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读书笔记 第46页

Th is might have led to complete anarchy, but over time Muslims developed quasi-authority structures that believers may choose to follow. Fiqh-minded Twelver Shiʿas, for instance, often identify authority fi gures, known as marjaʿ taqlids, from whom they can take guidance on Islamic law.

Sunnis also developed quasi-authority structures, which take the form of what are now called schools of Islamic law. Th ese are four large groups, each of which has a long, illustrious history of legal thinkers and texts. Most Sunni Muslims adhere to one of these four schools and often use them to describe their brand of Sunnism. Sunni Muslims regularly designate themselves as belonging to one of these four schools, known as the Hanafi s, Shafi ʿis, Malikis, and Hanbalis. A minority of Muslims state that they do not follow any school and instead follow only the Qurʾan and the practice of Muhammad. Th is is a very interesting group known as salafi s

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