解决了我以下几个问题

特稣♪

1. 记忆是一种很玄的东西,为什么记不住想记的,记住了想忘的?

记忆不以你的主观能动性而转移,不是你想记就能记。Memory is the residue of thought. It’s equally clear that wanting to remember something is not the magic ingredient. 即使在考试的压迫下,排除你作为压力型选手的额外得分:One of the remarkable findings was that knowing about the future test didn’t improve subjects’ memories. 我清晰地记得大学考思修/毛概前一晚,挑灯夜战的徒劳。你并不会比平时的表现显著多少:一字不记,光靠考前一晚,一本书是背不下来的。我的毛概成绩proves that.

所以对于老师来说,学生就是这个尿性,你怎么教才能让他们记住呢?Again, Memory is the residue of thought. 不要重复重复再重复明天要考试了考试有多重要,没用。

你要想的是你教的内容,问了学生哪些好问题?你要知道为了回答这些问题,学生必须展开关于什么的何种层面的思考。这些问题是通向记忆储藏室的钥匙,不,这些问题是知识的搬运工,找对了问题,他们才会往向记忆储藏室走。To teach well, you should pay careful attention to what an assignment will actually...

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1. 记忆是一种很玄的东西,为什么记不住想记的,记住了想忘的?

记忆不以你的主观能动性而转移,不是你想记就能记。Memory is the residue of thought. It’s equally clear that wanting to remember something is not the magic ingredient. 即使在考试的压迫下,排除你作为压力型选手的额外得分:One of the remarkable findings was that knowing about the future test didn’t improve subjects’ memories. 我清晰地记得大学考思修/毛概前一晚,挑灯夜战的徒劳。你并不会比平时的表现显著多少:一字不记,光靠考前一晚,一本书是背不下来的。我的毛概成绩proves that.

所以对于老师来说,学生就是这个尿性,你怎么教才能让他们记住呢?Again, Memory is the residue of thought. 不要重复重复再重复明天要考试了考试有多重要,没用。

你要想的是你教的内容,问了学生哪些好问题?你要知道为了回答这些问题,学生必须展开关于什么的何种层面的思考。这些问题是通向记忆储藏室的钥匙,不,这些问题是知识的搬运工,找对了问题,他们才会往向记忆储藏室走。To teach well, you should pay careful attention to what an assignment will actually make students think about (not what you hope they will think about).就像我正在写这篇读书笔记一样,我想要以问题串联整本书的理由很简单:这样我会记得比较牢,搬运到了我的储藏室以后这些fun facts会慢一点溜走。

这就延伸到我在阅读之前问自己的一个问题:学习汉语时,学生能不能同时和平均地关注“字义”和“字形”?答案是不能。要么给学生集中时间关注字形,然后过渡到意义,要不你就一团乱麻什么也不让学生记住。

2. 考虑:学生到底是在学皮毛还是学应用?

For material to be learned (that is, to end up in long-term memory), it must reside for some period in working memory—that is, a student must pay attention to it.

Further, how the student thinks of the experience completely determines what will end up in long-term memory.

如果最好的记忆方式是让学生关注meaning,老师用interest relevant material反而无法做到这点,why?

Content is seldom the decisive factor in whether or not our interest is maintained.

Another problem with trying to use content to engage students is that it’s sometimes very difficult to do and the whole enterprise comes off as artificial.

因为会分散学生的注意力If the instructor used a math problem with cell phone minutes, isn’t there some chance that my daughter would think about cell phones rather than about the problem?

3. 好老师是怎样的?

The material he teaches does not lend itself easily to demonstrations, but he puts a good deal of time and energy into thinking up interesting applications, many of them involving devices he’s made at home. They are able to connect personally with students, and they organize the material in a way that makes it interesting and easy to understand.

The jokes, the stories, and the warm manner all generate goodwill and get students to pay attention. But then how do we make sure they think about meaning? That is where the second property of being a good teacher comes in—organizing the ideas in a lesson plan in a coherent way so that students will understand and remember.

4. Why shoud we organize class like a story?

I’m going to suggest that organizing a lesson plan like a story is an effective way to help students comprehend and remember.

Formal work in laboratory settings has shown that people rate stories as less interesting if they include too much information, thus leaving no inferences for the listener to make.

就像推荐一个中餐馆,推销个中趣味点比平铺直叙有意思的多:Delivered in fifteen seconds with cheeky pride, this story would have been cute.

5. How we gonna structure my lessons the way stories are structured, using the four Cs: causality, conflict, complications, and character?

Review Each Lesson Plan in Terms of What the Student Is Likely to Think About

The material I want students to learn is actually the answer to a question. On its own, the answer is almost never interesting. But if you know the question, the answer may be quite interesting.That’s why making the question clear is so important. But I sometimes feel that we, as teachers, are so focused on getting to the answer, we spend insufficient time making sure that students understand the question and appreciate its significance.

6. What about those facts that are rarely meaningful for students to learn, is rote memorization the only option?

Mnemonics. Memory works on the basis of cues. If you don’t know anything about a topic, or if the things you’re trying to remember are confusing because they are arbitrary.

Music and rhythm do make words remarkably memorable.

7.作者提出了一点很值得提倡的教学设计思路:如果我们所有的教案都是围绕学生兴趣来的,他们是不是更容易默认“what seems interesting in school is all about me me me”,与我无关的世界和我是割裂的,认识不到“跟我没什么关系的事情”也可以是很有好奇心,让人很想去学的,说夸张一些,这里不免让人联想到美剧里青少年们随口就来的一句"who cares"。这里面讲的一种自大,到了一定年龄就会变成梦幻彩色泡泡,总会被戳破的。当然这个世界是一个整体,这么想很美妙。但学生兴趣大概不好成为教学设计唯一的标杆。况且你教了学生喜欢的运动“football”用中文怎么说,他们顶多是对于学到怎么说感兴趣;你真的要他们在生活中去用到,跟chinese speaker对话,聊自己玩橄榄球的心得,经历,那么还是要从别处着眼,不然孩子为什么不用自己的母语聊了算了?激发孩子应用所学的知识,光靠兴趣还远远不够。我个人在这个话题上,比较赞同制造有意义情景制造information gap的做法。

想让学生应用了钱的概念?教给他们交际用语,搭一个market出来,他们就有了广阔的试验基地,用实景去检测自己说得好不好。关键还在于竞争机制。学生被分成很多小组,小组最后的营业额如果过某一条线,那么就会有reward作为激励。分组时当然考虑到了高低水平学生的组合,毕竟像guided reading那样按levels of reading来简直过于残酷。这是游戏好吗?我在出发前给学生复习语言点,学生不要太兴奋:D

Information gap相对“搞一发大的”来说,更加日常。例如两个学生拿着两份挖空不同的阅读材料,通过互问问题,将材料补充完全。填空,打钩,涂色……个中成就感我至今还在体会。想想为什么秘密花园涂色书那么火爆,区区to do list得到那么多效率/管理学概念的吹捧,不正是利用了人逮着gap就要填的弱点么?不要嘲笑人类,在这点上我们只是像猫追着猫薄荷跑一样,显露本能而已。

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