the Virgin Archetype the Virgin Archetype 评价人数不足

the Virgin Archetype

知一
2018-01-07 04:07:41
本书包括两篇论文:
The incest taboo and the virgin archetype
On psychic consciousness.

论文一:The incest taboo and the virgin archetype
荣格在“Symbols of Transformation”一书中引用了第一篇论文。对于incest taboo(乱伦禁忌), Layard的观点是:
  1. 在现实生活中,incest taboo不是为了防止biological in-breeding,而是expansion of social contacts, of society。“by forcing a man to marry outside the immediate circle of his own biological family unit, he is thereby brought into contact with a wider group of related persons all having mutual obligations towards one another and therefore pooling their diverse experiences and discoveries, as well as building up a primitive social unit for purposes of mutual protection and the solidarity of the group.” (“The Virgin Archetype”, p. 277) 荣格同意这个观点。

  2. 在心理层面,Layard认为incest taboo可以促使人的spiritual transformation。他认为每个人都有incest with mother/sisters的本能,但是由于现实生活中的in







...
显示全文
本书包括两篇论文:
The incest taboo and the virgin archetype
On psychic consciousness.

论文一:The incest taboo and the virgin archetype
荣格在“Symbols of Transformation”一书中引用了第一篇论文。对于incest taboo(乱伦禁忌), Layard的观点是:
  1. 在现实生活中,incest taboo不是为了防止biological in-breeding,而是expansion of social contacts, of society。“by forcing a man to marry outside the immediate circle of his own biological family unit, he is thereby brought into contact with a wider group of related persons all having mutual obligations towards one another and therefore pooling their diverse experiences and discoveries, as well as building up a primitive social unit for purposes of mutual protection and the solidarity of the group.” (“The Virgin Archetype”, p. 277) 荣格同意这个观点。

  2. 在心理层面,Layard认为incest taboo可以促使人的spiritual transformation。他认为每个人都有incest with mother/sisters的本能,但是由于现实生活中的incest taboo无法在肉体层面上实现,所以在精神领域与完美的mother principle (即anima)结合,举例就是基督与圣母的结合。“... the fulfilment within the psyche of that which the taboo forbids us to stringently in the flesh, namely the union with the uncontaminated mother-principle represented by the spiritual return into the womb.” (“The Virgin Archetype” p. 307) 这个观点有问题,它是假设先有现实生活中的incest instinct,因为不能满足,才造成心理世界的transformation。这是典型的弗洛伊德的方法,对心理和现实因果关系的本末倒置。荣格认为incest instinct其实是conscious ego试图回归(regress)无意识的倾向,incest taboo的本质是防止明意识的这种回归。对conscious ego而言,无意识就是母亲,所以无意识被投射成现实生活中的母亲。因此union with real mother 是conscious ego回归无意识的一个投射。因为存在incest taboo,所以ego不能够简单地回退、消融在无意识里,而只能进行spiritual transformation,即英雄的rebirth (参见荣格的“Symbols of Transformation”, p. 224, 271)

Layard在这篇论文里又讨论了Virgin(处女)原型。Virgin在希伯来和希腊语中不是指生理上的处女,而是指未婚女子,无论该女子是否有了孩子。Virgin原型中virgin的含义类似于原始森林的“原始”之意,意思是undifferentiated, not contaminated by thinking, morale, human law(未区分的,没有被理性思维、道德、人类的法律沾染)。原因是thinking, moral, human law应该是属于明意识的领域,而不应该进入无意识。如果进入无意识,则成为弗洛伊德所说的super-ego(超我),限制、阻碍Anima的feeling功能,所以妨碍主体在现实生活中与人建立relationship。

“the two married women [她们都有了孩子,但心理层面上仍然是virgin,原因是] thinking had not contaminated feeling, that is to say that ‘moral’ values quite proper in themeselves and if confined to consciousness, had in their case not got loose from their proper sphere [明意识的范围] and penerated into the unconscious where they become the reverse [起阻碍的负作用]. In other words, these two women had not contaminated their fundamental womanhood and had maintained ease of relations both with their own souls and with men, and were therefore spiritually ‘pregnant virgins’; whereas the dreamer herself [在这个dreamer的梦里,她被认为不是virgin], through faulty upbringing and the psychological muddle in which her parents had lived, had ‘moral’ values shoved down her throat too early and therefore had contaminated her soul by substituting thinking for feeling, and thus could not establish proper relations either with her soul or with men. … Virginity of the soul means uncontamination and therefore pregnancy of the soul leading to easy pregnancy of the body [指现实生活中的生育力]. But lack of virginity of the soul means lack of pregnancy both in soul and sometimes also in body, because lack of pregnancy (which means lack of spiritual ‘virginity’) in the soul prevents satisfactory relationship with any man …” (The Virgin Archetype”, pp.305-306)

这个观点以及相关的问题值得注意。

【荣格对Virgin原型的理解是:“‘virgin anima,’ who is not turned towards the outward [指投射] and is therefore not corrupted by it. She is turned rather towards the ‘inner sun,’ the archetype of transcendent wholeness -- the self [‘自性’,指Anima协调ego与原型之间的沟通,从而帮助主体建立‘自性’].” (“Symbols of Transformation”, p. 323】

论文二:On psychic consciousness.
在第二篇论文里,Layard提出了psychic consciousness这个概念,它是指个体心理的本能与spirit,与之对立的是个体的ego-consciousness。作者认为ego-consciousness是面向外世界的,identified with (认同于)人的persona(社交面具)和社会道德准则,而psychic consciousness是人的本能和spirit,二者是对立的。

作者的psychic consciousness类似于弗洛伊德的本我(Id)和荣格的原型。psychic consciousness与ego-consciousness对立的观点源自弗洛伊德:本能与社会道德对立,无法在现实世界履行,所以试图在心理世界里得到履行(比如通过神话、通过ego identified with unconsciousness、通过transform the repressed instincts to spirit)。对此我不以为然,我认为原型与现实世界本质上不是对立、矛盾的,现象世界是原型世界的一个实现(realization),所以二者本质上是统一的。我们要防止的ego与原型世界失去联系。

作者认为,要解决psychic consciousness与ego-consciousness之间的对立,需要第三方anima, animus来作为桥梁。这也是荣格的观点:通过anima和animus来实现无意识与明意识之间的沟通。

另外,作者强调了psychic consciousness既是本能,又是spirit。前者是母性的,但是与社会对立,不能够实现;spirit是父性的,它把母性的本能转化成spirit,从而使被阻碍的本能得到另一种形式(更好的形式)的实现。这是psychic consciousness的一体两面。对此我持怀疑态度:本能需要在现实生活中履行 in a disciplined way,spiritual transforamtion是人的自我升华,但我怀疑它是否能够解决本能的问题,或者说spiritual transforamtion是不是解决被压抑的本能的好方法。当然,首先要明白什么是本能,弗洛伊德常常把投射理解成本能,比如,我同意荣格的观点:incest不是本能,它是明意识试图回归无意识这个本能的投射。

我对这篇论文的评价是:有不少有意思的讨论和见解,触发思考,但也有不少有问题的观点和牵强的联想。从文中可以看出作者心理上存在的冲突。
0
0

查看更多豆瓣高分好书

回应(0)

添加回应

了解更多图书信息

豆瓣正在热议

豆瓣
免费下载 iOS / Android 版客户端