The benefits of reading this book is to better understand our own behavior in terms of distractions.
What's thinking? Typical animal reflex is a process of perception and action (bottom-up), while humans insert a pause between perception and action (top-down). In this pause, we define our goals and do causative reasoning to then generate actions, which enables diversity in actions and learnings.
How we think? We think with combination of bottom-up and top-down mechanisms.
Why distractions? Distractions are evolunary necessity, as we surive by processing as much as pereceived information. Since our brains are limited in attention, memory and goal management, we evolve to process perceived information in certain ways, but such evolutionary results are not necessary efficient for every tasks. It's selected by survival in the ancient world.
How to understand distractions in the world with technologies? Particularly useful in understanding the consequences of distractions is the Marginal Value Theory (MVT). The MVT teaches the threshold conditions for switching our attentions. In the modern world, increasing boredom and anxiety descreases the marginal value in continuing focusing on a task. Increasing media accessability decreases the switching cost. Such internal (boredom and anxiety) and external (accessibility) stimuli are the trends that come with the modern tech.
How to cope with distractions? We can cope with distractions from the perspectives of changing our brains or changing our behavior. In terms of changing our brains, it's primarily about training to increasing our cognitive control capabilities by meditation, physical exercises, cognative games, and etc. Primarily, it's about reducing anxiety, and increasing capabilities to supress distractive signals. In terms of behavior strategies, it includes increasing self-awareness of distractions' negative impacts, and increasing costs for task switching.