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1. Wall painting from the tomb of nebamun

83*98 British Museum,London
83*98 British Museum,London


Descprition: A hunting scene, his left hand was swinging a stick, right hand holding firmly with three birds. Behind was his wife and down there was his daughter "crouches between his leg". The air in front of him was full of birds, some were startled, some were shielding eggs in the nest.

Attentions:
- 1350 BC;
- Wealth range of birds species in a such differentiated colour in this kind of painting; usually they drew more fishes;
- Egyptians believed in an existence after death-> mummification technik to reserve body-> preformed in a daily life ritual;
- The width of shoulder is the symbol of power held by the king;
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1. Wall painting from the tomb of nebamun

83*98 British Museum,London
83*98 British Museum,London


Descprition: A hunting scene, his left hand was swinging a stick, right hand holding firmly with three birds. Behind was his wife and down there was his daughter "crouches between his leg". The air in front of him was full of birds, some were startled, some were shielding eggs in the nest.

Attentions:
- 1350 BC;
- Wealth range of birds species in a such differentiated colour in this kind of painting; usually they drew more fishes;
- Egyptians believed in an existence after death-> mummification technik to reserve body-> preformed in a daily life ritual;
- The width of shoulder is the symbol of power held by the king;
- Striding legs -> unfamiliar with spatial perspective;
- The wife, a ferile field for lord
- She is smaller and in line with a traditional pictorial hierachy, even in real life she is tall, in pics her scale was reduced, it was social status, not reality which counted;
- She higher than their daughter;
- Everyday reality of women's life "Fill her stomach and cloth her back, for she is a fertile field for her lord. Do not contend her in a court of justice, but keep her from power and restrain her";
- She is holding lotus blossoms and a scented cone on top of head, made of perfumed animal fat-> to make hair shine and smell sweetly as it melted;
- Hair, one of women's most important attraction;
- Depiction of married couple, not only by different sizes according to importance, but also their arranegment ->wife stands and walks behind husband, her feet close together as a sign of reticence while the husband strides out with energy and power;
- The cat, holding two birds in its claws and one in its teeth
- It is idealised as well, like human figures in this painting;
- As centuries passed, the tomb was forgotten and their entrance became bloced, Only robbers attemped to break in, 11 fragments from Nebamun's tomb in TBM, all were broken off in a crude and careless manner. We owe the preservation of their delicate colours to the fact that they remained in the dark for millennia.

2. The Empress Theodora with Her Retinue

Ravenna, Basilica di San Vital
Ravenna, Basilica di San Vital


Attentions:
- Whether we want or not, we have to look up to Theodora, her protrait are high over heads of beholders in the church wall of San Vitale;
- Her husband's portairt is on the opposite wall;
- She is the only figure no other overlaps;
- She is standing excatly underneath a baldachin borne on stone columns;
- Two men on the left, meteoric career is not common in mobile Byzantine society;
- They are dressed as official, in a uniform of the civil administration; both arms concealed beneath cloack->it was forbidden to approach the divine with "impure hands";
- She was 20 years younger from him, from a lower class. "the sort of girl who if somebody walloped her or boxed her ears would make a jest of it and roar with laughter"; "Theodora is from brothel";
- In 532, the quarter of city was burnt, the emperor Justinian were debating flight with advisers. Theodora urged a fight, as one woman in a counsel of men, and refused to flee;
- 16 years later, she went to grave in the imperial purple;

3. The Night Revels of Han Xizai, Gu Hongzhou

Second half - 29*336cm, Beijin
Second half - 29*336cm, Beijin

First half
First half


Attention:
- A court painter to record, senior official’s personal life;
- Probably the first detective story in the history of art;
- It take a form of silk handscroll three meters in length, to be read as a horizontal strip from right to left, like Chinese writing;
- Luxury and abundance reign here, while the rest of China is ruled by misery and famine, local war lords battle each other for power;
- Liyu, a bad ruler but a committed patron of art. He is also the first one to fund china’s first academy of art;
- He is the one who commissioned our handscroll;
- Before the enemy entered Jinling and Liyu being captured, he wrote down the famous melancholy poems: Spring flowers, autumn moon: where is their end? The past: how much is known?” 春花秋月何时了,往事知多少?;
- The host, Han Xizai, wearing a “scholar's cap”, a mark of Tang Dynasty’s official and only be taken of when sleeping;
- His rank in government can be judged by the height of his hat;
- The handscroll is first documented 150 years after the painting: Han is obsessed with beautiful actresses and singers, he is supposed to hold 100 maids, concubines and female actresses and singers in his home and squandered all his family fortune on it, as his salary “disappeared like the sound of a little bell.” He later begged food from female friends and been disguised;
- Why such offensive behaviours? The answer is provided by one of its later owner. “I don’t want to go down in history as a fool”. Afraid of become the emporor’s prime minister, he acted in this way “in order to avoid being appointed”;
- He was famed for his political foresight. Nevertheless he died before Tang Dynasty finally fell, he obviously has seen this coming. He remained at court but avoided political responsibility by deliberately ruining his own reputation with orgies;
- The girl in blue jacket, famous Chinese dancer,Wang Wushan. Liyu liked dance and particular liked Zhaofeiyan. He commended her dance on a leaf with her feet bound in cloth in such as a way as to resemble the pointed crescents of a moon. This novelty is so admired by the court ladies that they copied the dancer and therefore invented the custom of having tiny, crippled feet;
- However, it is hard to dance with crippled feet. Women would be from now on only mentioned as singers and musicians.When Han Xizai’s favourite dance at his party, it must have been one of the last famous dancer in China for centuries.
- Feng Xiaogang presented this scene (The Revels) in his movie Yeyan.

4. Bayeux Tapestry





艺术形式:

《贝叶挂毯》的材质是以亚麻布为底的绒尼,上面的图案是不同的的颜色的细绒线绣制而成。因此从严格意义上来说,贝叶挂毯是一件包含绘画艺术的刺绣品,《贝叶挂毯》作为对真实历史事件的记载,它有很高的史料价值;作为艺术品,它是罗马艺术风格的代表作,又具有非常高的审美价值。

《贝叶挂毯》可能是世界上最长的连环画,记录了黑斯廷战役,具有很高的历史价值,原本长70米,宽半米,现存62米。共出现623个人物,55只狗,202匹战马,49棵树,41艘船,超过500只鸟和龙等生物,约2000个拉丁文字。这幅作品的的特殊之处还在于,它不是用颜料和画笔绘成的,而是以亚麻布为底的绒尼刺绣品,约长70米长的挂毯,由若干块布料拼接而成,绣成70多个场面,该挂毯饱受战争之苦,多次辗转与英法之间,最后,拿破仑将它送到了法国大教堂,二战后,它又被英国从德国取回。
 1066年1月,英王爱德华病逝,从而引起王位继承人之间的纷争,其中有最主要的两位,一位是威廉公爵,一位是哈罗德爵士。威廉公爵是英王的表弟,位于诺曼底,当年英王流亡到诺曼底时曾答应将王位传给他,然而哈罗德爵士却在贤人会议的帮助下继承了王位。1066年40月,威廉公爵为了夺回属于自己的王位,率领大队人马在黑斯廷大败哈罗德的军队,成为英国的新国王,并开创了历史上的诺曼王朝,为了纪念这一重大的历史事件,也为了纪念威廉的丰功伟绩,命手工作坊的女子绣制了这件规模宏大的挂毯。

《贝叶挂毯》详细的绣制了这段完整历史,从哈罗德曾向威廉宣誓效忠,威廉兴师讨伐到黑斯廷之战。哈罗德兄弟之死,威廉称王都描绘得十分完整,还附有一定的文字解说。

《贝叶挂毯》由红,黄,黑,紫,白等八种颜色的西线绣制而成,各种色彩的搭配的使用,使具有很强的艺术表现力。这幅画是非常严肃的政治作品,因而这件艺术品的刺绣与其他的艺术品相比下更加严谨,庄重。挂毯上有六百多个人物,很多动物,植物图案以及两千多个拉丁文和其他符号,在当时是当之无愧的最长挂毯,有人也将它称为“欧洲的清明上河图”。

Attentions:
- When and where the hanging was first exhibited: 14 July 1077, in the newly built cathedral at Bayeux, a small town in Normandy;
- In the tapestry the town is depicted – the hill, most towns at that days are built on high ground to facilitate their defense;
- William the Conqueror, sit at the right of the hill, his power symbolized by the sword resting on his shoulder;
- The second protagonist stands between two shrines, he was the King Harold. He was captured and William paid the ransom. Here he is shown swearing allegiance to his new liege-lord;
- To England with weapons and wine. In the picture shows swords and battle-axes are carried to the ships;
- William has to make all efforts to persuasion. Relatives are the most generous allies of all. At the time, power usually rest in the hands of an individual ruler, whose entire family profited as a result. In turn, it was the family’s best interest to support the ruler. William’s brothers provided financial supports and boats;
- The boats were over 20 meters long and up to 5 meters wide, the type of boat sailed by the Vikings, a reminder that the Normans themselves were originally Northmen;
- The narrative is framed above and below with decorative border. Symbolic animals whose relationship with the main actions remains obscure, but at the battle scenes contains naked and dead corpses;
- In fact, the corpses heaped in the lower border are exaggeration. Battles involved relatively little slaughter. Vassals are more interested in ransom, the more powerful the captive, the greater the sum that could be demanded for his release;
- The Battle of Hasting, only last one day;
- William was crowned on 25 December 1066. Hence, England and France began a common history of 400 years;
- History is always the history of victor. The Normans provided a testimony to their conquest of England in the form of the Bayeux Tapestry;
- It survived for 900 years – despite the Hundred Years’ War between England and France, the repeated destruction of the cathedral and the Revolution of 1789;
- The hanging was served as a propaganda purposed for two further occasions. One, by Napoleon, he has brought the Tapestry to Paris for 6 months in 1803, in order to rouse “the passions and general enthusiasm of the people”; second was by Adolf Hitler. He was concocting plans for an invasion and a book on the tapestry appeared under the title “a sword thrust against England”.
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