This introductory survey traces the origins and development of two revolutionary 20th-century art movements: Dada and Surrealism. It explores the full range of artistic production, including film, photography and painting. The art is situated within a context of ideas. Against the background of the slaughter of World War I, the Dadas embarked upon a total reconsideration of nationalism, materialism and the basis of art. Hugo Ball and Tristan Tzara in Zurich, Richard Huelsenbeck and Raoul Hausmann in Berlin, Francis Picabia and Andre Breton in Paris - all emphasized the freedom of the individual in their art. Dada has no consistent style and was never an organized movement. Surrealism, on the other hand, was a clearly constituted movement with a recognized charismatic leader, Andre Breton. In an attempt to reconcile the rational and irrational sides of existence, the movement explored dreams, trances and automatism. The results include the paintings of Max Ernst, Joan Miro, Salvadore Dali and Rene Magritte.