BG: debate abt a potential cosmopolitan political orderHabermas was optimistic about the prospects for a global political order as the continuation of the form of democracy based on human rights typical of nation states
decentering order? ❌Yet, when discussing "postnational" legitimacy, Habermas clearly makes self-determination by a singular demos the fundamental normative core of the democratic ideal
demos, HeldIn order to reconstitute the community as sovereign, Held argues that the demoi must submit to the will of the global demos: “cosmopolitan law demands the subordination of regional, national and local sovereignties to an overarching legal framework.”
Habermas, cosmopolitan politicsa cosmopolitan order must be political (and not merely juridical); institutional (and not merely organized informally or by policy networks); transnational (to the extent that it would be like the European Union, an order of political and legal orders); and in some sense democratic or at least subject to democratic norms.
【在哈贝马斯的democracy as self-legislation原则下，国际关系似乎很难达到democracy的标准】