p29 Somebody tells: complexity and instability are key components of the reading experience.
p30 Authors: poststructualism “The Death of the Author”.
But considering narrative as a communicative process,they matter: there can be no rhetoric without rhetor.
The effects of narrative by reference to a feedback loop among:①authorial agency(entails necessary sacrifices and unintended consequences)②textual phenomena③reader response
p31 Treat texts as if they are intended to be made sense of.Authors want us to go further.
Once we make decisions about the implied author’s reason, we are in a good position to evaluate his choices.In contrast, deciding to censure his choice before considering his purposes means projecting our values onto his novel,and thus forgoing our chance to understand its designs on us, much less to be influenced by them.
We also endorse the concept of the implied author that Booth introduced.
implied author: the version of himself or herself whom the actual author constructs and who communicates through the myriad choices that he or she makes in composing and revising a narrative.
p32 four reasons→①It recognizes that writing narrative is inevitably an act of self-presentation.②It gives us a useful way to talk about intention. (＊The aim of the rhetorical approach is not to determine the conscious intention of the actual author, but rather to discern the system of intentionality that explains why the text has this particular shape rather than some other one)③It helps explain why we often come to know different versions of the same actual author in different texts.(We have the same actual author but distinct implied author.)④It gives us a way to talk about texts with problematic authorship.
The key distinction is between authorial agency and textual free play rather than the actual and the implied author. So we often use the name of the author to cover both the real author and the implied author.
p33 Booth’s conception was simple: a narrator is “reliable when he or she speaks or acts in accordance with the norms of the work,unreliable when he does not”.
refinements: restricted narration, unreliable narration(Jim).
p34 narrator’s three primary tasks: reporting, interpreting, evaluating
unreliable narration: estranging unreliability (increases the distance between the narrator and the reader), bonding unreliability (reduces the distance)
Authors use the complexity of relations between authors and readers to create a range of emotional and ethical effects. With unreliable narration, this range extends from affective and ethical repulsion at one end to affective sympathy and ethical admiration at the other.
p35 A communion between readers and a narrator is also important. (Adds an important dimension to our understanding of the workings of narrative communication.)
p36 Huck is reliable as reporter,interpreter,and evaluator—and this burst of insight severs to reinforce the previous bonding unreliability. When Huck makes his decision to tear up that paper and evaluates his action most negatively, we feel our strongest sympathy and our greatest ethical approval of his actions.
p37 We are less beholden to the distinction between story and discourse.
Scenes of character-character dialogue with interspersed narratorial commentary often show an author using different resources of narrative in order to combine the representation of an event with reporting,interpreting,and evaluating.
p38 By conveying Huck’s judgement in his address to Jim, Twain also tells us about the way Huck implicitly trust Jim even as he shows Huck’s instinctively clear ethical judgement and his shrewd strategy for dealing with the situation.
Twain is using the resources of character-character dialogue as narration by other means.