世间万物，都离不开资源二字。当你是个IC (Individual Contributor)的时候，资源就是你的时间。当你成了团队管理者，麾下资源就是你的时间+团队（人和时间）。
习惯IC角色的人，大概不会马上意识到manager工作的精髓是让资源发挥乘数效应。其实也不必拘泥于manager这个称谓，无论是IC，还是Leader (IC track) ，亦或是Leader (Manager track)，调动优化永远有限的资源，达到multiplier effect 是永恒的人生和职业目标。
这3大职责里，在我看来，Process大概是比较容易搭建和迭代的。Purpose和People这俩，depedency太多也太多变，往往不是管理者一个人能控制的。Purpose得跟着组织overarching 的 strategy和goal来，虽然不会经常变化，但需要管理者有极强的政治嗅觉和见风使舵（暂且贬义褒用了）的能力。你必须让自己（对团队）的vision和公司的vision紧密结合，为团队的未来负责。而Purpose一旦有变化，很有可能就是血雨腥风，你需要花费大量时间善后——给团队不断解释，建立信心，再三洗脑。而管理People，更需要极强的艺术感和理性。你真诚地去了解团队，帮助他们发挥所长，但你永远不能把他们当家人看待，你是个运动队的教练，紧张活泼，应该转换自如。
每个职责模块里，都是细节组成的例子。作为外国人，每每读到她提到的细节，我都提心吊胆不停反思，生怕自己以前哪里做得不够好，给合作团队带来了culture shock。值得庆幸的是，大概我的老板和前老板们都是这本书的读者，我也得益于他们身体力行，没有因为非母语的不自信忽视细节的力量。事实上，正因为非母语，我才尤其喜欢Overcommunication，观察记录细节，以至于时间久了，还得给自己暗示，don't read too much into it.
The goal of a manager: Improve the purpose, people and processes of your team to get as high a multiplier effect on your collective outcome as you can.
A manager's job is to
1. build a team that works well together
2. support members in reaching their career goals and
3. create processes to get work done smoothly and efficiently
A manager's day is sorted into 3 buckets
1. purpose: ensure your team knows what success looks like and cares about achieving it
2. people: are they set up to succeed? Do they have the right skills? are they motivated?
3. process: how your team works together
The difference between Leadership and Management: Leadership is the particular skill of being able to guide and influence other people
Your First 3 months as a new manager
Scenario 1: THE APPRENTICE
Step up when the team expands
1. play the role of coach
2. have hard conversations: frame criticisms as suggestions- "hey, just an idea, but have you considered...?"
3. have people treat you differently or share less information with you
Scenario 2: THE PIONEER
Build your team
When in doubt, ask 2 groups for help: 1) other managers in your org who support related functions 2) managers in your area of expertise outside your org
Scenario 3: THE NEW BOSS
In the first few months, your primary job is to listen, ask questions and learn
You need to invest in building new relationships: "Since I'm new, you might not feel comfortable sharing everything with me right away. I hope to earn your trust over time. I'll start by sharing more about myself, including my biggest failure ever... "
Scenario 4: THE SUCCESSOR
Don't be pressured to be the former manager. Be yourself.
How to achieve stellar 1:1s?
1. Discuss top priorities: what are the most critical outcomes for your report and how can you help her tackle these challenges?
2. Calibrate what "great" looks like: a shared vision of what you are working towards? expectations
3. Share feedback
4. Reflect on how things are going
Understand each other a little better as human beings- when we've invested time to elarn about our colleagues' values, hobbies, families, life stories, etc
People will forget what you said, what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel
How to give feedback
Feedback is not identifying a problem and coming up with some possible solutions.
1. Set clear expectations at the beginning. Feedback process should begin before any work does. You should agree on what success looks like- whether for a given project or for a given time period
2. Give task-specific feedback as frequently as you can. Share it as soon as you can. Lightweight, habitual part of the day, and your reports benefit from getting small does of coaching in everything you see them do.
3. Share behavioral feedback thoughtfully and regularly. Your words need to be thoughtfully considered and supported with specific examples to explain why you feel that way.
Approach it with a sense of curiosity and an honest desire to understand your report's perspective. "Does this feedback resonate with you? Why or why not?"
4. Collect 360 degree feedback for maximum objectivity
When delivering critical feedback or bad news, don't make it a "compliment sandwich". It's ineffective- lobbing over a few superficial words of praise. Own the decision, Be firm, and don't open it up for discussion.
Make things happen- Processes
Start with the big picture. Describe over and over again the world you'd like to see. Try to connect every task, project, decision or goal with the org's highest-level purpose.
Create a shared vision:
1) what are the biggest priorities right now for our team?
2) once top priorities are covered, ask yourself the second question: are we aligned in how we think about people, purpose and process?