4.然后留下的还有两个事实。首先是历史变化的事实。Then two facts still remain: first the fact of historical change, whereby social conditions become historical “individuals” in historical time. These changes constitute neither a circular process nor pendulum movements about a centre. The concept of social development is defined by these two circumstances, together with the other fact: that whenever we do not succeed in adequately explaining a given historical state of things from the preceding one, we do indeed recognise the existence of an unsolved but not insoluble problem. This holds good first of all for the individual case.（翻译太烂，贴个原文，67）
5. By this we should mean that economic development is not a phenomenon to be explained economically, but that the economy, in itself without development, is dragged along by the changes in the surrounding world, that the causes and hence the explanation of the development must be sought outside the group of facts which are described by economic theory.（73）
6. To produce means to combine materials and forces within our reach (cf. supra, Chapter I). To produce other things, or the same things by a different method, means to combine these materials and forces differently. In so far as the “new combination” may in time grow out of the old by continuous adjustment in small steps, there is certainly change, possibly growth, but neither a new phenomenon nor development in our sense. In so far as this is not the case, and the new combinations appear discontinuously, then the phenomenon characterising development emerges. For reasons of expository convenience, henceforth, we shall only mean the latter case when we speak of new combinations of productive means. Development in our sense is then defined by the carrying out of new combinations.
This concept covers the following five cases: (1) The introduction of a new good — that is one with which consumers are not yet familiar — orof a new quality of a good. (2) The introduction of a new method of production, that is one not yet tested by experience in the branch of manufacture concerned, which need by no means be founded upon a discovery scientifically new, and can also exist in a new way of handling a commodity commercially. (3) The opening of a new market, that is a market into which the particular branch of manufacture of the country in question has not previously entered, whether or not this market has existed before. (4) The conquest of a new source of supply of raw materials or half-manufactured goods, again irrespective of whether this source already exists or whether it has first to be created. (5) The carrying out of the new organisation of any industry, like the creation of a monopoly position (for example through trustification) or the breaking up of a monopoly position.（熊彼特五类创新，75）
9. We now come to the third of the elements with which our analysis works, namely the “new combination of means of production,”and credit. Although all three elements forma whole, the third may be described as the fundamental phenomenon of economic development. The carrying out of new combinations we call “enterprise”; the individuals whose function it is to carry themout we call “entrepreneurs.”（经济发展的根本现象，85）
13. This would not, of course, prove the absence of hedonistic motive. Yet it points to another psychology of non-hedonist character, especially if we take into account the indifference to hedonist enjoyment which is often conspicuous in outstanding specimens of the type and which is not difficult to understand.
First of all, there is the dream and the will to found a private kingdom, usually, though not necessarily, also a dynasty.
Then there is the will to conquer: the impulse to fight, to prove oneself superior to others, to succeed for the sake, not of the fruits of success, but of success itself.
Finally, there is the joy of creating, of getting things done, or simply of exercising one's energy and ingenuity.（非享乐主义心理学，106）