翻译、权力、颠覆 评价人数不足
读书笔记 Culture-Specific Items in Translation
罗爽

Following T. Hermans "proper nouns can be divided in two categories: conventional and loaded. Conventional proper nouns are those ‘seen as unmotivated" and thus as having no meaning of themselves', i.e. those that fall under the collective perception we have of meaningless' proper nouns, apart from the possible textual or intertextual analogies authors-unfortunately for the translator-tend to activate. Loaded proper names are 'those literary names that are somehow seen as "motivated"; they range from faintly "suggestive" to overtly "expressive" names and nicknames, and include those fictional as well as non-fictional names around which certain historical or cultural associations have accrued in the context of a particular culture'. In the case of conventional names, there is nowadays a clear tendency to repeat, transcribe or transliterate them in primary genres, except when there is a pre-established translation based on tradition (important toponyms, historical fictional or non-fictional names like saints, kings, etc.). Loaded names have a much greater margin of indeterminacy, but they do seem to display a tendency toward the linguistic (denotative or non-cultural) translation of their components, a trend which increases with their expressivity.
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