《经济发展理论》摘抄

Karl
2020-05-25 看过

1.社会事实是(至少直接是)人类行为的结果,而经济事实则是经济行为的结果。经济行为可以定义为目的在于取得货物的行为。(5)

2.至此为止所作的假设是:所有的相关数量都是由经验给定的。(13)

3.我们在交换经济中在每一个时期内所能观察到的所有无数交换,在总体上构成了经济生活循环流转的外部形态。(48)

4.然后留下的还有两个事实。首先是历史变化的事实。Then two facts still remain: first the fact of historical change, whereby social conditions become historical “individuals” in historical time. These changes constitute neither a circular process nor pendulum movements about a centre. The concept of social development is defined by these two circumstances, together with the other fact: that whenever we do not succeed in adequately explaining a given historical state of things from the preceding one, we do indeed recognise the existence of an unsolved but not insoluble problem. This holds good first of all for the individual case.(翻译太烂,贴个原文,67)

5. By this we should mean that economic development is not a phenomenon to be explained economically, but that the economy, in itself without development, is dragged along by the changes in the surrounding world, that the causes and hence the explanation of the development must be sought outside the group of facts which are described by economic theory.(73)

6. To produce means to combine materials and forces within our reach (cf. supra, Chapter I). To produce other things, or the same things by a different method, means to combine these materials and forces differently. In so far as the “new combination” may in time grow out of the old by continuous adjustment in small steps, there is certainly change, possibly growth, but neither a new phenomenon nor development in our sense. In so far as this is not the case, and the new combinations appear discontinuously, then the phenomenon characterising development emerges. For reasons of expository convenience, henceforth, we shall only mean the latter case when we speak of new combinations of productive means. Development in our sense is then defined by the carrying out of new combinations.

This concept covers the following five cases: (1) The introduction of a new good — that is one with which consumers are not yet familiar — orof a new quality of a good. (2) The introduction of a new method of production, that is one not yet tested by experience in the branch of manufacture concerned, which need by no means be founded upon a discovery scientifically new, and can also exist in a new way of handling a commodity commercially. (3) The opening of a new market, that is a market into which the particular branch of manufacture of the country in question has not previously entered, whether or not this market has existed before. (4) The conquest of a new source of supply of raw materials or half-manufactured goods, again irrespective of whether this source already exists or whether it has first to be created. (5) The carrying out of the new organisation of any industry, like the creation of a monopoly position (for example through trustification) or the breaking up of a monopoly position.(熊彼特五类创新,75)

7.发展主要在于用不同的方式去使用现有的资源,利用这些资源去做新的事情,而不问这些资源的增加与否。(78)

8.即使最保守的正统理论家,也不大能够否认:没有信用,现代工业的结构就不可能创立;信用使得个人能够在某种程度上不依靠继承的财产而独立行事;经济生活的才智之士能够“跨上负债而取得成功”。(80)

9. We now come to the third of the elements with which our analysis works, namely the “new combination of means of production,”and credit. Although all three elements forma whole, the third may be described as the fundamental phenomenon of economic development. The carrying out of new combinations we call “enterprise”; the individuals whose function it is to carry themout we call “entrepreneurs.”(经济发展的根本现象,85)

10.日常的哪怕是最小的行动,也体现着巨大的心智上的努力。(95)

11.即使是在衣着和礼貌这些事情上偏离社会习惯的行为,也会引起反对;何况在更严重的事情上,自然更是如此。(99)

12.典型的企业家,比起其他类型的人来,是更加以自我为中心的,因为他比起其他类型的人来,不那么依靠传统和社会关系;因为他的独特人物——从理论上讲以及从历史上讲——恰恰在于打破旧传统、创造新传统。(105)

13. This would not, of course, prove the absence of hedonistic motive. Yet it points to another psychology of non-hedonist character, especially if we take into account the indifference to hedonist enjoyment which is often conspicuous in outstanding specimens of the type and which is not difficult to understand.

First of all, there is the dream and the will to found a private kingdom, usually, though not necessarily, also a dynasty.

Then there is the will to conquer: the impulse to fight, to prove oneself superior to others, to succeed for the sake, not of the fruits of success, but of success itself.

Finally, there is the joy of creating, of getting things done, or simply of exercising one's energy and ingenuity.(非享乐主义心理学,106)

14.所谓经济发展,就其本质而言,在于对现存劳力及土地的服务以不同的方式加以利用;这一基本概念使我们得以声称:实现新的组合,是靠从原先的利用方式中把劳力及土地的服务抽调出来才得以成功的。(109)

15.相反,利息不如说是一个对经济发展的制动闸——在交换经济中是一个必要的制动闸,是“企业家利润的一种课税”。……利息只是从企业家那里拿走了否则是属于他的东西,而不是来自其他任何阶级——除去消费性信贷以及“生产——消费性信贷”的情况。(241)

16.企业家成批的出现是繁荣产生的唯一原因。(263)

17.没有一种疗法能够永久地阻止大规模的经济和社会过程,在此过程中,工商企业、各个人的地位、生活方式、文化的价值和理想等等,将以整个社会的规模下沉,并最终消失。(290)

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