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ACCA F1-F3交流 5成员

# 干货整理：ACCA F2科目41条笔记分享

ACCA F2 全称是Management Accounting，这一门课程是管理会计的内容，课程总体难度不大，差异分析的部分考试可能有些难度，另外一些财务比率的计算需要掌握，为今后的学习打好基础。以下是学员整理的一些F2学习笔记供新学员参考：

1. Target cost= target selling price – target profit = market price – desired profit margin.

2. cost gap= estimated cost – target cost.

3. TQM :
① preventing costs
② appraisal costs
③ internal failure costs
④ external failure cost

4. Alternative costing principle:
①ABC(activity based costing)
②Target costing
③Life cycle
④TQM

8. Time series:
①trend
②seasonal variation: ⑴ 加法模型sum to zero; ⑵ 乘法模型 sum to 4
③cyclical variation
④random variation

9. pricipal budget factor 关键预算因子：be limited the activities

10. budget purpose :
①communication
②coordination
③compel the plan
④motivative employees
⑤resource allocation

12. Budget : ①function budget ②master budget : 1. P&L ; 2. B/S ; 3....sh Flow

13. Fixed Budget: 不是在于固不固定，而是基于一个业务量的考虑，financail expression.

Flexible Budget: 包含了固定成本和变动成本，并且变动成本的变化是随着业务量的变化而改变。

14. Flexible Budget 的优点：
① recognize different cost behavior.
② improve quality and a comparison of like with like
③ help managers to forecast cost, revenue and profit.

15. Flexible Budget 的缺点：
1 假设太简单。
2 需要更多的时间准备预算编制。

16. Controllable cost is a “cost which can be influenced by ” its budget holder. 大部分的变动成本是可控的，non-controllable cost 为inflation.

17. Budget Behavior :
① participate approach
② imposed budget

18. payback 投资回收期的缺点：
① ignore profitability
② the time value of money is ignored
③ 没有考虑项目后期带来的经济利益
④ arbitray 武断

19. payback 投资回收期的优点：

① easy to calculate
② widely use
③ minimize the effect of the risk and help liqidity

★ 如果在算投资回收期的时候，发生折旧，则需要加回折旧，因为折旧是非现金项目。

20.(1+ real interst rate)*(1+inflation rate) = ( 1+ nominal interest rate)

21. NPV = present value of future net cash flow – present value of initial cost

22. 永续年金=A/i

23.每年的汇报是相同的就查看年金现值系数表，不同的就查看年金系数表。

24.EAR=CAR=APR=(1+r/n)n – 1 有效年利率

25.IRR:(based on cash flow analysis)
①IRR> cost of capital, NPV >< cost of capital, NPV <0, not worthwhile.

26.ARR=average profit/ average investment (ARR 是基于profit)
Average investment = (initial investment – residual value)/2

27. type of standard:
①basic standard
②current standard
③ideal standard
④attainable standard

28.Variance

1．Material Variance
⑴total material variance= standard cost –actual cost
⑵material price variance= (standard price – actual price )* actual quantity
⑶material usage variance=(standard usage of actual output- actual usage) * standard price.

2．Direct Labor Variance

⑴standard pay – actual pay

⑵Labor rate variances= (standard rate – actual rate) * actual hrs of actual output

⑶Labor efficiency variances= (standard hrs of actual output – actual hrs) * standard rate

⑴Total variable O.H. variance = standard cost – actual cost

⑵Variable O.H. expenditure variance = (standard rate – actual rate) * actual hrs

⑶Variable O.H. efficiency variance = (standard hrs of actual output – actual hrs) * standard rate

4．Fixed O.H. expenditure variance

⑴Fixed O.H. Expenditure variance= budget expenditure – actual expenditure

⑵Fixed O.H. volume = (actual output - budgeted volume) * standard hrs per unit * standard rate per hr.

⑶Capacity variance= (actual hrs worked – budgeted hrs worked) * standard rate per hr

⑷Efficiency variance= (standard hrs worked for actual output – actual hrs worked)* standard rate per hr ⑴+⑵：Fixed O.H. total variance= fixed O.H. absorbed – actual expenditure

5．Sales variance
⑴Sales price variances = (actual price – budget price) * actual sales units
⑵ Sales volume variances = (actual sales units –budget sales units) * standard profit per unit
(absorption)
⑶Sales volume variances = (actual sales units –budget sales units) * standard CPU (marginal costing)

6．Idle time variances
Idle time variance = (expected idle time – actual idle time)* adjusted hr rate

29. The elements of a mission statement including:
①Purpose
②Strategy
③Policies and standards of behavior
④Values and culture

30. A critical success factor is a performance requirement that is fundamental to competitivesuccess.

31. Profitability ratios
①Return on capital employed (ROCE)
=profit before interest and tax /(shareholders’ funds+ long-term liabilities) × 100%
② Return on equity (ROE)=profit after tax / shareholders’ funds × 100%
③Asset turnover=sales/ capital employed× 100%
=sales/(shareholders’ funds+ long-term liabilities) × 100%
④Profit margin= profit before interest and tax / sales × 100%
Profit margin × asset turnover = ROCE

32. Debt and gearing ratios
①Debt-to-equity ratio=long-term liabilities / total equity × 100%
②Interest cover=PBIT/ Interest× 100%

33. Liquidity ratios
①Current ratio =current assets/ current liabilities
②Quick ratio ( acid test ratio)=current assets minus inventory / current liabilities

34. Working capital ratios
①Inventory days= average inventory *365 / cost of sales
②Receivables days= average trade receivables * 365 / sales
③Payables days= average trade payables *365 / cost of sales (or purchases)

35. Non-financial performance measures
Non-financial performance measures are considered to be leading indicators of financial performance.

① Market share
②Innovation
③Growth
④Productivity
⑤Quality
⑥Social aspects

36. The balanced scorecard :
① financial perspective ② external perspective
③ customer perspective ④ learning and innovation perspective

37. Benchmarking :
① Internal benchmarking
② Competitive benchmarking
③ Functional benchmarking
④ Strategic benchmarking

38. Value analysis is a planned, scientific approach to cost reduction, which reviews the material composition of a product and the product's design so that modifications and improvements can be made which do not reduce the value of the product to the customer or user.

39. Four aspects of 'value' should be considered:
① Cost value
② Exchange value
③ Utility value
④Esteem value

40. ROI=PBIT / capital employed *100%

Widely used and accepted; As a relative measure it enables comparisons to be made with divisions or companies of different sizes.

41. RI=PBIT- Imputed interest * capital employed.
Possible to use different rates of interest for different types of assets; Cost of finance is beingconsidered.
ACCA F2 全称是Management Accounting，这一门课程是管理会计的内容，课程总体难度不大，差异分析的部分考试可能有些难度，另外一些财务比率的计算需要掌握，为今后的学习打好基础。以下是学员整理的一些F2学习笔记供新学员参考：

1. Target cost= target selling price – target profit = market price – desired profit margin.

2. cost gap= estimated cost – target cost.

3. TQM :
① preventing costs
② appraisal costs
③ internal failure costs
④ external failure cost

4. Alternative costing principle:
①ABC(activity based costing)
②Target costing
③Life cycle
④TQM

8. Time series:
①trend
②seasonal variation: ⑴ 加法模型sum to zero; ⑵ 乘法模型 sum to 4
③cyclical variation
④random variation

9. pricipal budget factor 关键预算因子：be limited the activities

10. budget purpose :
①communication
②coordination
③compel the plan
④motivative employees
⑤resource allocation

12. Budget : ①function budget ②master budget : 1. P&L ; 2. B/S ; 3. Cash Flow

13. Fixed Budget: 不是在于固不固定，而是基于一个业务量的考虑，financail expression.

Flexible Budget: 包含了固定成本和变动成本，并且变动成本的变化是随着业务量的变化而改变。

14. Flexible Budget 的优点：
① recognize different cost behavior.
② improve quality and a comparison of like with like
③ help managers to forecast cost, revenue and profit.

15. Flexible Budget 的缺点：
1 假设太简单。
2 需要更多的时间准备预算编制。

16. Controllable cost is a “cost which can be influenced by ” its budget holder. 大部分的变动成本是可控的，non-controllable cost 为inflation.

17. Budget Behavior :
① participate approach
② imposed budget

18. payback 投资回收期的缺点：
① ignore profitability
② the time value of money is ignored
③ 没有考虑项目后期带来的经济利益
④ arbitray 武断

19. payback 投资回收期的优点：

① easy to calculate
② widely use
③ minimize the effect of the risk and help liqidity

★ 如果在算投资回收期的时候，发生折旧，则需要加回折旧，因为折旧是非现金项目。

20.(1+ real interst rate)*(1+inflation rate) = ( 1+ nominal interest rate)

21. NPV = present value of future net cash flow – present value of initial cost

22. 永续年金=A/i

23.每年的汇报是相同的就查看年金现值系数表，不同的就查看年金系数表。

24.EAR=CAR=APR=(1+r/n)n – 1 有效年利率

25.IRR:(based on cash flow analysis)
①IRR> cost of capital, NPV >0, worth taking
②IRR< cost of capital, NPV <0, not worthwhile.

26.ARR=average profit/ average investment (ARR 是基于profit)
Average investment = (initial investment – residual value)/2

27. type of standard:
①basic standard
②current standard
③ideal standard
④attainable standard

28.Variance

1．Material Variance
⑴total material variance= standard cost –actual cost
⑵material price variance= (standard price – actual price )* actual quantity
⑶material usage variance=(standard usage of actual output- actual usage) * standard price.

2．Direct Labor Variance

⑴standard pay – actual pay

⑵Labor rate variances= (standard rate – actual rate) * actual hrs of actual output

⑶Labor efficiency variances= (standard hrs of actual output – actual hrs) * standard rate

⑴Total variable O.H. variance = standard cost – actual cost

⑵Variable O.H. expenditure variance = (standard rate – actual rate) * actual hrs

⑶Variable O.H. efficiency variance = (standard hrs of actual output – actual hrs) * standard rate

4．Fixed O.H. expenditure variance

⑴Fixed O.H. Expenditure variance= budget expenditure – actual expenditure

⑵Fixed O.H. volume = (actual output - budgeted volume) * standard hrs per unit * standard rate per hr.

⑶Capacity variance= (actual hrs worked – budgeted hrs worked) * standard rate per hr

⑷Efficiency variance= (standard hrs worked for actual output – actual hrs worked)* standard rate per hr ⑴+⑵：Fixed O.H. total variance= fixed O.H. absorbed – actual expenditure

5．Sales variance
⑴Sales price variances = (actual price – budget price) * actual sales units
⑵ Sales volume variances = (actual sales units –budget sales units) * standard profit per unit
(absorption)
⑶Sales volume variances = (actual sales units –budget sales units) * standard CPU (marginal costing)

6．Idle time variances
Idle time variance = (expected idle time – actual idle time)* adjusted hr rate

29. The elements of a mission statement including:
①Purpose
②Strategy
③Policies and standards of behavior
④Values and culture

30. A critical success factor is a performance requirement that is fundamental to competitivesuccess.

31. Profitability ratios
①Return on capital employed (ROCE)
=profit before interest and tax /(shareholders’ funds+ long-term liabilities) × 100%
② Return on equity (ROE)=profit after tax / shareholders’ funds × 100%
③Asset turnover=sales/ capital employed× 100%
=sales/(shareholders’ funds+ long-term liabilities) × 100%
④Profit margin= profit before interest and tax / sales × 100%
Profit margin × asset turnover = ROCE

32. Debt and gearing ratios
①Debt-to-equity ratio=long-term liabilities / total equity × 100%
②Interest cover=PBIT/ Interest× 100%

33. Liquidity ratios
①Current ratio =current assets/ current liabilities
②Quick ratio ( acid test ratio)=current assets minus inventory / current liabilities

34. Working capital ratios
①Inventory days= average inventory *365 / cost of sales
②Receivables days= average trade receivables * 365 / sales
③Payables days= average trade payables *365 / cost of sales (or purchases)

35. Non-financial performance measures
Non-financial performance measures are considered to be leading indicators of financial performance.

① Market share
②Innovation
③Growth
④Productivity
⑤Quality
⑥Social aspects

36. The balanced scorecard :
① financial perspective ② external perspective
③ customer perspective ④ learning and innovation perspective

37. Benchmarking :
① Internal benchmarking
② Competitive benchmarking
③ Functional benchmarking
④ Strategic benchmarking

38. Value analysis is a planned, scientific approach to cost reduction, which reviews the material composition of a product and the product's design so that modifications and improvements can be made which do not reduce the value of the product to the customer or user.

39. Four aspects of 'value' should be considered:
① Cost value
② Exchange value
③ Utility value
④Esteem value

40. ROI=PBIT / capital employed *100%

Widely used and accepted; As a relative measure it enables comparisons to be made with divisions or companies of different sizes.

41. RI=PBIT- Imputed interest * capital employed.
Possible to use different rates of interest for different types of assets; Cost of finance is beingconsidered.
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