罗念生全集:第八卷:论古典文学 8.7分
读书笔记 论古希腊喜剧
亞歷山大裡亞

古希腊喜剧和古希腊悲剧一样,起源于民间歌舞。古希腊农民于收获葡萄时节祭祀酒神狄俄倪索斯,化装为鸟兽,举行狂欢游行,载歌载舞,这种歌叫做komos(科摩斯,意思是“狂欢队伍之歌”)。“喜剧”一词在希腊文里作komoidia(科摩狄亚),是由komos和aeidein(唱歌)二字合成的,意思是“狂欢歌舞剧”。

早在公元前6世纪初年,希腊本部的梅加腊就有一种描写神话故事和日常生活的滑稽剧,这便是喜剧的前身。亚里士多德在《诗学》第三章说:“希腊本部的梅加腊人自称首创喜剧,说喜剧起源于梅加腊民主政体建立时代。”梅加腊人曾于公元前581年推翻僭主忒阿革涅斯而建立民主政体。此后即出现“喜剧”。其实梅加腊人所说的“喜剧”,不过是一种滑稽剧,这样滑稽剧是由“狂欢队伍之歌”演变来的。

亚里士多德在《诗学》第四章说:“喜剧是从低级表演的临时口占发展出来的,这种表演至今仍在许多城市流行”。所谓“低级表演”大概是指梅加腊等地的滑稽剧,剧中的“回答者”(由剧作者扮演)临时编几句诗来回答歌队提出的问题。

《comedy》:Whereas Aristophanic Old Comedy dealt with political institutions, public figures, and fantastical situations,Menandrine New Comedy was concerned with the intimate themes of domestic and private life. New Comedy dramatized the lives of citizens rather than gods and politicians and was interested in romance, sexual desire, the circulation of money, and the imposition of patriarchal order. New Comedy was also the first to conclude with the promise of marriage.Concomitantly, its repertoire of stock characters emerges from the household and orbits around this central domestic space. Menander, Plautus, and Terence populate their plays with variations on the same basic character types: the profligate or impractical young man; the senex, or parent; the matronly wife; the meretrix, or accomplished courtesan; the clever slave; the nervous parasite; the vulnerable maiden; and the miles gloriosus, or swaggering soldier. These characters reflect Menander's absorption of the philosophy of Theophrastus (c. 370c.288 BC), head of the Peripatetic School after Aristotle, and the author of Characters, thirty sketches of human types embodying particular faults and follies. Like stage comedy itself, these amount to possibly the most resilient character types in all Western fiction, with several remaining, in the words of Northrop Frye, `practically unchanged for twenty-five centuries'

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