The Self, the Other, and the Nation + 第六章感想

Lei
2018-03-11 05:39:16

寫於準備現代日本文學的博士資格考試之際。寫完了之後發現,自己對此書的總體感想完全出自於個人對作者的敬仰之情,對於準備考試可能最終沒什麼用,因此放在這裡。然而因為考試的官方語言是英文,所寫感想的時候用了英文而非中文。2018年03月10日

全書感想 Origins of Modern Japanese Literature has been read by scholars both in Japan and the US as one of the best works of literary criticism of modern Japanese literature. Karatani Kōjin, the author of this book, discusses some of the crucial issues of the term that we know today as “modern” Japanese literature. Engaging his discussions with western as well as Japanese critics, Karatani talks about the construction of this term in relation to nationalism, modern self, and modernity. The reason he wrote this book, based on the preface he wrote for the Chinese translation of this book, is that he had a serious doubt about the rec

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寫於準備現代日本文學的博士資格考試之際。寫完了之後發現,自己對此書的總體感想完全出自於個人對作者的敬仰之情,對於準備考試可能最終沒什麼用,因此放在這裡。然而因為考試的官方語言是英文,所寫感想的時候用了英文而非中文。2018年03月10日

全書感想 Origins of Modern Japanese Literature has been read by scholars both in Japan and the US as one of the best works of literary criticism of modern Japanese literature. Karatani Kōjin, the author of this book, discusses some of the crucial issues of the term that we know today as “modern” Japanese literature. Engaging his discussions with western as well as Japanese critics, Karatani talks about the construction of this term in relation to nationalism, modern self, and modernity. The reason he wrote this book, based on the preface he wrote for the Chinese translation of this book, is that he had a serious doubt about the reception of Japanese modern literature in late 1970s, which equated this term with national literature. Karatani states, that modern Japanese literature was constructed by intellectuals in Meiji 20s as a way to challenge authority and established culture norms. However, 90 years later, writers who engaged themselves in the construction of modern literature, such as Natsume Sōseki, became an iconic figure of national literature and his novels were adapted into national textbooks written for high school students. While the spirit of modern literature lies within its power to undercut, challenge and destroy the voice of authority, the reception of Natsume Sōseki as a model of national literature foreshadows the death of modern literature, which according to Karatani already happened in early 2000s, the time when he wrote this preface. Although Karatani had a pessimistic view of modern Japanese literature, I believe that the huge influence and the multiple language translations of this book show that questions and doubts about the equation of modern literature with national literature have already taken place not only in Japan but also in other countries. Intellectuals from China and Korea, who have the very same concern that Karatani has about modern literature, agree with him. While Karatani talks about how modern literature in Japan began to take share in early Meiji period as a way to reflect writers’ concerns about Japan’s westernization and modernization after Perry’s ship arrived Japan in 1853, I believe same logic can be applied to the reception of Karatani’s book in China and Korea. That is to say, the arrival of Perry’s ship gave the Japanese an opportunity to consider their position in the world vis a vis the West, the image of which was new to them. Similarly, Karatani’s book brings possibilities for intellectuals in China and Korea to think about modern literature in their own countries vis a vis Karatani’s framing of modern literature in Japan. The Other not only forces but also gives us a change to think about our “self,” that is, who we are, our country, and our nation.


第六章感想

在所有的章節裡,我認為第六章是一個很有意思,也十分的具有爭議性的章節。柄谷在這一章裡,用數學和繪畫的基礎理論解釋了為什麼現代很多人覺得古典文學缺乏深度。

他首先說我們之所以覺得江戶時期的古典文學缺少深度,只不過是因為我們對深度的認識和江戶時期的人對深度的認識不一樣罷了。現代人因為受到西洋科學的影響,在潛意識裡會把所有的三次元空間的事物,通過作圖法轉化為平面的二次元進行分析。比如,我們在分析一個正方形,會用數學上的透視法,在紙上先畫它的透視圖,再進行分析。再比如在數學家的眼裡,世界是一個一個的存在於紙上的數學公式。他們會用數學數列,“3,5,8,13,21..." 來分析為什麼一朵花上花瓣經常是3,5,8,或13朵。因為古人用的不是這樣的思維系統,所以我們才會覺得古人的文字經常缺乏深度。

我個人不完全同意柄谷的理論。首先,像《道德經》那樣的書籍,無論在那個國家,應該很少有現代人覺得它的文字沒有深度和內涵。同時,現代科學雖然是從西方開始,逐步進入亞洲的,但這並不能證明在亞洲古人沒有數學和科學的概念,沒有科學的世界觀。套用柄谷的話,現代人之所以覺得古人沒有科學概念,是因為我們不懂古人的科學觀罷了。比如,我們可以說《易經》是一本用古代科學的方法研究世界的書。但是我們之所以不這麽說,是因為大部分現代人不明白《易經》是通過什麼樣的邏輯和原理寫出來的。

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