Critique of Pure Reason 9.6分
读书笔记 preface
bare life

- how we reason - how we gain knowledge about the world

Nature of reason-question that cannot dismiss

Surpass human reason-cannot answer

Principle-reason-experience-(reason come from experience)

because these principles, our reason ascend higher, to more remote conditions.(reason without experience)

Thus it finds itself compelled to resort to principles that go beyond all possible use in experience, and that nonetheless seem so little suspect that even common human reason agrees with them(principles- common human reason)

Human reason->darkness and contradictions; 即便有错误,人类也知道不了(康德想解决的就是这个问题)

Principle too high

This is metaphsics(queen), but no more

- critique of reason

By critique of pure reason, however, I do not mean a critique of books and systems, but I mean the critique of our power of reason as such, in regard to all cognitions after which reason may strive independently of all experience.

(怎么解决incapacity of human reason,为什么要pure呢,是不是逃避)

Rather, I have made a complete specification of them according to principles, and, upon discovering the of reason's disagreement with itself, have resolved them to its full satisfaction.

So much about completeness in achieving each of the purposes set for us, and comprehensiveness in achieving all of them together-purposes set for us not by this or that precept, but by the nature of cognition itself, which is the matter of our critical inquiry.

-internal sourse of reason

Such a system of pure (speculative) reason I myself hope to provide under the title of Metaphysics of Nature.(source and condition of the possibility of that system)

- pure reason must be seperated from experience

here nothing can escapre us, because what reason brings forth entirely from itself cannot hide, but is brought to light by reason itself as soon as we have discovered it common principle

For cognitions of this kind arise from pure concepts alone, they cannot be influenced by anything taken from experience, or even by particular intuition that might lead to determinate expeienceonc

For cognitions of this kind arise from pure concepts alone, they cannot be influenced by anything taken from experience, or even by particular intuition that might lead to determinate expeienceo

- concept beyond possible experience

Indeed, we would sooner dare anything, even at the risk of error, than give up such treasured inquiries , whether on the ground that they are precarious somehow, or from disdain and indifference.

But the science whose final aim is in fact directed solely at solving these problems is called metaphysics.

- what can we know from our perspective

our intuition is nothing but the presentation of appearance

不可知 being/having

可知 subject/subejctive character of senses


character of objects/relation in space and time

不可知-objects in themselves

our sensibility remains to us

可知-the way in which we perceive them (sensetion

cognize a priori-pure intuition (posteriori

the subject original: space/time

cognize via way of intutiing


the way we are affected by objects


acquire presetation





[perception vs cognition

patially error pure thinking


it is not sth less, it is sth complete]

- definition of sensation and how does it relate to kinds of knowledge

The capacity to acquire presentations as a result of the way in which we are affected by objects is called sensibility

The effect of an object on our capacity for presentation is sensation

matter: in an appearance correspond to sensation

form of appearance:in appearance bring about the fact that the manifold od the appearance can be ordered and put into a certain form cannot itself be sensation again

All presentations in which nothing is found that belongs to sensation I call pure


transcendental aesthetic: be a science of all principles of a priori sensibility

transcendental logic: transcendental doctrine of elements which contains the principles of pure thought

[thought<-pure<-nothing in sensition<-no effect of the object on our capability to present]

- why our senses do not lead to a priori knowledge

we cannot make the speacial conditions of sensibility to be conditions of the possiblity of things, but only of the possiblity of their appearances

space and time-twp pure forms of sensible intuition

《Critique of Pure Reason》的全部笔记 2篇
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