自由主义和平等主义

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2011-08-28 看过
原文是《资本主义与自由》中的一小段,本来想纯抄但是作者的翻译实在是令人发指,所以还是不敢马虎自己老老实实来一遍吧。

Liberalism and Egalitarianism
自由主义和平等主义

The heart of the liberal philosophy is a belief in the dignity of the individual, in his freedom to make die most of his capacities and opportunities according to his own rights, subject only to die proviso that he not interfere with the freedom of other individuals to do die same. This implies a belief in the equality of men in one sense; in their inequality in another. Each man has an equal right to freedom. This is an important and fundamental right precisely because men are different, because one man will want to do different things with his freedom than another, and in the process can contribute more than another to the general culture of the society in which many men live.

自由主义哲学的核心在于对尊重个体坚信不移,相信自由的个体能够充分发挥和运用个人的能力与机遇,只要他的自由不侵犯他人同样的自由。一方面,这体现了“人人平等”的信念;另一方面,又体现了人与人不平等的信念。每个人对自由享有同等权利。这是一个重要的基本权利,因为人与人之间存在差异,因为即便拥有同样的自由,每个人用之追求的东西也有所不同。在这个过程中,每个人都能够对社会做出做大的贡献。

The liberal will therefore distinguish sharply between equality of rights and equality of opportunity, on the one hand, and material equality or equality of outcome on the other. He may welcome the fact that a free society in fact tends toward greater material equality than any other yet tried. But he will regard this as a desirable by-product of a free society, not its major justification. He will welcome measures that promote both freedom and equality -- such as measures to eliminate monopoly power and to improve the operation of the market. He will regard private charity directed at helping the less fortunate as an example of the proper use of freedom. And he may approve state action toward ameliorating poverty as a more effective way in which the great bulk of the community can achieve a common objective. He will do so with regret, however, at having to substitute compulsory for voluntary action.

因此,自由主义者将在权利、机遇平等与物质、结果平等之间划清界限。自由主义者会认同一个事实——自由社会要比其他任何已知社会形态在物质方面更加平等,但他只把这种平等视为自由社会令人满意的副产品,而非正当理由。自由主义者会认同同时促进自由和平等的举措——比如消灭垄断、促进市场。他会把帮助穷人的私人慈善视为合理运用自由的典范。自由主义者可能会认为运用国家力量改善贫困——作为一个社会大多数人能够实现共同目标的方式——更为有效,但这只是令人遗憾的权宜之计,因为必须用强制来取代自愿。

The egalitarian will go this far, too. But he will want to go further. He will defend taking from some to give to others, not as a more effective means whereby the "some" can achieve an objective they want to achieve, but on grounds of "justice". At this point, equality comes sharply into conflict with freedom; one must choose. One cannot be both an egalitarian, in this sense, and a liberal.

平等主义者同样走到这一步,却希望能够再走几步。平等主义者会为取自部分人又给予其他人的行为辩护,但理由不在于这种行为能够有效帮助“部分人”实现他们预想的目标,而是站在“正义”的立场上。在这一点上,平等和自由不可共存;我们必须做出选择。从这个意义上来说,我们不可能既是一个平等主义者,又是一个自由主义者。
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