Positive Psychology 哈佛幸福课 (课程精要与推荐书单)

Sophie

这门课号称以近900名学生的记录超过Intro Economics,成为哈佛最受欢迎的一门课,这一头衔是否属实不得而知,但就我看过的所有公开课中,这一门虽不是获得知识最多的,但可能是对人改变最大的。

Building Your Rituals:
Self-Concordant Goal based on you VIA
Take risks & challenges in the stretch zone
Become a merit finder and be grateful
Meditation & physical exercise
Journaling (replaying the positive, analyzing the negative, gratitude)
3M: Magnifying, Minimizing, Making up

ABC 3X2=6 ways of change
A: Affect (Emotions): Gradual: Meditation / Acute: Post Peak Experience Order
B: Behavior: Gradual: Attitude--Behavior Circle / Acute: Stretch Zone, Take risks, Attaining optimum levels of discomfort
C: Cognition: Gradual: Interpretation / Acute: The Eureka Experience

课程推荐网站汇总:
www.psychologymatters.org
www.luckfactor.co.uk
http://www.gratefulness.org
http://www.viacharacter.org
http://www.franklincovey.com/ez/urgencyanalysis/ua-prof.html


PPT 1====L1 & L2================================================
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应用层面:Two levels: Academic & Applied
It is not merely about information (external). It is also about transformation (internal).
最后一公里 What is wrong is not the great discoveries of science—information is always better than ignorance, no matter what Information or what ignorance. What is wrong is the belief behind the information, the belief that information will change the world. It won't.

#THE POWER OF QUESTIONS: Questions create reality
It is not about providing definitive answers concerning the good life. It is about identifying the right questions.
The Question of Questions: Happiness  
Questions create reality: Human systems grow in the direction of what they persistently ask questions about.
What's the course that I would like to take as an under-graduate here?
If that’s the only question we ask, that’s the only thing we will see. (It’s important to appreciate the virtues, the good.)

#学科背景及目的ON POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY:
Origin: Grandchild of Humanistic Psychology (50's) (self-actualization), which is the third force after behaviorism and psychoanalysis, but lacked rigorous methodology.

Accentuating the Positive (21/1 Ratio) (explained in L2):
The aim of Positive Psychology is to catalyze a change in psychology from a preoccupation only with repairing the worst things in life to also building the best qualities in life.
Focus on what works: what we focus on becomes reality.
Psychology as creative rather than merely reactive: Happiness is not the negation of unhappiness. Prevention through cultivating the positive
黑天鹅现象:study the extremes, instead of the norm: resilience
 
Psychology is not just the study of disease, weakness, and damage; it also is the study of strength and virtue. Treatment is not just fixing what is wrong; it also is building what is right. Psychology is not just about illness or health; it is about work, education, insight, love, growth, and play. And in this quest for what is best, Positive Psychology does not rely on wishful thinking, self-deception or hand-waving; instead it tries to adapt what is best in the scientific method to the unique problems that human behavior presents in all its complexity.

教育On Education:
Education is the quest for information and transformation, and therefore must begin with a question.
Children enter school as question marks and leave as periods
The one real object of education is to leave a man in the condition of continually asking questions.

# The soul grows by subtraction, not addition
Simplicity after sophistication: I would not give a fig for the simplicity on this side of complexity, but I would give my life for the simplicity on the other side of complexity.

消极补救vs.积极准备Disease Model (optimal is ZERO) vs. Health Model (become happier on a continuum)
---Focus on weaknesses Focus on strengths
---Overcoming deficiencies Building competencies
---Avoiding pain Seeking pleasure
---Running from unhappiness Pursuing happiness
---Neutral state (0) as ceiling No ceiling
---Tensionless as ideal Creative tension as ideal
Illness as the absence of health (vs. health as the absence of illness)
People are comfortably numb.
Health model: Cultivate capacity (creating a strong psychological immune system), which will also help to overcome difficulties
Metaphor: Immune system and engine

Resilience: A class of phenomena characterized by patterns of positive adaptation in the context of significant adversity or risk
  
Super kids: Ordinary characteristics, extraordinary results (explained in L2)
Resilience/ Social support/ Optimism and self-esteem/ Faith and a sense of meaning (helping others)/ Pro-social behavior/ Focusing on strengths/ Set goals/ A role model

Embracing stillness: Silence treatment, time-in



PPT 2===Five Basic Premises===L3(后2/3)&L4&L5(前1/2)=====五个前提===========
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Premises 1: Bridge building Vs. Division and separation
Bridging Ivory Tower and Main Street: Take the research and apply it!
Practical idealist!!! Generosity, goodwill and idealism necessary but not sufficient, still feeling short of your potential: the means and the will

Premises 2: Change is possible Vs. Change is illusive
Minnesota Twin Studies (Lykken and Tellegan): Later proved incorrect. Happiness not only determined by genes.
Increase the base line is possible: people DO change
Democratizing excellence: The error of average, study the exceptions (黑天鹅): Let's study the best, the happiest (the arrowhead/growing-tip)
If we want to know the possibilities for spiritual growth, value growth, or moral development in human beings, then we can learn most by studying our most moral, ethical, or saintly people. On the whole I think it is fair to say that human history is a record of the ways in which human nature has been sold short. The highest possibilities of human nature have practically always been underrated.... Certainly it seems more and more clear that what we call ‘normal’ in psychology is really a psychopathology of the average.

The power of one: All history is a record of the power of minorities, and of minorities of one
Exponential nature of social networks: Change happens exponentially.

Premises 3: Internal factors primarily determine happiness Vs. Happiness is primarily a function of external circumstances
Affective forecasting (Dan Gilbert): stable and robust base line, always go back to base line after big positive/negative events
Happiness levels (Ed Diener): Beyond extremes, external factors make little difference
Our readiness and potential to experience happiness is mostly dependent on our state of mind, not on our status or the state of our bank account: Focus on Transformation to increase the base line
It’s right/ wrong expectations, not high/ low expectations

Premises 4: Human nature must be obeyed Vs. Human nature must be perfected
Constrained vision: People nature cannot be changed (acceptance, channel the flawed and imperfect nature) (politically: capitalism); Understand nature and make best use of it
Unconstrained vision: can be improved, self-perfectioning (politically: utopianism and communism)

The permission to be HUMAN: Unconditional acceptance (One of the most important pillars of being happy)
Positive psychology does not mean a constant HIGH: when we suppress a natural phenomenon, it only strengthens it
Painful emotions as real as law of gravity
Active acceptance not resignation: being true to reality
A B C of psychology: Affect (emotion), Behavior (action), Cognition (thoughts)
AA movement: God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can change, and the wisdom to know the difference
###Unconditional Acceptance Meditation (End of L4)

Premises 5: Happiness is and ought to be the ultimate end Vs. Happiness should be a secondary pursuit
It feels good to feel good.
Positive emotions has purpose beyond feeling good (evolutionary reasons): helps build capacities (doctors that are given candy), improve health, broaden visions, build relationships: psychological growth
Broaden and build --- Positive emotions; Narrow and constrains --- Negative emotions
Happiness as a positive sum gain game
Be the change you want to see in the world: People mostly do what you do rather than what you say (cheek vs. chin). Lead by example: Spread happiness

  

PPT 3====Beliefs as Self-Fulfilling Prophecies====L5 (last 30min)&L6&L7(first40min)===
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理念的力量Beliefs shape reality: Ran a mile in 4 mins (subconscious barrier); Pygmalion effect
We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts.

环境作用Power of situation/environment:
Negative Situations: Milgram’s Obedience to Authority/ Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment
Positive Situations: Langer (1979): 1) men above 75, week in “1959” resort 2) testing eyesight, pilot role
  
#正面环境Creating a positive environment (words on the screen, words associated with old) (priming影射): pictures (people, places, etc); pleasant objects (memorabilia, flowers, etc); quotes
  
Self-help Movement: good, but overpromising and under deliver, belief as only part of the equation
Beliefs in personal efficacy affect life choices, level of motivation, quality of functioning, resilience to adversity and vulnerability to stress and depression   
People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. They produce their own future, rather than simply foretell it   
Self-esteem vs. Happiness: 0.7 correlations (much more important than place of residence……)

#作用机制Mechanism: Beliefs as Self-fulfilling Prophecies:
Beliefs Expectations---Motivation (hard work) Consistency (internal and external consistent, mind like consistency) ---Performance---Interpretation

How Brain Maintain consistency: 1) Update the schema; 2) Ignore/discard the inconsistency; 3) Actively look for confirmation; 4) Create reality
  
#The most successful scientists/artists are the ones that failed most times: Learn to fail. Fail to learn. “There is no substitute for hard work. I failed my way to success”---Thomas Edison

乐观悲观长短预期Optimism and Pessimism (Seligman): Interpretation Style/ Mental & Physical Health
Pessimist: realistic in short-term goal, realistic in long-term goal
Optimist: Unrealistic in short-term goal, realistic in long-term goal (interpretation after short-term failure is what I can learn from the failure)

不现实的理念Unrealistic beliefs: False optimism sooner or later means disillusionment, anger and hopelessness
The Stockdale Paradox: Need to have both 1) faith and beliefs and 2) realistic beliefs and evaluation of the situation
  
#The “Secret” of Success: Optimism, passion, hard work
==============================================
High expectations do NOT lead to great disappointment: Self-esteem=success/pretensions (X)
Dan Gilbert: robust base line

###提高基础值Coping versus Avoidance: increase base line over time
1: Self-perception Theory: we derive conclusions about self the same way we do others (courageous---high self-esteem)
2. Actual pain of failure is actually less than the pain associated with failure
3. Learn to fail. Fail to Learn: Hard Work Coping---Success---Self-Efficacy
To dare is to lose one’s footing momentarily. Not to dare is to lose oneself.


改变#On Becoming An Optimist: =====================
===============================================
1. Just do it! (Take Action)
2. Imagining Success (Visualization) (Both end results and process, journey and destination)
-- (The mind as a simulator) (Involve different senses) (Evoke emotions)
-- Constant praising does not work; constant succeeding works.一味表扬不如促使成功
3. Cognitive therapy (rational thinking) (Thoughts drive emotion---Restoring rationality) (Highly effective) (Event---Evaluation/Thought (intervene here)---Emotion) (Restore rationality) (3M: Magnifying, Minimizing, Making up or fabricating) #=#=#=#=#=#!!!
Get real (ask questions): Is my conclusion tied to reality? Is it rational? Ignoring something important? What other factors need to be taken into consideration? Magnifying? Big picture?

Extremely Happy People:
-Everyone experiences negative emotions: Spiraling down or up
-Different cognitive interpretations (pessimists vs. optimists)
-Self-fulfilling prophecies



PPT 4===Choice of focus Focus creates Reality===L7(last 40min)&L8&L9(First 42min)===
====L7很赞,如果说L7前主要是因为这门课的美誉而看,L7后则是因为课程本身了====
====L7和L8的结尾!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!============================================
Emotions determined by both external and internal: It appears that the way people perceive the world is much more important to happiness than objective circumstances

Focus creates Reality: We co-create our reality (e.g.: we make our own sandwiches)
Nothing is good or bad but thinking makes it so. Change of question. Change of focus.

Two Archetypes: The Fault Finder vs The Merit-finder (A stumbling block or a Stepping-Stone)
A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty
Downside: --The Fault Finder: Could lead to resignation
Downside: -- The Merit-finder: Could lead to detachment
Conclude: The need to respect reality

A Matter of Interpretation: Never let a good crisis go to waste
(Health relationship must have ups and downs, not a linear line)
#!!Things don’t necessarily happen for the best, but some people are able to make the best of things that happen. (Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in prison, but he was able to TRANSFORM it) Things will eventually be okay and I will get over it. Permission to be human the knowledge that difficult emotions will go away
L7 last 6 min !!!!!!

The Merits of being a Benefit Finder: Well-being, Health, Longevity (the Nun study), Trauma Recovery
The Nun Study: Short bio, decades later: all factors have zero correlation except positivity

Why aren't we optimistic?
1. We got detached from reality by media
-- Media bias: accentuating the negative, under-representing the positive.
-- Correcting the False Schema: Focus on the 90% full part of the glass (social & individual level) Appreciating Art & read Studies (individual level).
(The most important accomplishment of Gandhi: He made India proud of itself)
(Appreciate: Thanks/ gratitude & increasing value. Appreciation creates an upward spiral. What we focus on appreciates)
美,比历史更真实:Fiction is more important than history, as history depicts life as it is, fiction depicts life as it can or ought to be.
Positive Psychology: 1) Focus on what works 2) Focus on the extraordinary (tip of the stem): demoralize excellence!!!

2. Adaption: We are change detectors. Change detection helpful in case of danger. Adaptation helps to overcome difficulties but when we adapt, we tend to take things for granted.
Is it possible to have both? Adapt to the negative while not adapt as much to the positive
(Rabbi Story: bring the chicken, cow and horse into the house)
Must things get worse before we recognize how wonderful our lives are?

Learning to be Grateful:
Become Life Connoisseurs: You say grace before meals. All right. But I say grace before the concert and the
opera, and grace before the play and pantomime, and grace before I open a book, and grace before sketching, painting, swimming, fencing, boxing, walking, playing, dancing, and grace before I dip the pen in the ink.
Gratefulness is the measure of our aliveness. Are we not dead to whatever we take for granted? Surely to be numb is to be dead
We live in a ‘given’ world... What brings fulfillment is gratefulness, the simple response of our heart to this given life in all its fullness
Gratitude produced the most purely joyful moments that have been known to man
Gratitude is not only the greatest of virtues, but the parent of all others
To live and die in gratefulness, if in no other virtue

Emmons and McCullough (2002): Four groups: gratitude, hassles, superior, control. Gratitude performs best.
Maintaining freshness through mindful focus: What was fun for you today? DAILY Journaling, express Gratitude (win-win)
Ellen Langer: Mindfulness as creating novel distinctions (creating variety, maintaining love)
Visualization: Kids visualize more, adults think in language

Take action: knowledge won't make you a benefit-finder. Need to DO it. Don’t wait, there is no other way to change.
From asking "What's wrong" to asking "What's great"

Analyzing and Replaying
Experiment: Write/talked/#thinking about the best experience, #Write/talked/thinking about the worst experience
Negative experience should be shared and wrote/analysis over. (Vietnam war veteran VS. Holocaust veteran)

The Ten Cognitive Distortions (David Burns) (magnifying, minimizing, imagination)
1. All-or-nothing thinking
2. Over-generalization
3. Mental filter
4. Disqualifying the positive
5. Jumping to conclusions: Mind reading and Fortune telling
6. Magnifying or minimizing
7. Emotional reasoning
8. ‘Should’ or ‘must’ statements
9. Labeling
10. Personalization and blame


PPT 5====改变Change=====L9(Last 25min)&L10&L11&L12(First 40min)=============
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Change is hard: Baseline determined by genes (50%). Affective forecasting (go back to baseline). Failed Intervention (Cambridge-Somerville study)
Happiness 50% determined on genes, but if Michael Jordan didn’t work on his basket ball, average player can beat him
Change is possible: Error of the average. The exception proves the rule (given the existence of the exception, then question becomes how is it possible, instead of whether it is possible?)

Neuroplasticity: Neuro-pathway self-reinforcing: strengthened when used, shrink when stop use (London taxi driver study)
Habits as fortified pathways: Channel of fault finder/ merit finder (effect of meditation)

Change: Gradual change/ Acute Change (not quick fix, because need intensive preparation)

The Price of Quick-Fix:
The belief that we can rely on shortcuts to gratification and bypass the exercise of personal strengths and virtues is folly. It leads... to legions of humanity who are depressed in the middle of great wealth and are starving to death spiritually.
急功求利的励志书Self-Help Book Movement: Success literature (Covey, 1989); Character change (1800-1930); Quick-fix (1930-today) (Best self-help books are bios because they show you the process)

1. 潜意识抗拒改变Do you really want to change?
The Cost/Benefit of Change (Langer & Thompson 1989)
Rigidity with Consistency; Gullibility with Trustworthiness; Grimness with Seriousness; Perfectionism with Drive/ambition; Worry/anxiety with Responsibility; Guilt with Empathy/sensitivity; Relax more with Lose edge; Fault-finding with Realism; Happiness with No pain no gain (better understanding of these characteristics)

六种改变方法Learning (and applying) Your ABC 3X2 (gradual and acute)=6 ways of change

#=#=#=#=#=# A: Affect (Our Emotions)
1 ===Gradual change Emotion: 静坐冥想 Meditation (Cultivating mindfulness can lead to the discovery of deep realms of relaxation, calmness, and insight within yourself... The path to it in any moment lies no farther than your own body and mind and your own breathing)
Meditation: Scan body, breathing into tension and release (Permission to be Human: Mindfulness means seeing things as they are, without trying to change them. The point is to dissolve our reactions to disturbing emotions, being careful not to reject the emotion itself)

2 ===Acute Change Emotion: 突发/高峰事件Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A positive equivalent to trauma?
Acute Change through Peak Experience: lead to a permanent increase in well-being, calm, and positive memories
Post Peak Experience Order (PPEO) (Peak experience as ‘positive trauma’) (Post Traumatic Growth)
Making the Most of Peak Experiences: If one keeps his goals right, and if one knows just what he is about, and if one is conscious of what he is going toward. We can certainly talk about the development of spontaneity, and of courage, and of Olympian or Godlike humor and suchness, sensory awareness, body awareness.
---Enhancing the likelihood of PE: acceptance (permission to be human); mindfulness; music; meaningful goal; taking time (rush travel)
---Enhancing the likelihood of PPEO: reflecting (replay imagination same pathway); journaling (coherence through writing); taking action; taking time

#=#=#=#=#=# B: Behavior
3 ===Gradual change: 态度和行为的影响循环Effect of workshop: Introduce IMMEDIATE behavioral change
Attitude --- Behavior Circle: Attitude affects Behavior; Behavior affects Attitude (the mind always look for consistency)
Class and knowledge can only introduce Attitude change, need to take IMMEDIATE behavioral change (US war prisoner in Communist country)
Self-perception theory (Bem, 1967)
Facial feedback hypothesis (sometimes your joy is the source of your smile, but some times your smile is the source of your joy) (actress)
Body feedback hypothesis (body posture change people, walking around proud: Marva Collins)
Overcoming shyness (Haemmerlie, 1987) (内向男实验室等候实验12minX6人)
Fake it till you make it (Myers, 1992) (accept the emotion, but behavior: just take action):Those whose deeds exceed their wisdom, their wisdom shall endure; but those whose wisdom exceeds their deeds, their wisdom shall not endure (光说不做)

4 ===Acute Change: 挑战 Coping, Stretch Zone, Take risks, Attaining ‘optimum levels of discomfort’
Bias for action:increase confidence by taking risks; reduce stress by simplifying; become more positive by practicing gratefulness; Imagination (exposure through visualization)

#=#=#=#=#=# C: Cognition
5 ===Gradual change: 认知 Interpretation as neural pathway; Changing our interpretation style takes time
The world according to the fault-finder/ The (same) world according to the merit-finder: "You know my father, how do you expect me to be any other way?"
Examples of Cognitive Reconstruction:
See things as Challenge instead of threat / Arousal as euphoria or anger (Schachter & Singer, interpretation of physical arousal) / Cooperation or competition (游戏名字决定一切,话题引导) / Volunteering as privilege instead of duty (reframe the concept) / Relationships about being known or being validated (Schnarch, 1997)
### (want my students to know me instead of like me) / Failure as opportunity or disaster / Work as exercise or chore (hotel maid)

6 ===Acute Change:灵感顿悟 The Eureka Experience
The Creative Process: preparation—immersion; incubation—idle time; eureka—insight; evaluation—reality test; elaboration—coherence
Take Time Off, Take Time In: I can do a year’s work in nine months, but not in twelve.

日记法 Combining ABC’s: Journaling
===Writing about intense positive experiences: Think of the most wonderful experience or experiences in your life, happiest moments, replay relive describe
===Analyze negative experience (what happened, what do you think): Mechanism: tension release; coherence; tell a STORY out of it, understanding (Vietnam war)
An artifact of our ambiguous and unpredictable world is the anxiety of not attaining completion and not understanding a simple cause-and-effect explanation for traumatic disturbances. Alas, we naturally search for meaning and the completion of events; it gives us a sense of control and predictability over our lives
Source of Mental Health (People in Crisis that survived):
==Sense of coherence/comprehensibility;
==Sence of managementability, I can deal with it;
==Sense of meaningfulness

Combining the ABC’s: Affect--Bahavior--Cognition--Affect (learned helplessness)

!!!关于自律的误解:Self-discipline VS. Ritual
!#!#!#!#!#! Change the focus from RELYING on self-discipline to introducing RITUALS
You get your own share of self-discipline, you are not going to get any more (Baked cookie then solve prob experiment: Chocolate people have used up their QUOTA of self-dicipline)
(People don’t full fill new year resolution, but always brush their teeth)
(Athletes / Sportsman and the illusion of self-discipline, in fact ritual) (Rituals in relationship) (Artist: creative rituals)
Creating rituals needs self-discipline; Maintaining rituals does NOT
Introduce no more than 2 rituals in 30 days

唯美艺术还是现世艺术:“I know of no more encouraging fact than the unquestionable ability of man to elevate his life by a conscious endeavor. It is something to be able to paint a particular picture, or to carve a statue, and so to make a few objects beautiful; but it is far more glorious to carve and paint the very atmosphere and medium through which we look, which morally we can do. To affect the quality of the day, that is the highest of arts.” Henry David Thoreau



PPT 6====Goal Setting & Stress & Procrastination===L12(After40)&L13&L14(First30)====
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Importance of Goal Setting:
1) Focus: Being focused on a task produces organization for efficiency both within the organism and in the environment
2) Resilience (Future oriented) (If we have the what for, every how becomes possible)
3) Goals, like positive beliefs, act as self-fulfilling prophecies
Words create worlds, Concepts conceive: meaningful Goals, create an image, minds look for consistency Whatever you can do, or dream you can, begin it! Boldness has genius, magic, and power in it.

Happiness East and West: Buddhism: Non-attachment. Goal is an attachment to the outcome这点其实很玄,我觉得佛教无所欲求是对于物质的,但佛教修行本身就是一种精神目标,无论是大乘佛教地藏菩萨要清空地狱,或是小乘佛教中的无为,本身也是一种“为”

目标的幸福价值在于当下 Enjoy the Present: Goals are means to the PRESENT end
Obtaining of the goals only leads to temporary happiness
Proper Understanding of Goals lead to happiness: Having a goal leads to happiness
The goal gives future orientation; liberate us to enjoy the Here and Now, the process
Future goals as means; present experiences as ends: The case of unhappy high-achievers (the thought they will be happy when they get there. After success, they realize that there is no THERE there)
Happiness is not about making it to the peak of the mountain, nor is it about climbing aimlessly around the mountain; happiness is the experience of climbing toward the peak. (It doesn’t matter whether you take job A or job B, as long as you are committed; enjoying the journey is the same)
Contemporary researchers emphasize that it is the process of striving after goals—rather than goal attainment per se—that is crucial for happiness and positive affectivity

Live not for battles won / Live not for the-end-of-the-song / Live for the along

自我和谐的目标 Self-Concordant Goals are the best goals:
Aligned with personal interests and values / Freely chosen goals / ‘Want to’ vs. ‘Have to’ / “What do you really, really want to do?”
Carpe Diem (Seize the Day): Life is too short to do what I have to do; it’s barely long enough to do what I want to do.
Becoming self concordant] is a difficult skill, requiring both accurate self-perceptual abilities and the ability to resist social pressures that may sometimes push one in inappropriate directions.”

Spirituality: the real sense of significance of something
If you choose a Self-Concordant Goal, you will lead a spiritual life
!!!Investment banker who goes into the industry for the right reasons will lead a more spiritual life than a monk who goes into the order for the wrong reasons.

The Benefits of Self-Concordance Goal
1) Increase in wellbeing 2) Resolve internal conflict 3) Increased likelihood of success (do it better with pleasure) 4) Entering a positive upward spiral: Trickle effect into non-self-concordant area 5) a Self-Concordance journey towards a Self-Concordance Goal

内在自身冲突和外在人际冲突都可用目标法解决:将对峙双方放在一起和谈不解决问题,给出一个共同目标解决问题
Health (Langer, 1989) 养老院例子完全没有说清楚: no choice and too easy not a good thing
Freedom vs. Oppression political system

此处PPT与讲课内容不符,应该是新老版本问题 VIA: Value in Action (Chris Peterson): one of the most ambitious and important area in positive psychology: http://www.viacharacter.org
Positive counterpart of DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder)
Identify individual characteristics and strength: 24 character strength and virtues (6 categories)
!!!Think about how you can Apply your TOP strength in different way, in weak areas, in areas you want to change
VIA helps both positive (create) and negative (deal with)

真我 Authenticity: Is this the real me?
I have often thought the best way to define a man's character would be to seek out the particular mental or moral attitude in which, when it comes upon him, he felt himself most deeply and intensely active and alive. At such moments there is a voice inside which speaks and says: ''This is the real me!''

Work Orientation (mostly depend on the interpretation of the work): three interpretations
==Job: motivation: paycheck; look forward to holiday
==Career: motivation: money and status, race to the top, promotion, consultant to associate
==Calling: motivation is itself, a mission, a privilege, and look for more work
Instead of thinking about what we want to live with, we should think about what we can't live without.

执行 Setting Goals: Writing them done; Set timelines; Make them specific.
Have a Goal, break it down, have rituals around those goals

Best goal have 50% possibility of achieving them
If you only look at the outcome, not the journey, then you are less likely to BELIEVE you can achieve the same level of success (Langer Study: 成功人士,一组只介绍结果;一组同时介绍经历)
People can imaging themselves taking steps, while great heights seem entirely forbidden.

压力管理 Deal with Stress: need to Take time out
Study of stress has been looking at the wrong place, what do those successful and able to lead a healthy life do?
1) Having Rituals 2) Having rituals for both Work and Recovery
Stress is not the problem, it helps resilience, capacity, like muscle training。 Problem is lack of recovery
Recovery: change from Marathon runners to Sprint runner, maintain flexibility

Multilevel Recovery (Focus on both work and recovery):
Daily: 60-120Min work, 15 min off (meditation, music, gym); Sleep
Weekly 90min X 10 rituals, yoga, etc
Vacations: Recreate so that we can Create

简化,勿多进程 Simplyfy your life: Do less, not more. Say “yes” by saying “no”
Together is not the same thing (study on women spending time with kids: not really present)
Like combining two favorite piece of music. Too much of a good thing.
Having you email on while doing work that requires concentration: equals minus ten IQ points, the equivalent of missing a full night sleep
Reach optimum level of simplification: Productivity with Amount of work 半圆曲线

From material to happiness perception: time affluence creates happiness, not material
Fun and Function: Now and Future

!!!拖延症 Overcoming Procrastination: Procrastination Research Group
!!!The 5-minute take off: A misunderstanding on what takes to act. Misunderstanding that they need to be inspired. It is actually the other way around. Need to start action then change attitude. Once you start, you get on the road. Sometimes restart after 90 min. (OK, for 5 minutes, just Push)
Reward yourself / Go public / The team approach / Goals, plans, lists / Permission to re-create
Managing time: Urgency and Important



PPT 7======Perfection to Excellence=====L14(After30&L15&L16(First30)============
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PPT 11&8==Health & Mindfulness (Body & Mind)==============================
=====L16(Health After30)&L17(Mindfulness &Meditation)&L18(First36Sleep&Touch)==
这门课号称以近900名学生的记录超过Intro Economics,成为哈... 展开

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