葛传槼英语写作之道

Treaser
2018-02-25 看过
久闻葛老《葛传椝英语写作》在豆瓣有高分9.1,寒假花三日粗读,确新以往初高中之写作观。余其实是出于提高托福写作而读之。主要因困于未知所写句虽花哨,然是否符合英语表达习惯。其次困于更加优美之词句。再次困于寻乎英语之思维而克中文之思维之影响。计欲寻谙英语正确表达、优美表达、地道表达之道之捷径而读之。
        葛老者,昔复旦英文系三巨头,其略事迹窥见于复旦英文系三巨头的文革岁月http://cul.qq.com/a/20150801/006764.htm,乃自己学而成之天才,曾被《King's English》字典主编H.W. Fowler褒言曰:… your letter is in faultless English, and, long as it is, nowhere betrays, as nearly all foreigners’ letters do by some trifling lapse in idiom, that its writer is not an Englishman. I receive many letters in English from foreigners, but do not remember ever having had occasion to say this before.(大意为:你的信用完全无误的英语写成,并且,虽然很长,没有一处透露出来你的英语非母语,大多非英语母语的外国人的信都有一些习语上的细微错误。我收到了很多外国人用英语写的信,不记得哪一次能有机会说出我跟你说的这些话。)
        余乃善疑之人,凡是必恭之然后信。故此书虽有厚誉,余仍先略读,若善,再细读。于是在正月闲暇之余,余抽间隙而略读之,总三日。书评非吾所善也,若有谬评,请指之。全书实有248个小节(可见于目录),而概四大部分。
        一、简介及一般原则
        简介。葛老曰:此书为中国学生英语写作之书,故先罗列中国学生一般的长处与短处。然后严谨而对composition与compositions做了辨析。
        一般原则。葛老所在年代无计算机或手机,因而写作概于书面(亦有打字机)。葛老道明了英文写作应有之纸面页面等详尽设置,可开阔眼界。此大部分目录为:
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1. Composition and Compositions
2. Purpose of This Book
3. Your Advantage
4. Your Special Difficulties
5. Rhetoric
CHAPTER II MECHANICS OF COMPOSITION
6. Materials
7. One Side or Two Sides?
8. Margins
9. Spacing
10. Titles
11. Paging
12. Folding
13. Endorsing
14. Spelling
15. Syllabication
16. Underlining
17. Italics
18. Omissions, Corrections, and Insertions
19. A Warning
二、如何学习英语写作
葛老曰:写作无非是写你心中所想。故先有物以言(Something to Say),再需只何以言(How to Say It)。其后荐学写作所需之材料与练习,字典、文段积累、写日志、缩句、扩句尔尔。全见于小节目录:
CHAPTER III LEARNING TO WRITE
20. Something to Say
21. How to Say It
22. A Consolation
23. Others May Have Said It before You
24. What to Read
25. How to Read
26. Some Dictionaries Recommended
27. Self-cultivation
28. Writing from Memory
29. Imitation, Conscious and Unconscious
30. Reading Dictionaries
31. Expressing Another Person’s Thoughts
32. Paraphrasing Sentences
33. Suggestions for Paraphrasing
34. Paraphrasing Paragraphs
35. Paraphrasing Verse
36. Condensing
37. Various Degrees of Condensation
38. Suggestions for Condensing
39. Using Materia1 in Han
40. Expressing Your Own Thoughts
41. Keeping a Diary
42. Choosing a Subject
43. Choosing a Title
44. Taking Notes
45. Making an Outline
46. Note-taking and Outline-making in the Head
47. Making Outlines of What You Read
48. Expanding an Outline
49. Practice in Composition
三、如何正确写作,一般部分
葛老曰:此乃本书之精华,几四中三之篇幅。正确写作,需懂语法(Grammar)与词法(Idiom)。于原文:50.What is Correct English? The idea seems to prevail among Chinese students of English that correct English is nothing but grammatical English. This is not true. An expression may be perfectly grammatical and yet incorrect. It is incorrect because it contains a word or a phrase used in a wrong sense.
而语法与词法乃时变也。葛老所在年代与当今之年代亦稍微有所不同也。且不同国家之英语用法亦有所不同也,如英国之于美国。虽然,其国之不同概可以被理解也。
君若问汝读书之一目的乃学正确英语,葛老是否说明如何掌握正确语法与词法之捷径乎?非也非也,此无捷径乎。概多读书查询运用乃可以提高也(见于65. Some Books Recommended)。学习无捷径,如看书无捷径,书评无法阐明书之奥蕴。其后,此书大讲一般语法与词法,仔细阅读,乃高考语法之云云,犹记高考当年选择题第一题之冠词判断,余常错,原来亦涉及写作噫。然,多语法吾辈者概得知于高考复习,余读此书时快速跳过。详尽目录见于下:
CHAPTER IV WRITING CORRECTLY
50. What is Correct English?
51. Usage
52. Present-day Usage
53. Neologisms
54. English and American Usage
55. Good Usage
56. Expressions Outside of Good Usage
57. Colloquialisms Etc in Written English
58. You are Quite Safe
59. How You Violate Usage
CHAPTER V WRITING CORRECTLY (Continued)
60. Grammar
61. Idiom
62. Grammar and Idiom
63. About the Study of Grammar
64. About the Study of Idiom
65. Some Books Recommended
66. Make Your Own Dictionary of Usage
67. Exercises in Grammar
68. Proper Nouns Used as Common Nouns
69. Nouns Used as Adjectives
70. Singulars and Plurals
71. Nouns Singular Only
72. Nouns Plural Usually or Plural Only
73. Nouns Plural in a Special Usage
74. Nouns of Multitude
75. Abstract Nouns in Plural
76. Material Nouns in Plural
77. Nouns Ending in “-ics”
78. Some Miscellaneous Nouns
79. Numerals in Plural
80. Number in Nouns Used as Adjectives
81. Number and Articles
82. Plural Subject with Singular Verb
83. Some Knotty Points of Number
84. Gender and Sex
85. Male or Female Beings Considered Neuter
86. Animals Considered Masculine or Feminine Without Reference to Sex
87. Sexless Things Considered Masculine or Feminine
88. Masculine and Feminine Nouns Used as Nouns of Common Gender
89. Feminine Nouns Ending in “-ess”
90. Nouns Ending in “-man”
91. Words of Common Gender Made Masculine or Feminine
92. Gender and Number
93. Possessive Case and Of-phrase
94. Subjective and Objective Meanings
95. Possessive Plurals
96. Noun Phrases and Possessive Case
97. “’S” Repeated and “Of” Repeated
98. Possessive Case and Lifeless Things
99. Idiomatic Uses of Possessive Case
100. Noun Omitted after Possessive
101. “Of” before Possessive
102. One Noun in Two Cases
103. Pronoun and its Antecedent
104. Lack of a Common-gender Third-person-singular Pronoun
105. A Question of Person
106. Case in Pronouns
107. Objective Used as Predicate Nominative
108. Interrogative “Who” Used as Objective
109. Relative “Whom” Used as Nominative
110. “Whom” Used after “Than”
111. Nominative or Objective after “But”?
112. A Curious Case of Agreement
113. National, Editorial, and Generic Uses of “We”
114. Generic Use of “You” and “Your”
115. Indefinite Use of “They”
116. Generic Use of “One” and “One’s”
117. Idiomatic Uses of “It”
118. Two Distinct Constructions of “It ... That”
119. Defining and Non-defining Relative Clauses
120. The Relative Pronouns “Who”, “Which”, and “That”
121. Three Points of Choice between “Who(m)” and “Which”
122. Two Relative Clauses Linked by “And” or “But”
123. Omission of Relative Pronouns
124. “Which” without Definite Antecedent
125. “As” as Relative Pronoun
126. “Who” as Indefinite Relative Pronoun
127. “What” Preceding Statement
128. “One Another” and “Each Other”
129. Adjectives Used as Nouns
130. Exact Senses of Adjectives
131. A Curious Point about Comparatives
132. Two Curious Uses of Superlatives
133. “A Most” Followed by Adjective
134. “Worth” Taking an Object
135. “The Matter”
136. “Nothing Much”
137. Articles
138. “A” and Abstract Nouns
139. Some Words Often Mistaken for Abstract Nouns
140. Generic Use of Articles
141. Position of “A” (or “An”)
142. “The” Giving Common Noun Abstract Sense
143. Articles and Proper Nouns
144. Omission of Articles
145. Repetition of Articles
143. Final Remarks on Articles
147. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
148. Absolute Use of Transitive Verbs
149. Copulative Verbs
150. Factitive Verbs
151. Verbs Taking Double Object
152. Tense and Time
153. Present Tense Referring to Future
154. Present Tense Referring to Past
155. Past Tense Referring to Future
156. Present Perfect Tense vs Past Tense
157. Past Perfect Tense
158. Perfect Tense vs Factitive “Have” with Past Participle as Complement
159. Continuous Tenses
160. “Always” with Continuous Tenses
161. “Be” in Continuous Tenses
162. “Used” Followed by Infinitive
163. “Be” Followed by Infinitive
164. “Have” Followed by Infinitive
165. Infinitive without “to”
166. Split Infinitives
167. “To” Standing for Infinitive
168. “To” Followed by Gerund
169. Infinitive or Gerund?
170. “Enough” Qualified by Infinitive
171. “Too” Qualified by Infinitive
172. Active and Passive Infinitives
173. Active and Passive Gerunds
174. Gerunds Used as Adjectives
175. Gerund and Possessive
176. Fused Participles
177. Present Participle Separated from Subject by Predicate Verb
178. Unattached Participles
179. Intransitive Past Participles Used as Adjectives
180. “Shall” and “Will”, “Should” and “Would”
181. Subjunctive Mood
182. Sequence of Tenses
183. “The” as Adverb
184. Double Adverbial “The”
185. Quasi-adverbs
186. Prepositions
187. Idiomatic Uses of Prepositions
188. Prepositions before Particular Nouns
189. Prepositions after Particular Words
190. Omission of Prepositions
191. Prepositions Governing Words Other than Nouns and Pronouns
192. That-clause in Apposition to Nouns
193. That-clause Qualifying Adjectives and Past Participles
194. That-clause Used after Verbs
195. That-clause Qualifying “So” and “Such”
196. Idiomatic Uses of “That”
197. Omission of “That”
198. “And” Expressing Result
199. “Or” Meaning Otherwise
200. Idiomatic Uses of “If”
201. “Than” with Ellipsis
202. “When” as Relative Conjunction
203. “As Well As”
204. “Though ... Yet ...”
205. Indirect Questions
206. Negative Inversion
四、如何写出文采,高级部分
葛老曰:所谓文采者,其一乃贴切也。葛老所言文采,非辞藻华丽也。高考满分作文辞藻华丽,而名家大作却语言朴实。故何以见文采乎?该能贴切也。惜闻:
“英语为母语环境下的孩子,5岁的时候,他的词汇量是5000个;成年文盲的词汇量并不比5岁的孩子多。一个能顺利读报的人,他的词汇量大于2万个;大学文化程度的人,词汇量在5万个左右;作家的词汇量大都超过10万个,莎士比亚的词汇量多达20万。”
莎翁有二十万词汇,取最贴切者而饰之,而能作流传千古之名作。余之辈者,见“许多人”而只能以“many people”言之;更高者,用“substantial people”而不分具体、实际情况。五十步之与百步而已。
除贴切外,文采还有诸多因素,见于葛老原文。详尽目录见于下:
CHAPTER VI WRITING WELL
207. What is Good Writing?
208. Superstitions
209. Diction and Sentence Structure
210. The Exact word
211. Specific and General Words
212. Plain and Pretentious Words
213. Idiomatic Phrases and Idiomatic Uses of Plain Words
214. “Fine Writing”
215. Hackneyed Phrases
216. Words Used Too Often
217. Economy of Words
218. Periodic and Loose Sentences
219. Qualities of a Good Sentence
220. Unity
221. Coherence
222. Emphasis
223. Euphony
CHAPTER VII PARAGRAPHS
224. What is a Paragraph?
225. Length of Paragraphs
226. Paragraphs and Outline
227. Topic Sentence
228. Paragraph Development
229. Qualities of a Good Paragraph
230. Transition between Paragraphs
Chapter VIII FORMS OF COMPOSITION
231. Narrations, Description, Exposition and Argument
232. Point of View in Narration
233. What Tense to Use?
234. “Story Style” and “News Style”
235. Plain Account of Events
236. Artistic, Practical, and Scientific Description
237. Avoid “Fine Writing”
238. What is Beautiful Language?
239. Examples of Artistic Description
240. Practical Description
241. Exposition is Explanation
242. Definition
243. What to Avoid in Exposition
244. Examples of Exposition
245. Argument and Exposition
246. Question and Answer
247. What to Avoid in Argument
248. Formal and Informal Argument

总览全书,概知一理:葛老之渊博见于其诗书之饱读。而唯有多读书,多读英文书,学其词句,方可成为大师级。名作之表达,模仿之,其后内化而善用。读书亦有讲究,以读书提高写作,非托福阅读也。写作所读之目的非内容,而是语言。此亦为葛老之箴言。
另,此书强调练习,无练习,无长足进步,书中有不少练习,如写扩句、缩句之类,惜哉无参考答案也。
书是好书,然学托福写作者,非圣经也,但还是应当一读,至少需粗读,然后知方向。学托福写作者,概出国者也(非吾之为纯粹提升英语者),写作乃一生之要点,需时常学习,增进写作能力,此为本书之要义。
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