The Qing Opening to the Ocean
A timely reaction to the long-dominant Eurocentric interpretation of Chinese history, the “China-centered” model asserts the autonomy of Ming-Qing history. But when it is applied to the history of Chinese maritime enterprise, it soon becomes clear that it is inadequate. Purely indigenous factors cannot completely explain the rise of private trade in the early sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, which was due largely to the emergence of what Anthony Reid has called the “absolutist countries” of maritime Asia. When Chinese restrictions suffocated maritime trade along the coast, it was the acquiescence, encouragement, and support from East Asian and Southeast Asian countries that provided China’s maritime merchants with new opportunities to expand. Likewise, the increasingly strong opposition voiced by Manchu and Chinese elites to official restrictions on private trade must be understood, at least in part, as a function of the vigorous economic links between southeastern China, western Japan, and Southeast Asia. And the fondness of Manchu rulers and officials for private trade had much to do with long-term Manchu and Jurchen participation in the northeast Asian trade network.
《The Qing Opening to the Ocean》的全部笔记 3篇