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读书笔记 Content and Intro

in sum: 正当作为一种正义(justification as justice?)

INTRO: A Critique of Relations of Justification

(内容:A reflexive politcial philosophy, Critical Theory, Noumenal power, Outline of the argument)

【A reflexive political philosophy】


This controversy raises a host of philosophical questions – concerning the possibility of universalistic principles, the power of reason, the historicity of norms, the relation between morality and politics and, finally, the critical function of political philosophy


1). who

Who actually poses this question and who has the authority to answer it?
historical agents who are no longer satisfied with the justifications for the normative order to which they are subjected.

2). what

What does it mean to raise and answer a question of justification? What specific claim is one making in doing so and what presuppositions are implicit in the thesis that such a justification must be “reasonable,” “acceptable,” or “just”?
Human beings are always participants in a multiplicity of practices of justification...... all of our thought and actions unfold in particular (social) spaces of reasons and what we call reason is the art of orienting oneself within and between them.

discursive justice:

the universal principle of rational justification according to which norms must always be justified in accordance with their claim to validity

the point

the point is to trace consistently the perspective of participants in practices of justifiction......Nobody is entirely absorbed into the practice of justifictation in which he or she participates, because it is always possible to subject the practice to reflecxive questioning and criticsm. Whether this possibility is a real social possibility must be open to analysis by a critique of relations of justification. 【4】

【MY THOUGHT: 在怎样的话语系统里,主体才具备较强反思能力?较强in a sense that she could detach herself from her situated experience and morality, and that she is treated as with authority】


何为正当性主体(subjects of justification):

1). persons

......appear as active beings, not as passive entities to be acted upon, or as needy or suffering beings

2). 政治哲学的前民主性质

-- ideal

It accords priority to teleological values which are supposed to ground a just or good social order, where those who are subjected to this order do not feature in it as authors.

-- realist

all too often assumes that taking relations between rulers and ruled and real motivations and social conflicts seriously precludes moral principles of construction, and in the process ignores the normative reality of demands for justifications that are at least better than the existing ones

3). Forst's approach (the authority of those affected)

......construes the basic question of legitimate rule as a question of just--and that means justified, non-arbitrary, and non-dominating--rule and it offers a recursive reconstruction of the in part procedural and in part substantive norms which make such a justification possible
......true alienation exists where individuals do not see themselves as subjects of justification who possess a right to justification in social and political contexts


Critical Theory

conceptualize normative orders encountering hinders

The principle of justification is at once a principle of autonomy and a principle of critique. In taking this principle as its foundation, the theory does not construct a normative order over people's heads but instead attempts to conceptualize this order as discursively and socially constructed-- and in the process encounters the phenomena which hinder such construction

reason and DISCOURSE (reciprocal)

the turn to a liberating practice of cooperation should not result from affective bonds or feelings of membership or agreement but from rational insight......"rational" must be understood, following Jurgen Habermas, in the sense of "justified in discourse."

critical theory thus understood

a form of reflection belonging to a historically effective reason, which represents an emancipatory force【7】

-- a third domain between the normative and the descriptive: the sphere of critique

justification is at once a descriptive and a normative concept: it refers to the justifications of social relations actually offered in a given society and it refers to the relations that could be accepted as justified in the light of appropriate reasons


Five essential tasks of a critique of relations

【MY THOUGHT: 这样看critical theory更像是一种theorization的方式,一种思维方法,诸多方面都与feminism的方法一致】

1). 发现和描述社会关系的不正当性

identify the non-justifiable institutional, economic, and cutural relations

2). 驳斥维护不正当社会关系的意识形态

identify "false" (potentially ideaological) justifications of asymmetrical social relations

3). 为新的正当社会关系构建新论证(结构上接纳新主体)

the demand for a "basic structure of justification" as the first imperative of justice

......a framework for an autonomous discursive practice among those affected or subjected themselves--including the question of what is meant by "affected" or "subjection," for the right to justification does not end at the boundaries of contexts of justification within states

4). 解释新论证的构建失败

(historical, social) an explanation of the failure or th lack of effective social and political structures of justification uncovering and transforming unjustified relations

5). 反思自身的不正当性 (the critique of critique)

elucidate the standards governing its own activity, specifically as an activity that also reflects back on itself and its own blind spots and exclusions in a self-critcal manner


NOUMENAL POWER 【这一部分非常有趣!!!!critical theory对于权力的解释,normatively neutral,从对权力定性的层面上看,crtical theory is Machiavellian】

Skeptic might ask

can such a theory, which seems to be situated more in the noumenal than in the social realm, adequately grasp relations of social and political power or rule?


==> a cognitivist conception of power

normatively neutral......the space in which it (power) exists is the space of reasons or of justifications......Power exists between persons as long as agents exert influence over each other by bringing others to do something in any of these different ways; it disappears when mere physical violence replaces these ways of exercising influence.
Thus the true phenomenon of power is noumenal or intellectual in nature.......power always plays out in the space of communication, though this does not mean that it is well justified

--> some important concepts in an analysis of discursive positions of power:

1). power

2). rule

3). domination

non-justified legitimations......ideologically sealed off or occupied by effective threats

--> 4). coercion-->5). violence

【MY THOUGHT: accordinly:




当房思琪在老师的诱奸下逼迫自己爱上老师,在社会结构中无法声张,暴虐的权力对她是三重作用,不仅让她在痛苦中用暴力闭上了她的嘴巴,用psychic life of power取消了她的主体,还给她添注了一个任凭摆布的幽灵主体】


Outline of the argument

P1 Radical justice

-- C1 两种关于正义的话语方式:a. 物品及其分配;b. 谁规定分配的轻重和逻辑

-- C2 重新反思人权: the right to justification

-- C3 正义与和平

P2 Justification, recognition, and critique

-- C4 人类尊严: as a political-moral demand of the right to justification

-- C5 批判理论的定义,Nancy Fraser vs. Axel Honneth

-- C6 关于容忍的概念 (equal but different)

P3 Beyond justice

-- C7 正义理论的问题:过分严谨、隔绝他人的批评和只认同一种正义观

-- C8 汉娜阿伦特,政治自决的转瞬即逝

-- C9 批判“政治乌托邦”在当代政治哲学中的地位?

For not only does it paint ideal images of a happy world that we can only approach without ever fully realizing; instead it thrusts us back into the uncomfortable space situated between the bad reality and the ideal whose purity is problematic, and thus destroyes the ideal
the radicalness of the thinking of the "nowhere"......Critical thought cleaves neither to the real nor to the ideal, therefore, but instead begins with the notion of autonomy as a conflictual and creative task

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