It should go without saying—but unfortunately doesn’t—that the term Muslim describes a diverse group of . billion individu- als who have complex and varied relationships with their religion. Some are deeply religious, while others are not. For some, Islam is a way of viewing the world, whereas for others, it is more of an identity marker. We can play this numbers game with any country that has re- liable mosque and population records to get a sense of how many more Muslims there are than mosques. Malaysia’s , mosques must somehow accommodate its million Muslims. Singapore’s mosques must cater to its , Muslims. Th e Muslim popu- lations of these countries cannot fi t into their mosques, which means that most Muslims simply aren’t praying the Friday prayer. And it is important to note that infrastructure refl ects demand. If Muslims were to complain that they did not have enough space to pray, then governments would likely comply by encouraging mosque construc- tion. But the demand simply isn’t there.