读书笔记,不看也罢

StargazingFish
1. Die Gefühlästhetik

Gefühl:
情感是我们心灵状态的发扬或抑郁的意识。假如悲伤、希望、愉快、憎恨使我的心情显著超过平素的状态,或下降到平素的状态之下,在这种情况下,我说我在感受着情感。

Empfinden:
感觉是对某一感性的素质:一个乐音、一种颜色的知觉。 假如我用我的感官单纯地知觉到某物的香、为、形、色、音。

Verstand:


Phantasie:
艺术首先是应该表现美的事物。接纳美的机能不是情感,而是幻想力(Phantasie),即一种纯观照(Schauen)的活动。
An art aims, above all, at producing something beautiful which affects not our feelings but the organ of pure contemplation, our imagination.
Solche Bestimmung hat aber in Wahrheit weder diese noch eine andere Kunst. Die Kunst hat vorerst ein Schönes darzustellen. Das Organ, womit das Schöne aufgenommen wird, ist nicht das Gefühl,[6] sondern die Phantasie, als die Tätigkeit des reinen Schauens.

乐曲诞生于作曲家的幻想力,诉诸于听众的幻想力。
Aus der Phantasie des Künstlers entsteigt das Tons...
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1. Die Gefühlästhetik

Gefühl:
情感是我们心灵状态的发扬或抑郁的意识。假如悲伤、希望、愉快、憎恨使我的心情显著超过平素的状态,或下降到平素的状态之下,在这种情况下,我说我在感受着情感。

Empfinden:
感觉是对某一感性的素质:一个乐音、一种颜色的知觉。 假如我用我的感官单纯地知觉到某物的香、为、形、色、音。

Verstand:


Phantasie:
艺术首先是应该表现美的事物。接纳美的机能不是情感,而是幻想力(Phantasie),即一种纯观照(Schauen)的活动。
An art aims, above all, at producing something beautiful which affects not our feelings but the organ of pure contemplation, our imagination.
Solche Bestimmung hat aber in Wahrheit weder diese noch eine andere Kunst. Die Kunst hat vorerst ein Schönes darzustellen. Das Organ, womit das Schöne aufgenommen wird, ist nicht das Gefühl,[6] sondern die Phantasie, als die Tätigkeit des reinen Schauens.

乐曲诞生于作曲家的幻想力,诉诸于听众的幻想力。
Aus der Phantasie des Künstlers entsteigt das Tonstück für die Phantasie des Hörers.
A musical composition originates in the composer’s imagination and is intended for the imagination of the listener.

当然,面临美的事物时,幻想力不仅在观照,而且有理智地观照,它兼有表象(vorstellen翻译错误,应为想象)和判断(Urteilen),当然这个判断活动进行的非常迅速,以至于我们没有意识到它的逐个的细节,而产生了一种幻觉,好想这是直接的一下子发生的事情,其实中间有多重精神活动作为媒介。
Freilich ist die Phantasie gegenüber dem Schönen nicht bloß ein Schauen, sondern ein Schauen mit Verstand, d. i. Vorstellen und Urteilen, letzteres natürlich mit solcher Schnelligkeit, daß die einzelnen Vorgänge uns gar nicht zum Bewußtsein kommen, und die Täuschung entsteht, es geschehe unmittelbar, was doch in Wahrheit von vielfach vermittelnden Geistesprozessen abhängt.
Our imaginaion, it is true, does not merely contemplate the beautiful, but contemplate it with intelligence—the object being, as it were, mentally inspected and criticised (翻译错误, 应该翻译为judgement). Our judgement, however, is formed so rapidly that we are unconscious of the seprate acts involved in the process, whence the delusion arises that what in reality depends upon a complex train of reasoing is merely an act of intuition.

Anschauen:

Anschauung (直观/观照)原来是指视觉的表象,但它早就被运用到所有感官现象上,而且它也非常符合注意倾听的活动,所谓注意倾听就是对一些乐音形式的连续观察sukzessiven Betrachten (->观察可能并不十分适合)。在这个活动中,幻想力并不是一个封闭的领域:正如它从感性的知觉Sinnesempfindungen 中接受了生命的火花,同样也罢光迅速地辐射到理智Verstandes和情感Gefühl活动的领域。但对美的真正领会来说,理智和情感进食一些边缘的地区.->This seems to me the description about the mysterical, and immediate process which is unperceivable in his previous discussion.
Das Wort »Anschauung«, längst von den Gesichtsvorstellungen auf alle Sinneserscheinungen übertragen, entspricht überdies trefflich dem Akte des aufmerksamen Hörens, welches ja in einem sukzessiven Betrachten der Tonformen besteht. Die Phantasie ist dabei keineswegs ein abgeschlossenes Gebiet: so wie sie ihren Lebensfunken aus den Sinnesempfindungen zog, sendet sie wiederum ihre Radien schnell an die Tätigkeit des Verstandes und des Gefühls aus. Dies sind für die echte Auffassung des Schönen jedoch nur Grenzgebiete.
The word Anschauung is no longer applied to visual processes only but also to the functions of the other senses. It is, in fact, eminently suited to describe the act of attentive hearing, which is nothing but a mental inspection of a succession of musical images. Our imagination, withal, is not an isolated faculty, for through the vital spark originates in the sense, its forthwith kindles the flame of the intellect and emotions. A true conception of the beauty is, nevertheless, independent of this aspect of the question.


音乐对情感的影响既不是必然的,也不是音乐所特有的,更不是稳定不变的。

object of study: 问题的关键是:这种激情是通过什么特殊的方式由音乐引起来?

2. Die Darstellung von Gefühlen ist nicht Inhalt der Musik

具体的艺术作品是作为感性现象的美来体现一定的观念。这样的观念,和体现它的形式,以及两者的统一,是美的概念和条件。->

Jeder Kunst eignet ein Kreis von Ideen, welche sie mit ihren Ausdruckmitteln als Ton, Wort, Farbe, Stein darstellt. Das einzelne Kunstwerk verkörpert demnach eine bestimmte Idee als Schönes in sinnlicher Erscheinung. Diese bestimmte Idee, die sie verkörpernde Form, und die Einheit beider sind Bedingungendes Schönheitsbegriffs.

作曲家所表现的观念(Idee), 首先和主要的是纯音乐性的观念。 在他幻想中出现一支明确的、优美的旋律。

习惯于把艺术观念与人类自己的内心生活联系起来的一般幻想力,又把这个结束了的乐曲提高一步,比如说,把它解释称为表达了一种平静下去的顺从的心情。

观念不能在器乐作品中体现出来。这个运动是音乐和情感状态的共有因素,音乐能创造性地以无数的差别和对比来塑造这个因素。

我们

program music
通过乐音的高低、强弱、速度和节奏变化,我们听觉中产生了一个音型,这个音型与某一视觉影像有一定的类似性,它实在不同种类的感觉间可能达到的。


3. Das Musikalisch-Schöne


音乐的原始要素是和谐的声音 (WOHLLAUT),它的本质是节奏。对称结构的协调性,这是广义的节奏(Rhythmus in großen),各个部分按照节拍有规律地变换运动着,这是狭义的节奏。

音乐的内容就是乐音的运动形式。
Die Wirkliche musikalische Inhalt sind tönend bewegte Formen.
NOT: THE ESSENCE OF MUSIC IS SOUND AND MOTION. Better by Bonds as “tonally moved form” or “tonally animated form"

当然,贝多芬不是为内耳或鼓膜而作曲。。。。幻想力有意识地感性地欣赏着鸣响着的音型和积累起来的乐音,它自由而直接地生息在音乐的观照之中。(Anschauung, Seh Kapital I) " Aber die Phantasie, die auf Gehörsempfindungen organisiert ist, und welcher der Sinn etwas ganz anderes bedeutet, als ein bloßer Trichter an die Oberfläche der Erscheinungen, sie genießt in bewußter Sinnlichkeit die klingenden Figuren, die sich aufbauenden Töne, und lebt frei und unmittelbar in deren Anschauung.?


“形式”这一概念在音乐中的体现是非常特殊的。以乐音组成的形式不是空洞的,而是充实的;不是真空的界限,而是便成形象的内在精神。


由于乐音结合组成音乐美的就是乐音的结合关系,不是机械地排列着,而是通过幻想里的自由创造活动而产生的,因此,产生的作品也就戴上某一幻想力的自由创造活动而产生。音乐作品是有思想情感的人的精神所创造的,因此作品本身也有充满精神和情感的高度能力。

作曲家并不是从他所决定用音乐描写某一热情出发,而是从

4. Analyse des subjektiven Eindruckes der Musik

5. Das ästhetische Aufnehmen der Musik gegenüber dem pathologischen

6. Die Beziehungen der Tonkunst zur Natur

7. Die Begriffe Inhalt und Form in der Musik

* Inhalt 组成音乐作品,使之成为整体的乐音,即是音乐的内容.
* Gegenstand:人们把内容和对象(素材 stoff、题材 sujet)混同起来.
* ”一首乐曲的影响可以按每个人的个性来估计和叙述”, however, 音乐不仅是通过乐音来说话,它说的也仅是一些乐音而已。
* tedency of isolation: 讨论到音乐的内容与表现能力时,只能从纯粹的器乐音乐出发; 音乐艺术的内容与形式分不开,与诗歌和造型艺术形成鲜明对比。如果有人贬责音乐说它无内容,那我们要说音乐是有内容的,但这只是音乐的内容。只有把音乐艺术的其他种种内容坚决否定,然后才能把音乐的“内涵”拯救出来。
*
* unique: 我们除了肯定音乐的精神内涵外。。。音乐创作的个性。每一首音乐作品有它特有的艺术构思方式和独特的主题。
* form and theme:
* 音乐是游戏,但不是无意义的嬉戏。思想情感在端正美好的音乐躯体中好像血管中的血一样流动,思想情感不是音乐躯体本身,并且是看不见的,但它们赋予躯体一生命。

Dahlhaus

1. 音乐的形式应该被理解为内在的形式,是”从内向外塑造成型的精神。“
2. 汉斯立克的”音乐特殊性“的原则,他认为一门艺术有别于另一门艺术的特征是本质性的立场。(wesen) 任何心理学家会怀疑,这种偏见的形成是由于专业权威形象树立的需要,而不是出于对问题本身的洞察。
3. 主题自身就是音乐。


My own response

This time I start to work a bit to read compare the English translation with German, and found it quite inaccurate. By contrast, the Chinese translation susprisingly did the good job in faithfully conveying Hanslick’s nuanced writing in German

Some questions,....

1. The tendency of isolation the very essence of music, instead of total. not music in relation. What is the very essence of music, apart from various subjective responses? Why did he ask this question? What’s the philosophical necessity of asking it? Why is this problem important?

Wenn man die Fülle von Schönheit nicht zu erkennen verstand, die im rein Musikalischen lebt, so trägt die Unterschätzung des Sinnlichen viel Schuld, welcher wir in älteren Ästhetiken zugunsten der Moral und des Gemüts, in Hegel zugunsten der »Idee« begegnen.
English: p. 49
Chinese:. p. 51

The philsophical ground in German Idealism.

2. Does Gefühl opposite to the musical beauty?

3. What’s the essence of the concept of Phantasie, which centres in Hanslick’s arguement? If Phantasie is the essence of musical beauty, how it differs from other arts?

4. The connecton between Hanslick’s description about the cognitive process of music and the argument of purest musical beauty? Seems to have a gap in logic.

5. Is his position against the Gefühlästhetik or Gesamtkunstwerk and Program Music?

A Presentation Note I made on this book

1. First of all, I want to comment something on the most popular read English translation of Hanslick is bad. The Chinese translation is much better in transmitting the philosphical langiage Hanslick uses. The translator paid extra attention to these terms. The title is randomly changed For example, the most frequently cited expression from that book, which already becomes the synom of Hanslick’s aesthetics. What’s the content of music? THE ESSENCE OF MUSIC IS SOUND AND MOTION. p. 67. It totally mistranslate what Hanslick what to say.
Chinese translation by contrast, does much better job. You can see the footnote on p. 50.
In English, I find Mark Evans Bonds’ translation is much better, “tonally moved form” or “tonally animated form”. I will explain later why this translation is better.

2. I think Hanslick’s book addresses two most important statements on related to the cognitive process of music and another related to the ontology of music. “the musical beauty” der musikalische Schönen. And in this two statements, there are two often ignored concepts, “Die Phantasie” and “Geist”.

So Let’s revisit Hanslick’s argument one by one.

1. His first argument is about the cognitive process of music. He actually describes the process in details on p. 21. He borrows the word anschauung which means contemplative watching to listening. The word" Anschauung" (viewing, contemplating) is no longer applied to visual processes only, but also to the functions of the other senses. It is, in fact, eminently suited to describe the act of attentive hearing which is nothing but a mental inspection of a succession of musical images. Our imagination [Die Phantasie] , withal, is not an isolated faculty, for though the vital spark originates in the senses [Sinnesempfindungen], it forth with kindles the flame of the intellect [Verstand] and the emotions[Gefühl]. A true conception of the beautiful is, nevertheless, independent of this aspect of the question.

In order to introduce how the listening process takes place, Hanslick here as we see brings us a series of concepts. You are seeing a chart which summarises the process of listening took place.What audiences hear is the intangible sounding notes or Hanslick call it s, and such notes made an empact on them via the sense of sensation[sinneempfindungen]. The term sinneempfindung denotes the human ability of perceiving sensible quality. It is basically a biological dimension without subjective judgement. What is for Hanslick crucial in the process is what he term as die Phatasie, whose translation in English as imagination. But imagination is not satisfying enough describes the meaning of it. The better definition of Phantasie I found is in the third chapter, “our imagination, which is constituted as to be affected by auditory impressions, delights in the sounding forms and musical structures, and, conscious of their sensous nature, lives in the immediate and free contemplation of the beautiful.” which is on English translation, p. 69. Already sounds like Gestalt aesthetics.

It might be a bit too abstract. So Hanslick does actually provide an example. He writes, "in appreciating the melodious adagio, for instance, softly dying away, suggests the ideas of gentleness and concord in the abstract. Our imaginative faculty[Phatasie], ever ready to establish relations between the conceptions of art and our sentiments, may construe these softly.”

We should know that Hanslick’s book, as you have seen, have a very “definite” enemey, the so-called Gefühlsästhetik (Aesthetic of Feeling). Admittedly, Hanslick never denies that music could trigger intensive emotion or feeling, however, what he criticised the misconception about missing of the inner mysterical process which he called as die phantasie, which stands in the middle between sensation, the biological ability of perceiving sound and the subjective feeling. What he objects is their delusion that music is directly and immediately about the emotion, without acknowledging the complex and unconscious process of perceiving, organising sound mentally, and arising emotion.

Hanslick later tunes his argument a bit about the cognitive principle of music as a criticism against music review. That leads to his criticise about musical criticism, who satisfied themselves with tying music with “the vague and secondary effects of musical phenomena, we ought to endeavors to penetrate deeply into the spirit of the works themsleves and to explain their effects by the law of their inherent nature.” For Hanslick, to find the musical beauty, one should look for something inherent itself rather than the emotion which is caused by it. He links the study of music aesthetics to objective even scientific methods. In this, he actually is calling for the practice of formalist analysis and criticism.


I sense a connection with the German idealism in the notion of Phantasie, the issue I will get back later.

2. Hanslick’s second argument contra Gefühlaesthetik is about the content and beauty of music. Let’s go back to the most cited discussion and also the most polemical statement Hanslick has made on the content of music.

Gefühlaesthetik has a dominating argument about “the human feeling is the content, which was represented by music.” Based on this, Schubart, even made a radical aesthetic judgement, “musical beauty is expression, and it is unburdening.”

Against that statement, Hanslick believes the musical beauty lies in its form, “The ingenious co-ordination of intrinsically, pleasing sounds, their consonance and contrast, their flight and reproach, their increasing and diminishing strength—this it is which, in free and unimpeded forms, presents itself to our mental vision. “(Chapter Three Opening, p. 66) In making this statement, he establishes the speciality of musical beauty which differs from other arts which have the linguistic function. Music is non-referential. Music is not like language which uses the words as means to convey any abstract ideas as the end, although linguistics might argue with Hanslick about his understanding of language.

Yet, we must not mistaken Hanslick as a total disbeliever of the content of music. The crucial key to understand this contradiction is via the translation I have criticised before. And then the content of music is tonally moved form. In our new translation we can take out all descriptive words, then the sentence becomes "the content of music is form.” The inseparable form and content actually is what Hanslick wants to argue.

In fact, he believes the special beauty in music is the inseparable form and content, as he tempts to renew our understanding about form. “the concept of form in music has a very special manifestation. The form, which is composed by notes, is not empty, but filled, not the borderline of vacuum, but itself the concretised inner spirit. (gestaltender Geist)” p. 70

If we take out the descriptive words again. Hanslick’s sentence turns into "the form is filled; the spirit.” The form is the spirit. Does it contradict to Hanslick's claim that music is non-referential?
I think in the system of German Idealism, music is regarded as the most direct copy of spirit or will, which differs other arts. Hanslick’s argument is in congruent with that tradition, in his seemingly contradictory statement about non-referentiality of music.

The concept Geist actually is closely related to music listening and music creation.

May I here make a radical argument that instead of dealing with the aesthetic experience in real life, what is beautiful in music. Hanslick tends to divert that topic as making ontological statement about what music is. He tries to find the beauty in music in itself, however, his explanation about the musical beauty still has the mystical dimension. What is beautiful in music is related to spirit which took form to the music, which gave the beauty to music.
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