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翻译学习备考记录

锦衣暮夜行 2017-08-03
http://www.catti.net.cn/2017-07/04/content_743465.htm

a moderately well-off society来表示“小康社会”是比较恰当的

“法治”可译成the rule of law,“法治建设”,我们认为promoting the rule of law应是一种比较恰当的选择,至少国外受众能够读懂和理解。

命运共同体”改译为a community with a shared future

“民族复兴”national renewal


1.权力不论大小,只要不受制约和监督,都可能被滥用。

【改译】Power is susceptible to abuse at all levels if it is not subject to constraints and oversight.

“企业家精神”成为人们挂在嘴边里的一个概念,也就是最近这十几年当中的事。“企业家精神”的内涵是对机会的抓取,对于创新的热情,以及对冒险的渴望。
这句话可译成:
“Entrepreneurial spirit” has become a catchphrase only in the past ten or more years. Its essence manifests itself in a readiness to seize a chance, an enthusiasm for innovation, and an eagerness to take risks.

5.实行民主集中制,还要求“尊重多数,保护少数”,反对无政府主义的“大民主”,反对把个人意志凌驾于集体之上。
【改译】Democratic centralism also calls for res...
http://www.catti.net.cn/2017-07/04/content_743465.htm

a moderately well-off society来表示“小康社会”是比较恰当的

“法治”可译成the rule of law,“法治建设”,我们认为promoting the rule of law应是一种比较恰当的选择,至少国外受众能够读懂和理解。

命运共同体”改译为a community with a shared future

“民族复兴”national renewal


1.权力不论大小,只要不受制约和监督,都可能被滥用。

【改译】Power is susceptible to abuse at all levels if it is not subject to constraints and oversight.

“企业家精神”成为人们挂在嘴边里的一个概念,也就是最近这十几年当中的事。“企业家精神”的内涵是对机会的抓取,对于创新的热情,以及对冒险的渴望。
这句话可译成:
“Entrepreneurial spirit” has become a catchphrase only in the past ten or more years. Its essence manifests itself in a readiness to seize a chance, an enthusiasm for innovation, and an eagerness to take risks.

5.实行民主集中制,还要求“尊重多数,保护少数”,反对无政府主义的“大民主”,反对把个人意志凌驾于集体之上。
【改译】Democratic centralism also calls for respecting the opinions of the majority while protecting minority rights. It rejects anarchic democracy on the one hand and any tendency to allow the will of any individual to override collective wisdom on the other.

2.市场决定资源配置是市场经济的一般规律,健全社会主义市场经济体制必须遵循这条规律,着力解决市场体系不完善、政府干预过多和监管不到位问题,推动资源配置依据市场机制实现效益最大化和效率最优化。
A general rule embraced by market economies, the preeminence of the market in allocating resources should also be a feature of our socialist market economy. To this end, efforts should include building a robust market, and rolling back excessive government intervention while also addressing insufficient government oversight in some areas, so as to promote the market抯 role in maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency in resource allocation.
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  • 锦衣暮夜行
    原文:中国主动适应并积极参与世界格局变革调整进程,以负责任大国形象展现在世人面前。

    中文原文在表面上似乎谈两件事情,但所涉含义相互交融,不可分割。当我们谈到“负责任”(responsible)时,我们需要与以此方式从事的活动(即参与国际事务)挂钩,不能高空悬挂着。中文里可以这样说,这是中文的语言特点(意合型)决定的,在英语里各个语言成分之间的关系需要明确。另外,在此语境里把“形象”直译成has the image of不妥。第三个值得商榷的问题是“大国”的译法,原文确实用了这两字,但在译文里有没有必要一定要自称big power呢?我们认为,在外宣场合最好避免这样说。

    【改译】China is also adapting to an evolving world landscape, and actively participates in global affairs as a responsible member of the international community

    1.当今世界,人类生活在不同文化、种族、肤色、宗教和不同社会制度所组成的世界里,各国人民形成了你中有我、我中有你的命运共同体。

    【改译】While the world we inhabit is charac-terized by diversity in terms of culture, ethnicity, skin colors, religions and social systems, people across the world increasingly find themselves in a community with a shared future, with their interests interlocked.
  • 锦衣暮夜行
    1.随着中国的发展和进步,全国各地城乡基层民主不断扩大,公民有序的政治参与渠道增多,民主的实现形式日益丰富。

    【改译】China‘s’ increasing prosperity and progress have been accompanied by greater democracy at the community level in both urban and rural areas throughout the country, increased orderly participation of its citizens in political life, and a multiplication of
    democratic practices.

    2. 2015年10月26日至29日在北京召开的十八届五中全会,首次提出了“创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享”的五大发展理念。

    【改译】At its Fifth Plenary Session held from October 26 to 29, 2015, the 18th CPC Central Committee called for “development that is innovation-driven, coordinated, green, oriented toward global progress, and beneficial to all.”

    (1)四个全面
    一种常见译法是Four Comprehensives,即把中文里特有的数字与形容词的组合硬性移植到英语里,实际上这是创造了一种另类表达方式。一种比较合理的译法是the Four-Pronged Strategy。

    请看以下这段话的翻译:
    2014年12月,习近平在江苏省调研时,首次明确提出了“四个全面”战略布局,即全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党。

    【改译】The Four-Pronged Strategy was first put forth by Xi Jinping during an inspection tour of Jiangsu Province in December 2014. The strategy calls for completing the process of building a moderately well-off society, pursuing an expanded in-depth reform agenda, implementing a comprehensive framework for promoting the rule of law, and launching an all-out effort to enforce strict Party discipline.
    提出 put forth; call for; propose
    全面expanded ; all-out
  • 锦衣暮夜行
    The ostensible reason was that Hatoyama had displeased Washington by reneging on a deal to build a new US Marine base on Okinawa. However, according to R Taggart Murphy, professor of international political economy at Tokyo’s Tsukuba university, Hatoyama was attempting much more than that: he wanted to regain the sovereignty that Japan had lost when it became a virtual “protectorate” of the US after 1945. “Japan cannot be an ally of the United States — or anyone else — until it is first a sovereign state,” Taggart Murphy writes. In this view, one shared by many on both the Japanese right and the left, Japan remains essentially an occupied nation, subject to a US-written constitution and honeycombed by US military bases. Rather like Hatoyama, he recommends Japan taking responsibility for its own defence and seeking a new accommodation with China.

    表面上的原因是,鸠山拒绝履行冲绳美国海军基地新建协议,触怒了华盛顿。然而,东京筑波大学(University of Tsukuba)国际政治经济学教授塔R•塔格特•墨菲(R Taggart Murphy)认为,鸠山想要的比这多得多:他想收回日本1945年后成为美国事实上的“保护国”时所丧失的主权。墨菲写到:“在首先成为一个主权国家之前,日本无法做美国(或任何其他国家)的盟国。”这种观点(得到日本右翼和左翼的很多人认同)认为:日本本质上仍是一个被占领国,要遵守一部由美国制定的宪法,本土遍布美国军事基地。跟鸠山的观点相像,墨菲建议日本自己担负国防责任,并寻求与中国取得新的和解。

    There is much useful rumination here. The section on the Tokugawa shogunate (1600-1868) is particularly well done, and there are also many colourful, often acerbic, observations about modern Japan — a foreigner working for a Japanese company, for example, is likened to a rap artist joining a string quartet. The tragedy of Japan, says the author, stems from the fact it merely grafted the trappings of a modern state on to its existing system. To this day, he contends, there continues to be a “yawning gap between the political reality in Japan and the fictions with which that reality” is understood.

    本书中有很多有益的思考。关于德川幕府时代(Tokugawa shogunate,1600-1868)的章节写得格外好,书中对现代日本也有许多生动(往往也很尖刻)的评论——例如,书中将一个效力于日本企业的外国人比作加入了弦乐四重奏的说唱歌手。作者说,日本的悲剧源于它只是把现代国家的外表嫁接到了原有的体制之上。他说,时至今日,“日本政治现实与人们对这种现实的臆想之间仍存在巨大差距”。

    yawning gap:巨大差异

    For the author, this gap explains more or less everything. It is why, for example, there are endless debates in parliament about matters that have long been decided upon behind closed doors. It is why it took a foreigner, unfamiliar with honour codes, to blow the whistle on the fictional accounts at Olympus. It is also why the salaryman can believe he is “a soldier for a cause” but can also recognise that ultimately he is an “exploited cog in a faceless, industrial machine”.
    在作者看来,这种差距几乎可以解释一切。例如,它解释了为什么议会要对早已秘密决定的事情进行无休止的辩论。它也解释了为什么举报奥林巴斯(Olympus)账目造假的是一个不熟悉日本荣誉守则的外国人,以及为什么一个工薪族既可以相信自己是“献身事业的士兵”,也可以承认自己最终是“千篇一律的工业机器上一颗被剥削的螺丝钉”。

    blow the whistle on the fictional accounts:举报账目造假

    This latter example reveals the author’s propensity to see in every facet of modern Japan the ghosts of an unreconstructed past. The alienation of labour he describes could apply equally to almost anywhere. Similarly, many other features of the country, from teenage fashion to sexual relations, are shoehorned into an overarching theory with sometimes illuminating or far-fetched consequences.
    后面那个例子显示出,作者倾向于认为,那段未得到重建的历史的幽灵存在于现代日本的方方面面。他所描述的劳动异化(alienation of labour)可能同样适用于几乎任何地方。类似地,这个国家的许多其他特征(从青少年时尚到两性关系)都被硬塞进一个包罗一切的理论中,得出的结论有时发人深省,有时有些牵强。

    overarching:包罗万象
    far-fetched: 牵强附会

    It is also to depict modern Japan, for all its many faults, in too unrelentingly gloomy a light.
    此外,尽管现代日本存在种种缺陷,但作者这样说也未免过于无情和悲观,没有公允地反映现代日本的真实面貌。

    nominal ['nɔminəl] adj. 名义上的,有名无实的,名词性的
  • 白白白胡子
    顶楼主!
  • 锦衣暮夜行
    Schadenfreude is a German-origin term defined by the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary as "a feeling of pleasure at the bad things that happen to other people." Schadenfreude is rarely expressed plainly, or in relation to a specific event or situation. Rather, it is an attitude and bias that disparages achievements, discredits sincerity, and hopes for failure.

    “Schadenfreude”是一个源于德语的词汇,根据《牛津高阶英语词典》,它的意思是“对他人遇上坏事感到的一种愉悦”。“Schadenfreude”这个词很少被清楚地表达出来,或者联系到特定的事件或者场合上。相反,这是一种态度与偏见,它贬低对方成就、诋毁对方诚意,并且满心希望对方失败。

    On cue, writing on Forbes.com after Alibaba's world-beating IPO in New York, Chang was quick to predict, and seemingly to hope, that the company's ambition to surpass Walmart as the world's largest retailer would be unrealized.
    正巧,在阿里巴巴震惊世界的纽约IPO时间后,章家敦很快在福布斯网站上预测,貌似也是希望,该公司“超过沃尔玛,成为全球最大的零售商”的壮志将无法实现。

    On cue 正巧

    Chang's brand is emblematic of the negative bias toward China, tinged with schadenfreude,that is more common than uncommon in the Western press.

    章家敦就是带点幸灾乐祸地看衰中国的媒体形象代言人,而这种现象在西方媒体中是更为常见的。

    China's actions, often in reaction to provocations of other countries (notably with Japan over the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands, and with Vietnam and the Philippines in the South China Sea) are described as "aggressive"–therefore requiring counterforce–when in fact they are defensive. The reality of China's long-standing policy of patience, restraint, and dispute resolution through bi-lateral negotiations is never mentioned.

    中国的行动,经常是对其他国家挑衅的一种反应(尤其是与日本关于尖阁/钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿、与越南和菲律宾关于南海诸岛的冲突),但是它们被描述为“侵略性的”——因此需要被平衡的——而事实上他们是被动防御性的。中国在长期采用的忍耐与克制政策,以及通过双边谈判解决争端的事实,却从未被提及。

    emblematic [.embli'mætik] adj. 作为象征的
  • 锦衣暮夜行
    Egyptian women had a wide range of rights and freedoms.

    古埃及女性享有广泛的权利与自由

    While they may have been publicly and socially viewed as inferior to men, Egyptian women enjoyed a great deal of legal and financial independence. They could buy and sell property, serve on juries, make wills and even enter into legal contracts. Egyptian women did not typically work outside the home, but those who did usually received equal pay for doing the same jobs as men. Unlike the women of ancient Greece, who were effectively owned by their husbands, Egyptian women also had the right to divorce and remarry. Egyptian couples were even known to negotiate an ancient prenuptial agreement. These contracts listed all the property and wealth the woman had brought into the marriage and guaranteed that she would be compensated for it in the event of a divorce.

    在人们眼中,埃及女性的地位不如男性,然而她们享有广泛的法定权利和财产自由,可以买卖财产、参加陪审、著立遗嘱及签订合约。埃及不是一个女主外的国家,但在外打拼的女性绝对能得到公平的待遇,与将女性作为男人所有物的古希腊截然不同。古埃及女性还享有婚姻自由,夫妻俩甚至可以制定婚前协议,罗列出女性将在婚后带来的财产,以保证女方在离婚之时得到应有的赔偿。

    enter into legal contracts: 签订合约
    it in the event of a divorce: 在离婚之时

    Egyptians of both sexes wore makeup.

    男女都要化妆

    Vanity is as old as civilization, and the ancient Egyptians were no exception. Both men and women were known to wear copious amounts of makeup, which they believed gave them the protection of the gods Horus and Ra. These cosmetics were made by grinding ores like malachite and galena into a substance called kohl. It was then liberally applied around the eyes with utensils made out of wood, bone and ivory. Women would also stain their cheeks with red paint and use henna to color their hands and fingernails, and both sexes wore perfumes made from oil, myrrh and cinnamon. The Egyptians believed their makeup had magical healing powers, and they weren't entirely wrong: Research has shown that the lead-based cosmetics worn along the Nile actually helped stave off eye infections.

    虚荣几乎伴随文明而生,埃及也不例外。在那里,不论男女都顶着大浓妆,他们认为这样会得到太阳神的庇荫。化妆品的原料是磨碎的矿石,如孔雀石、方铅矿,这些矿石会被制成一种称为眼影粉的东西,然后用木、骨或象牙制成的工具,抹在眼周即可。女性还会涂腮红,用指甲花染手和指甲。至于用原油、没药和桂皮制成的香水,则是男男女女都必不可少的东西。他们相信脸上的妆有一种神奇的治疗功能,而研究证明他们有一定道理:化妆品含铅,这种自上而下的化妆风潮的确有效地抑制了眼部感染。

    wore makeup 化妆
  • 锦衣暮夜行
    美国中情局和中国的熊猫外交

    In the late 1950s, US relations with Communist China were virtually nonexistent.

    Trade had been tightly controlled since China's intervention in North Korea in 1950, and, to deny Beijing any advantage from commercial or financial transactions,

    the Secretary of the Treasury issued strict regulations prohibiting the import of goods that originated in or had passed through Communist China. There were rarely any exceptions, even for pandas.

    在上个世纪50年代,美国几乎与中国共产党没有任何交流。

    自1950年抗美援朝战争开始,美国便严格控制与中国之间的贸易往来,并且拒绝给予北京任何商业或者金融交易上的便利。

    美国财政部出台严格的法规,禁止进口原产地在中国或者经过中国运输的货物。即使是熊猫也不能例外。

    the matter was closed. 此事将不再考虑

    Treasury's resistance was not entirely unwarranted. Since the first live panda had been brought to the US in 1936 (registered aboard a ship as a puppy), the giant panda had captured the popular imagination—and become a potent political symbol.
    财政部的抗拒并非是毫无道理的。自从1936年,第一只活熊猫被带到美国(上船时登记为小狗),大熊猫便得到了美国大众的欢迎,并成为了强有力的政治象征。

    unwarranted 毫无根据

    merely ['miəli] adv. 仅仅,只不过
  • 锦衣暮夜行
    The consecration of the Church of England's first woman bishop was met with a lone voice of protest at York Minister.
    在约克教堂,英格兰国教首位女主教的祝圣仪式遭到一个孤零零的抗议声。

    The Archbishop of York, Dr John Sentamu, asked the congregation of nearly 2,000 whether it was "now your will that she should be ordained?"
    约克大主教约翰·圣塔穆博士向将近2000人提出这样的问题:“现在是否是授予她圣职的时刻?”

    Most shouted: "It is". But one man, Rev Paul Williamson, stood and called out: "No, it's not in the bible".
    大部分喊道:“是的!”但是还是有一个人——莱福·保罗·威廉姆逊——站出来,大声叫道:“不,《圣经》里没有(女子被授予圣职)。”

    "With respect, Your Grace, I ask to speak on this absolute impediment, please," he continued.
    他接着说:“尊敬的阁下,我请求详细阐述阻止的原因。”

    Despite the interruption, the consecration of the Reverend Libby Lane as the eighth Bishop of Stockport continued.
    丽比·莱恩教士被授予斯托克波特第八位主教的祝圣仪式尽管被打断,但还是继续进行。

    Rev Williamson later told Sky News: "I felt a marker should be put down to say clearly to everybody that a female bishop is not found in the bible."
    莱福·保罗·威廉姆逊事后向Sky新闻说:“我感觉向每个人说清楚《圣经》里找不到女性主教是有必要的。”

    He added: "The lord Jesus Christ made a very deliberate choice of those who were to carry on his work."
    他又加了一句:“耶稣基督在选谁去承担他的工作时是非常谨慎的。”

    A Church of England spokesman described Rev Williamson as a "serial protester".
    英格兰教会发言人将莱福·保罗·威廉姆逊描述为一个“一系列抗议者”。

    The spokesman said they were expecting him to attend, adding: "He's got the right to protest but the contrast was between a lone voice protesting and a sea of voices affirming."
    这位发言人说他们希望他参加祝圣仪式,因为 “他有抗议的权利,但这是一个孤零零的抗议声和排山倒海的肯定声之间的差距。”

    Rev Williamson previously protested the marriage of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall.
    莱福·保罗·威廉姆逊先前也曾抗议威尔士王子和康沃尔公爵夫人的婚姻。

    Rev Lane was named as the new bishop last month
    in a move
    ending centuries of all-male leadership in the Church.
    莱恩女教士是在上个月被任命为新主教的,这一举动结束了数个世纪以来教会的领导者皆为男性的状况。

    The announcement came after the General Synod formally adopted legislation allowing women bishops.
    而宣布莱恩主教正式任职的公告紧随教会总会正式批准允许女性担任主教的法案之后。

    During the service she spoke to affirm and declare her belief in the faith and swore oaths of allegiance and canonical obedience.
    在祝圣仪式中,莱恩主教庄严宣布她的信仰,并宣誓效忠,遵守教规。
  • 锦衣暮夜行
    为何日本人生育这么少的孩子

    LAST month a local official in Aichiprefecture {set out a daring proposal}. Tomonaga Osada suggested that the authorities could distribute secretly punctured condoms to young married couples, who would then get to work boosting the birth rate. His unorthodoxploy won few supporters, yet it reflects {a gathering concern about } Japan’s demographic { plight}. Last year just over 1m babies were born, far fewer than the number needed to maintain the population, which is expected to {drop } from 127m to around 87m by 2060. Why are young Japanese so { loth} to procreate?

    上个月,日本爱知县当地官员提出了一项大胆的提议。Tomonaga Osada提议有关当局秘密向已婚的年轻夫妇发放被刺破的避孕套,以此让他们提高生育率。这个异端的计策并未获得支持,但这却反映了日益让人感到担忧的日本人口 困境,去年,日本只迎来了100万新生儿,这些数量远低于维持人口所需的数量。据预期,截至2060年,日本人口将从1.27亿落到8700万左右。那么,为何日本的年轻人 不愿意 生育子女呢?

    The chief reason for the 【dearth】 of births is the decline of marriage. Fewer people are opting to wed, and they are doing so later in life. At least a third of young women aim to become full-time housewives, yet they struggle to find men who can support a traditional family. In better economic times potential suitors had permanen tjobs as part of the “lifetime employment” system. Now many 【hold down保有】 temporary or part-time work. Other women 【shun 】marriage and children because Japan’s old-fashioned corporate culture, together with a 【dire】 shortage of childcare,would force them to give up their careers. Finally, young people are bound by strict social codes. Only around 2% of babies are born outside marriage(compared with 30-50% in most of the rich world), which means that as weddings 【plummet】, so do births. Even for those who do start families, the rising cost of 【child-rearing】 often imposes a 【de facto 】one-child policy.

    低生育率的主要原因是结婚率的降低。越来越少的人选择步入婚姻殿堂,他们选择在晚年结婚。至少有三分之一年轻女性的目标是成为全职家庭主妇,然而他们很难找到可以支撑起这种传统家庭模式的男人。在经济情况比较好的时候,她们潜在的求婚者拥有着“终身就业”体制内的稳定工作,但现在,很多人只有临时或兼职工作。日本老式的企业文化以及严重缺乏儿童保育迫使妇女不得不放弃职业也是另一些妇女避开婚姻和生育的原因。最后就是,年轻人受到严格社会规范的制约,只有2%的婴儿出生率发生在婚外(相比之下,大多发达国家达到了30-50%)。这意味着,结婚率下跌,出生率也跟着下跌。即使对于那些有孩子的人来说,养育孩子成本的增加使得他们往往只能落实一胎政策。

    So far the government of Shinzo Abe has talked about such steps, but shied away from taking them. Instead Mr Abe isacting to help women combine careers with children. Many demographers reckon it is already too late to 【lift】 Japan’s birth rate, now at 1.43 children per woman. The eventual answer, they say, will be more shocking even than spiked prophylactics: mass immigration.

    目前,安倍政府已经提到了这些措施,但却在回避落实。相反,安倍先生正采取行动帮助女性兼顾职业和孩子。很多人口学家认为,提高日本的生育率为时已晚,现在日本女性人均生育率为1.43。他们说,最终的解决方法将比发放被刺的避孕套更令人感到震惊:大批移民入境。
  • 锦衣暮夜行
    Most of the squeezing has taken place in the workplace. The pre-bubble generation, those who got jobs before the 1990 asset-price crash, had a fairly straightforward path to prosperity. After negotiating “exam hell”, they proceeded to good universities and from there to big companies that would recruit them straight after graduation. In return for life-long loyalty, employees would be given a job until retirement with ascending seniority and pay.
    大部分的“压榨”都发生在工作场所。泡沫之前的一代人,也就是那些在上世纪90年代资产价格崩溃之前获得工作的人,有一条通往富裕的直接道路。在经历了“考试地狱”之后,他们进入好的大学,毕业之后直接获得大企业的聘用。作为终生忠诚的回报,员工在退休之前都有工作保障,并且职位和薪资也在不断上升。

    This happy system was not for everyone. Even in the fast-growth decades, the lifetime employment model only covered about 30-40 per cent of employees. But its creed spread further than that. In 1990, just one in five employees was classified as non-permanent.

    但并不是每个人都能享受这种幸福体系。即使是在快速增长的那几十年,终生就业模式也只是覆盖到30%到40%的员工。但持有这样信条的人却远远超过这一比例。1990年,只有五分之一的就业者被认为是非永久性的。

    That all changed when the bubble burst. As companies paid back debts and slowly reined in expenses to match reduced revenue prospects, they cut costs. Naturally, there were some lay-offs. But in Japan, far fewer workers lost their jobs than in societies with more flexible labour laws and less sense of loyalty to existing employees.

    泡沫破灭的时候,所有的一切都发生了变化。公司既要偿还债务,又要因为未来收入下降的前景缓慢控制开销,因此它们会削减成本。很自然就会出现一些裁员。但相比有着更灵活劳动法和对现有员工忠诚感较低的社会,日本失业的工人较少。
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