第一世界」夢

阿燒
2015-11-02 看过
全球化浪潮之下,人造衛星覆蓋之處,這個星球大概再也沒有甘於平庸、養尊處優的國家了,「弱肉強食」的強大鐵則不是一己之力所能抵擋的。全球化就像一個漩渦,作為一個國家,你可以幻想遺世獨立但你最終是逃也逃不出這個漩渦的,於是你被迫參與競爭和角力,用力量來震懾其他強國,以此維持各方的「恐怖平衡」。也就是說,你必須保證別國侵犯你時有能力馬上以同樣的力度回擊它,這樣的情況下,大家都不敢輕舉妄動,那麼國家和政權的和平與安全便得以維護了。換句話說,要是世界上每個國家的經濟文化軍事實力不相伯仲,就有機會實現世界和平了。
 
雖然新加坡長期作為殖民地,國土面積還不如中華人民共和國的一個特別行政區——香港,但新加坡憑著「精英政治」和「鐵腕治國」,很快就扭轉了被動局面。特別是上世紀六十年代新加坡由於「種族問題」被迫脫離馬來西亞,李光耀在電視上失聲痛哭的畫面讓不少國民燃起救國和強國的熱情,希望以艱苦拼搏的精神實現夾縫求存和國力強大的夢想。無論李光耀此舉是他真情實感還是居心叵測的政治手段,此後他的確讓這個國家變得愈發強大起來。1965年獨立之初,新加坡在失業率高居不下和資源極度匱乏的狀況下創造了神話,在21世紀到來之前從發展中國家躍升為發達國家。
 
前幾年香港的亞洲電視(ATV)有個節目叫《我要做特首》,主持人胡恩威在某集談及香港治理的時候推薦了一本書,雖然此書暫無中譯本,只有英文原版,但胡建議中學生都應該去看看,首先因為裡面的詞並不艱深,而且李光耀英文寫作文筆出色,更重要的是書中社會管治知識十分豐富,胡希望中學生讀後能受啟發,使下一代公務員擺脫現屆執政者執政與管理知識奇缺的掣肘,從而更好地管治香港。這本書就是From Third World to First – the Singapore Story: 1965-2000,作者李光耀,出版方是全球最大的、老牌而權威的英文出版社哈帕柯林斯(Harper Collins Publishers)。如果說《李光耀觀天下》是「李光耀談新加坡、談世界」系列的普及版,那麼此書應該可以稱得上是進階版了。全書連索引在內逾七百頁,雖然書名說的是「新加坡故事」與「亞洲經濟繁榮」,但其實把全球重要地區的狀況都說了一遍,這跟《李光耀觀天下》一書很相似。
 
全書分為三個部分。第一部分Getting the Basics Right,探討新加坡從獨立到成長中包括建軍、培育精英、確立國語、保持廉政、綠化環保和媒體管制等一系列問題,其中也不乏對他實施的一些為人抨擊的不受歡迎的執政手段作出解釋;第二部分In Search of Space - Regional and International,談東亞、東南亞國家、英美澳、中國兩岸三地等地區形勢;第三部分Winding Up為全書總結,談及政權接棒與其家庭問題。
 
解决国内多年高失業率是執政的人民行動黨(PAP)首要任務。李光耀以及他的內閣很快意識到發展新加坡必先發展工業,後來又受啟發發展起旅游業,地標建筑「魚尾獅」隨後為這個國家爭取並向全世界派發了「獅城」的名片。
 
After grappling with the problem of unemployment for years since we first took office in 1959, all of us in the cabinet knew that the only way to survive was to industrialize. We had reached the limits of our entrepôt trade. The outlook was a further decline. Confrontation from Indonesia was still on and the Malaysians were determined to bypass Singapore. We cast around for solutions and were willing to try any practical idea that could create jobs and enable us to pay our way. One of our soft drink manufacturers suggested to me that we promote tourism; it was labor-intensive, needing cooks, maids, waiters, laundrymen, drycleaners, tour guides, drivers, and makers of souvenir handicraft. Best of all, it required little capital. We formed the Singapore Tourist Promotion Board and appointed our film magnate, Runme Shaw of Shaw Brothers, as chairman. He was the right man for the job. He was in the film and entertainment industry and knew all about the packaging and selling of sights and sounds, and how to keep visitors amused while in a strange country. He had a logo designed, the “merlion”, a lion with a mermaid’s tail. I launched the logo erected in concrete at the mouth of the Singapore River. I did little else for the tourist industry except to speak at the occasional convention of visiting professionals or businesspeople. To my relief it did create many jobs and put coins into many empty pockets. It reduced but did not solve the unemployment problem.
From Third World to First – the Singapore Story: 1965-2000 PAGE 51
 
最讓新加坡和新加坡政府引以為豪的,可算是實現「居者有其屋」的政府組屋政策了,此政策不僅使中下階層也能安居樂業,也讓剛涉足社會、存款較少的年輕人早些「上樓」。這舉措是很多國家和地區難以望其項背的,比如同為「亞洲四小龍」之一的香港效仿新加坡推出了居屋計劃(Home Ownership Scheme),但香港年輕人申請公屋仍然困難重重(有些年輕人為了迎合申請標準故意選擇低收入工作),未符合申請條件者濫用公屋資源的現象也時有發生,最終不能達到像新加坡一樣的理想效果。為此,李光耀在書中還不忘把香港、首爾和日本等地為置業拼死拼活的「樓奴」現象揶揄一番。
 
My primary preoccupation was to give every citizen a stake in the country and its future. I wanted a home-owning society. I had seen the contrast between the blocks of low-cost rental apartment, badly misused and poorly maintained, and those of house-proud owners, and was convinced that if every family owned its home, the country would be more stable. After we won the general election in September 1963, while Singapore was in Malaysia, I had the Housing and Development Board (HDB) announce a home ownership scheme. We had set up the HDB in 1960 as a statutory authority to build low-cost housing for workers. The HDB offered buyers housing loans in 1964, at a low interest rate with repayment periods of up to 15 years, but the scheme did not take off. Prospective buyers could not raise the down payment of 20 percent of the selling price.
From Third World to First – the Singapore Story: 1965-2000 PAGE 95, 96

The CPF and home ownership have ensured political stability, the foundation upon which Singapore grew and developed without interruption for more than 30 years. Singaporeans are unlike their counterparts in Hong Kong, Taipei, Seoul, or Tokyo, who have high wages but pay vast rents for tiny room which they will never own. Such an electorate would not have reelected the PAP with majorities in successive elections.
From Third World to First – the Singapore Story: 1965-2000 PAGE 105
 
新加坡曾是英國殖民地,加之李光耀自幼就接受英式教育,年輕時又在劍橋大學攻讀過法律,因此英國對新加坡影響深遠,像組屋政策這樣的「福利制度」意識或多或少跟英國體制有一定關係。儘管新加坡借鑒了英國的發展模式和管治模式,同時保留了英國很多制度,但李光耀仍能清醒地對此作出取舍。他看到了英國福利制度的缺點,意識到國民只有通過競爭才能使國家永葆活力,堅決不以高福利養懶人,李光耀開了一篇文章A Fair, Not Welfare, Society專門談這個問題。
 
The ideal of free medical services collided against the reality of human behavior, certainly in Singapore. My first lesson came from government clinics and hospitals. When doctors prescribed free antibiotics, patients took their tablets or capsules for two days, did not feel better, and threw away the balance. They then consulted private doctors, paid for their antibiotics, completed the course, and recovered. I decided to impose a charge of 50 cents for each attendance at outpatient dispensaries. This fee was gradually increased over the years to keep pace with rising incomes and inflation.
From Third World to First – the Singapore Story: 1965-2000 PAGE 100
 
政府廉潔也是讓新加坡值得驕傲的地方。1952年,英國在新加坡建立了貪污調查局(CPIB)專門受理貪腐案件,類似香港的廉政公署但更高效。貪污調查局只對總理公署負責,局長由總統直接任命,而人民行動黨執政后,又修例頒布《預防貪污賄賂法》,不斷擴大貪污調查局的權利使用範圍。為此,李光耀在書中自信地提到,在《1997年洛桑管理學院世界競爭力年鑒》中,新加坡政府由於「零腐敗」獲滿分10分,成為了世界上最廉潔的政府。

 The principal agency charged with this task was the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB) set up by British in 1952 to deal with increasing corruption, especially at lower and middle levels of the police, hawker inspectors, and land bailiffs who had to take action against the many who broke the law by occupying public roads for illegal hawking, or state land for building their squatter huts. These inspectors could either issue a summons or look the other way for an appropriate bribe.
From Third World to First – the Singapore Story: 1965-2000 PAGE 159
 
 
It is easy to start off with high moral standards, strong convictions, and determination to beat down corruption. But it is difficult to live up to these good intentions unless the leaders are strong and determined enough to deal with all transgressors, and without exceptions. CPIB officers must be supported without fear of favor to enforce the rules.
The Institute of Management Development’s World Competitiveness Yearbook 1997 ranked the least corrupt countries in the whole world giving 10 points as the prefect score for the country with no corruption. Singapore was ranked as the least corrupt country in Asia with a score of 9.18, ahead of Hong Kong, Japan, and Taiwan. Transparency International (based in Berlin) placed Singapore in seventh place worldwide in 1998 for absence of corruption.
From Third World to First – the Singapore Story: 1965-2000 PAGE 163
 
面對迅速崛起的新加坡,外界關注的焦點是新聞及言論自由。許多人認為,新加坡今日之成就是以犧牲民主和人權為代價的。
 
李慧敏出生在新加坡剛獨立的時代,一路見證新加坡由窮變富的發展軌跡,現為一名年輕的新加坡專欄作家、時事評論員,去年北京時代華文書局出版了她寫的一本書《成長在李光耀時代——一個新加坡人的新加坡故事》,其中有段話說道,在新加坡有限的競選中,必須避開「民主」「人權」「言論自由」這些字眼,因為在新加坡人看来,這些都是「社會混亂」的代名詞。
 
要注意的是,李慧敏說的是「新加坡人」而不是「新加坡執政者」,這說明人民行動黨通過長期施政,已經成功改變了大多數新加坡國民的觀念,有些人認為雖然不能發表異見,卻能感覺生活過得越來越舒坦,「悶聲發大財」的想法深入民心,只要乖乖做順民就不用為此付出任何生活代價,個人舒心而政府放心,從前只是執政者喜聞樂見,現在有些國民似是患了斯德哥爾摩綜合症一般舉手舉腳讚成,漸漸和執政者感同身受、同呼吸共命運起來了。

Almost from the start, the Straits Times was bitterly hostile to the PAP. It saw the noncommunist leadership as a Trojan horse for the Chinese-speaking communists. The Nanyang Siang Pau, Sin Chew Jit Poh, and several smaller Chinese papers strongly supported the PAP because of its left-wing policy and the united front we had with the communists. Many of the Chinese journalists were pro-communist. The Utusan Melayu was Yusof Ishak, its owner and managing editor, was my friend and had dent of Singapore. My early experiences in Singapore and Malaya shaped my views about the claim of the press to be the defender of truth and freedom of speech. The freedom of the press was freedom of its owners to advance their personal and class interests.
From Third World to First – the Singapore Story: 1965-2000 PAGE 186
 
今年三月,隨著李光耀去世,新加坡的李光耀時代畫上了句號,可是上個月新加坡大選,人民行動黨還是高票勝出了。有的國民在過去五十多年來被馴化得害怕改變和不穩定,現在突然有了改變的權利,卻保守起來不知所措了,他們不知道如果未來換了在野工人黨執政新加坡該何去何從,於是到了關鍵時刻他們還是選擇穩妥的主流的一方。緘口不言何足懼?張口時有飯吃才是王道呢。李光耀「第一世界」的夢實現了,可是這美夢美得國民還千萬個不願意醒過來。


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