1. Anders Ericsson-deliberate practice
Malcolm Gladwell’s popular 10,000-hour rule
According to Ericsson, deliberate practice involves stepping outside your comfort zone and trying activities beyond your current abilities. While repeating a skill you’ve mastered might be satisfying, it’s not enough to help you get better. Moreover, simply wanting to improve isn’t enough-people also need well-defined goals and the help of a teacher who makes a plan for achieving them.
Deliberate Practice实际上一直就是存在的，在Ericsson的研究成果中。只是一万个小时理论被Gladwell写成畅销书, 数字和故事的包装，为了满足大众的传播心理需求，刻意练习的作用不断被忽视。
The concept of the 10,000-hour rule is derived from the work of psychologist K. Anders Ericsson, who studied the way people become experts in their fields. Author Malcolm Gladwell brought the idea into the mainstream in his book "Outliers."(畅销书)
The reality is that in certain fields, like professional sports, all the practice in the world isn't going to help if your body isn't up to the task.
And even the combination of time and natural ability isn't quite enough to guarantee expertise, according to Ericsson. It's about how you spend that time — which has led to the development of a concept known as "deliberate practice."
In deliberate practice, you need to be fully tuned in to learning the skill you are working on, and minimize distractions as much as possible (put away your phone). Because focusing intently takes so much energy, you can really only sustain that level of practice for 60 to 90 minutes at a time, perhaps two hours at most.
Putting in too much time might mean you're not making good use of it. If that's the case, you're more likely to burn out. Instead, try to focus harder for a defined period of time, then take a rest.
2. The first 20 hours-how to learn anything(TED)
The core idea is that, with a bit of strategy, you can learn just about any skills to asufficientlevel with around 20 hours (and often less) of concentrated, focused effort.
§ Do not depend on willpower to get yourself to practice; be strategic about it, e.g., by eliminating distractions.
§ To learn a skill:
1. Deconstructit into the smallest possible subskills.
2. Learnenough about each subskill to be able to practice effectively and self-correct.
3. Removeany physical, mental, or emotional barriers that get in the way of practice.
4. Practicethe most important subskills for at least 20 hours.
3. The adult learning theory
Malcolm Knowles’ 4 Principles Of Andragogy
In 1984,Knowlessuggested4 principlesthat are applied to adult learning:
1) Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
2) Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for the learning activities.
3) Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance and impact to their job or personal life.
4) Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented. (Kearsley, 2010)
4. Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development