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读书笔记 Introduction
Like the Dutch, the British traders saw their own commercial interests and privileges as symbolizing the spirit of “free trade.” Beginning in the mid-eighteenth century, the emerging English capitalist class claimed its standard of “civilization” as one with which every nation on earth ought to comply. Thus, China’s disregard, denial, and rejection of British commercial privileges became a challenge to “civilization” and, more important, clearly reflected the isolationist nature of China’s trade policy as well as the backwardness and closed quality of the Chinese empire.
《The Qing Opening to the Ocean》的全部笔记 3篇
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