/endoscopy/entocranial
外 outer/external ex-/exo- extract/excretion/exocardial
间 between inter- intermuscular/intercostal/intercourse
旁/副 on the side of para- parathyroid/paraprotein/pararenal
周 around peri- perioperative/pericarditis/peritoneum
中心 central centri-/centra- centrifugation/centralize/centronucleus
/centro-
反/对 opposite counter-/contra- counterpart/countershock/contraindication
注:in vivo/in’vaivou/活体内;in vitro/in vaitrou/活体外或试管内;in situ/in’saitju:/原位





8.与外科手术有关的前(后)缀
含义 前(后)缀 示例
切除 -ectomy appendectomy/gastrectomy/splenectomy
切开 -tomy tracheotomy/hysterotomy/craniotomy
切(割) -tome tracheotome/thoracotome
吻合 -stomy duodenoenterostomy/gastroesophagostomy
成形术 -plasty tracheoplasty/osteoplasty/myoplasty
整(矫)形 ortho- orthopedics/orthopod/orthotherapy
造影 -graphy angiography/nephrography/phlebography
经… trans- transdominal/translateral/transurethral
注:ortho-也是“正”“原”的前缀,如:ortho-acid(正酸)
-graphy为方法,如:electrocardigraphy
心电图检查术;graph为仪器,如:electrocardigraph心电图机;gram为图象,文字,如:electrocardiogram心电图记录。




9.与化学品有关的前(后)缀
含义 前(后)缀 示例
酸盐 ate sulfate/nitrate/acetate
醇 -ol alcohol/propanol/taxol
醛 -al retinal/methylal/propanal
酮 -one acetone/progesterone/ketone
糖 glyco- glycogenolysis
saccharo- saccharomyces
-saccharide polysaccharide
酶 -ase reductase/transminase/kinase
素 -in penicillin/heparin/nuclein
原 -gen allogen/antigen/glycogen
苯基/酚 phen-/pheno- phenol/phenate/phenetidin
氨基 amino- aminobenzene/aminopherase/aminopyrine




10.与“作用”有关的前(后)缀
含义 前(后)缀 示例
杀 -cide/-cidal insecticide/pesticide/bactericidal
抑 -stasis/-static bacteriostasis/virostatic/tuberculostatic
驱逐 -fuge febrifuge/centrifuge
抗 -anti antibiotic/antimycotic/antimutagen
去/脱/除 de- dehydroprednisone/detergent/desensitization
回/再/复 re- reabsorb/reactivation/recombinant
冷冻 cryo- cryobiology/cryopreservation/cryoprotectant
否/去/分离 dis- disinfection/dissociate/dissection
向后/退行 retro- retrograde/retrosternal/retrocardiac
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回应 (9条) 只看楼主

  • Messiah
    好东东啊!
  • miss1ee
    置顶这个吧,很常用的词根
  • 寻找咩咩羊
    还没学,应该有用~~
  • 百分之三十
    Mark
  • 她叫刘亚玲
    好东西
  • starlyxixi
    好东东
  • Lloyd_Yuan
    楼主 小弟最近在翻译一篇有关爬行动物医学的文章 遇到一个单词 怎么也查不到 能否赐教?
    intracoelemically 是一种注射或给药方法 应该是和IV PO SC IM 等等是一类的
  • 长明
    楼主 小弟最近在翻译一篇有关爬行动物医学的文章 遇到一个单词 怎么也查不到 能否赐教 ... Lloyd_Yuan
    可能拼错 intracoelomically 体腔注射
  • Lloyd_Yuan
    可能拼错 intracoelomically 体腔注射 长明
    被你这么一提醒 倒觉得很有可能是你说的这样 因为我也是受人所托 所以没有看到原文 可能是别人给我的时候给错了
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