只是摘錄。But if literalism is inherently flawed, then OOO suggests, then knowledge production cannot be the sole or even primary purpose of education. It will be crucial to educate students for taste more than currently happens: not just in order to detect 'flamboyant and velvety Pinots', but so as to become connoisseurs of the subtle background rather than the literal foreground of any situation.The key to Ortega's account of metaphor is its realism. It seeks the reality of the thing apart from its relation to the one who perceives or speaks it. The literal meaning of a thing is its meaning as exhaustively unfolded for the hearer or viewer, without surplus or residue beyond what they explicitly see of it. The aspiration of a literal statement is apparently to tell us everything known and knowable about a given thing, without any lingering unstated background, which means the thing in its relation to an ideal knower of that thing. By contrast, the metaphor seems to give us the thing in its autonomy from the other things to which it relates. And we have already said that in the arts, this notion that artworks should be treated as independent realities apart from any of their conditions, relations, or effects, is usually called formalism.It is not just a question of autonomy, but of a specific autonomy of two domains that are separate from one another: humans and world. And here as always, Kant stresses the human side due to his view that the world side i snot directly accessible, belonging as it does to the kingdom of the thing-in-itself.OOO holds no grudge against the socio-political interpretation or effectiveness of art, but simply insists that not all of the elements of the context of an artwork are relevant to that work, and that an artwork either admits or forbids its surroundings to enter through a fairly rigorous process of selection. The effort found in some quarters to reduce both art and philosophy to the handmaid of political revolution misunderstands the mission of art, which can include politics and anything else, but only by first aestheticizing it.