关于翻译

2018-03-30 19:37:27

对照着几位老师的译本(其中常的版本是其根据杜威演讲所整理),站在巨人的肩膀上提出一些个人想法,待指正。

1. Education, in its broadest sense, is the means of this social continuity of life. (《democracy and education》,P6)

王承绪先生:教育在它最广的意义上就是这种生活的社会延续。(p7)

:广义来说,教育是社会生活延续的手段。

2. Unless pains are taken to see that genuine and thorough transmission takes place, the most civilized group will relapse into barbarism and then into savagery.(p8)

王承绪先生:除非尽力做到真正和彻底的传递,最文明的群体将会进化到野蛮状态,然后恢复到原始人类。

改:除非尽力做到真正和彻底的传递,否则即使是最文明的群体也将会退化到原始的野蛮的状态。

3. Only as we have grasped the necessity of more fundamental and persistent modes of tuition can we make sure of placing the scholastic methods in their true context.

王承绪先生:只有当我们领会更为基本的和更为持久的教导方式的必要性时,我们才能把教育方法摆在适当的位置上。

改:只有当我们领会更为基本而持久的教导方式的必要性时,我们才能将学校式的教导方式置于正确的地位上。

4. Being taken out becomes an interesting to child ; mother and chid not only go out with each other physically , but both are concerned in going out.

王承绪先生:对孩子来说,被带出门变成一种兴趣;母亲和孩子不仅一同出门,两个人都出门有关系

改:对孩子来说,被带出门变成一种兴趣;不仅在在纯物理行动的层面上,母亲和孩子一同出门,而且在心理和情感的层面上,两个人都关心出门这件事情。

5. The tendency of such an aim as preparation is, as we have seen, to omit existing powers, and find theaim in some remote accomplishment or responsibility. In general, there is a disposition to take considerations which are dear to the hearts of adults and set them up as ends irrespective of the capacities of those educated.There is also an inclination to propound aims which are so uniform as to neglect the specific powers and requirements of an individual, forgetting that all learning is something which happens to an individual at a given time and place. (P.105)

王承绪先生:我们前面讲过,把预备作为教育目的,有不顾个人现有能力而把某种遥远的成就和职责作为教育目的的倾向。总的来看,(少加粗)人们有一种倾向,就是提出千篇一律的目的,忽视个人的特殊能力和要求,忘记了一切只是都是一个人在特定时间和特定地点获得的。

加:人们有着一种趋向,那就是把成人喜好的行为当做目的而不管受教者能力如何。

6. To do these things means to have a mind①-- for mind isprecisely intentional purposeful activity controlled by perception of facts and their relationships to one another. To have a mind to do a thing is to foresee a future possibility; it is to have a plan for its accomplishment; it is to note the means which make the plan capable of execution and the obstructions in the way, -- or, if it is really a mind to do the thing and not a vague aspiration -- it is to have a plan which takes account of resources and difficulties. Mind is capacity to refer present conditions to future results, and future consequences to present conditions. And these traits are just what is meant by having an aim or a purpose. A man is stupid or blind or unintelligent -- lacking in mind -- just in the degree in which in any activity he does not know what he is about, namely, the probable consequences of his acts.

王承绪先生:要做这几件事,就是要用心①——因为心②就是认识事实及其相互关系所控制的有意识、有目的的活动。用心③做一件事,就是遇见未来的可能性;就是具有实现这个可能性的计划;就是注意使计划得以实现的手段和挡路的障碍,或者,如果真有心④做这件事,而不只是一种模糊的愿望,就是有一个考虑到各种力量和困难的计划。心思⑤就是一种能力,能把当前的情况参照未来的结果,又能把未来的结果参照当前的情况。这些特性就是所谓有目的。一个人所以愚蠢、盲目或不聪明——没有心思⑥——和他在任何活动中不了解他行为的可能结果的程度有关。

改:要做这几件事,就是要明智①—因为智②就是认识事实及其相互关系所控制的有意识、有目的的活动。明智地③做一件事,……如果明智地④做这件事,……明智⑤就是一种能力……一个人所以愚蠢、盲目或不聪明——不明智⑥——和他在任何活动中不了解他行为的可能结果的程度有关。

7. The term end in view is suggestive, for it puts before the mind the termination or conclusion of some process. (p.110)

王承绪先生:目标这个名词是有暗示作用,因为它使我们把某一过程的终点或结局放在心上。

林宝山先生:观点的终结(end in view)一词极富暗示性,因为它把某些过程的终结或结束呈现心灵(mind)之前。

改:目的(end in view)一词有提示作用,因为它使我们在思考如何达到目的(aim)之前,就提前遇见了某一过程的终点或结局。

8. A large part of the art of instruction lies in making the difficulty of newproblems large enough to challenge thought, and small enough so that, in addition to the confusion naturally attending the novel elements, there shall be luminous familiar spots from which helpful suggestions may spring. (P163)

王承绪先生:教学的艺术,大部分在于使新问题的困难程度大到足以激发思想,小到加上新奇因素自然地带来的疑难,足以使学生得到一些富于启发性的立足点,从此产生有助于解决问题的建议。

改:教学的艺术大部分在于:使新问题足够困难,以至于挑战原有观念;又足够简单,以至于除了随着新奇因素而自然产生的困惑,还有明显、熟悉的因素,从而产生有助于解决问题的见解。

9. The absence of suppressed but effectual ulterior aims for which the professed aim is but a mask.(p.183)

王承绪先生:不存在许多被压制而实际起作用的外部目的,明确承认的目的不过是这些目的的一个假面具。(p.192)

常道直先生:同一时间具有两个或两个以上之目的:表面所宣示之目的,仅为心中所蕴藏目的之假面具。(p.215)

改:缺乏受压制的但具有实际作用的隐秘的内在目的,对外宣称的目的仅仅是一个假面具。

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