The Theory of Communicative Action 7.9分
读书笔记 TCA Brief intro from SEP
Eavan.

目前为止,对于我来说,the theory of communicative action最有趣的地方是它既提供了一个批判现代性理性化的角度,又通过联结现代性和performative attitude,以及证明strong communicative demand(cultural norms)在复杂现代社会的不可达成性来论证systems integration的合理性

简言之,在哈贝马斯这里,激进民主是一种未完成的社会秩序,其validity基础就是communicative action及其背后的pluralistic approach,而现代性及其system对lifeworld的渗透和病理化是一种不得已而为之的最不坏之坏,哈贝马斯用一种修正的态度处理现代性的民主匮乏

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Marxian historical materialism, two drawbacks

1). comprehensiveness does not ensure explanatory power/superior insight, assuming that

a. there is one preferred mode of critical explanation

b. there is one preferred goal of social criticism (socialist society)

2). such explanations typically appeal to a variety of different social theories (e.g. micro/rationality vs. macro/market)

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==> pluralistic mode, Habermasian knowledge-constitutive interests

A pluralistic mode of critical inquiry suggests a different norm of correctness: that criticism must be verified by those participating in the practice and that this demand for practical verification is part of the process of inquiry itself
In the absence of any such general theories, the most fruitful approach to social-scientific knowledge is to bring all the various methods and thoeries into relation to each other.......Critical Theory takes on the task of critically unifying the various theories and their heterogeneous methods and presuppositions
......his own distinctive definition of rationality, one that is epistemic, practical, and intersubjective.......see interpreters as competent and knowledgeable agents

==> performative attitude (rational in approach)

【to articulate the "validity basis" of social order?】

The fundamental form of coordination through language......a practical stance......reading understanding......
COMMUNICATIVE ACTION, which he distinguishes from strategic forms of social action......speakers coordinate their action and pursuit of individual (or joint) goals on the basis of a shared understanding that the goals are inherently reasonable or merit-worthy......succeeds insofar as the actors freely agree that their goal (or goals) is reasonable, that it merits cooperative behavior

acceptability conditions

we understand a speech act when we know the kinds of reasons that a speaker could provide in order to convince a hearer that he is entitled in the given circumstances to claim validity for his utterance--in short, when we know what makes it acceptable

--> the practice of REASON

speech acts inherently involve claims that are in need of reasons--claims that are open to both criticism and justification

【MY THOUGHT: To activate mutually understanding, I think reason is neither necessary nor sufficient. 两个同样穿着anti-social-social-club衣服的年轻人可以一个眼神就可以意会,大家是自己人,他们的言语交流顺畅,但这communicative force主要是由social situation, emotional synchrony和visual representation赋予的,而不是言语中的逻辑和理性,不过根据下述,Habermas也不只是强调逻辑和理性】

--> a spectrum of "validity claims"

fact-stating modes of discourse......claims to moral rightness, ethical goodness or autheticity, personal sincerity, and aesthetic value......a richer social idea--that a claim (statement) merits the addressee's acceptance because it is justified or true in some sense, which can vary according to the sphere of validity and dialogical context

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==> 真正的关注点

moves the analysis beyond a narrow focus on the truth-conditional semantics of representation to the social intellibility of interaction

the traidic structure of the three "world relations" in 【strong communicative acts】:

1). express an inner world (sincerity);

2). establish a communicative relation with a hearer (social appropriateness);

3). attempts to represent the external world (factual truth)

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多元社会,system和lifeworld

==>in complex, pluralistic societies, 【system-lifeworld distinction】

1). systemic coordination (e.g. markets, bureaucracies, relieving demands of strong communicative action):

allowing for weaker forms of communicative action (in which not all three types of validity claims are at stake) or strategic action (in which actors understand that everyone is oriented toward individual success)

2). in contrast, "lifeworld", consensual modes predominate

shared cultural systems of meaning, institutional orders that stablize patterns of action, and personality structures acquired in family, church, neighborhood, and school

【MY THOUGHT: 哈贝马斯这个区分很有助于解释中国社会的不同形态,不过作为一种理论,它有可能固化这一形态而不是批判它,在两者的交界处,这一理论则过分简化了】

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Communicative action vs. Gadamer's hermeneutics

1). common grounding

the whole domain of the social sciences is accessible only through interpretation

2). Habermasian distinctive conclusion on the role of social scientists

As a "virtual participant," the social scientist must take a position on the claims made by those he observes......no disjunction between the attitude of the critic and the interpreter as reflective participants.

criticism

McCarthy and others......it is not a necessary condition that interpreters take a position in order to understand reasons, even if we have to rely on our own competence to judge the validity and soundness of reasons and to identify them as reaons at all

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The Theory of Modernity

1). 现代社会打破成规

.....modern culture has unleashed communicative rationality from its previous cultural and ideological constraints......social norms are no longer presumed to be valid but rather are subjected to critcal reflection

2). 生活世界的理性化

In a sense consistent with the Enlightenment imperative to use one's own reason, the everyday "lifeworld" of social experience has been rationalized, especially in the form of discourses that institutionalize reflective communicative action, as in scientific and democratic institutions

3). 无需强沟通行为

......went hand-in-hand with the growth of systemic mechanisms of coordination already mentioned above, in which the demands on fully communicative consensus are relaxed

4). 现代性的病理化

-- colonization

Modernization can become pathological, as when money and power "colonize the lifeworld" and displace communicative forms of solidarity and inhibit the reproduction of the lifeworld (e.g. when universities become governed by market strategies)

-- juridification

law comes to invade more and more areas of social life, turning citizens into clients of bureaucracies with what Foucault might call "normalizing" effects

5). 民主理论

improving democratic practice as a means of counteracting jurisdification and colonization

Democratic institutions......supposed to ensure that the law does not take this pathological form but is subject to the deliberation of citizens......see law not as part of the problme, but as part of the solution

status quo

citizens do not control social processes; they exercise influence through particular institutionalized mechanisms and channels of communication

saving the substance of radical democracy

insisting upon popular sovereignty as the outcome of the generation of "communicative power" in the public sphere
Radical democracy may no longer be the only means to social transformation, though it is clear that it remains "the unfinished project of modernity": realizing and transforming democracy is still a geniune goal even for complex and globalizing societies

the necessity of systems integration

Habermas' emphasis on the limiting effect of complexity on democracy and his rejection of a fully democratic form of sociation continue the basic argument of the necessity of systems integration, even with its costs

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