逃避自由 9.0分
读书笔记 Freedom -- A Psychological Problem
出路

"The abolition of external domination seemed to be not only a necessary but also a sufficient condition to attain the cherished goal: freedom of the individual"

“消除外在的统治似乎不仅是必要的,而且也是达到梦寐以求的目标——个人自由的充分条件”。

John Dewey 约翰·杜威 :“the serious threat to our democracy is not the existence of foreign totalitarian states. It is the existence within our own personal attitudes and within our own institutions of conditions which have give a victory to external authority, discipline, uniformity and dependence upone the Leader in foreign countries.The battlefield is also accordingly here -- within ourselves and our institutions.”

"对民主政体最严重的威胁,并不来自于外部的独裁国家。外在的权威、法律、千篇一律(一致性)之所以能够得逞,人之所以拜倒在外国‘领袖’的脚下,还得从我们的自身、我们自己的态势中寻根究底。因此,战场也正是在此——在我们的心中,在我们的态势之中。” 《自由与文化》

INSTITUITION “态势”? 还是“机构,制度”?

上海译文出版社《逃避自由》关于此段的翻译"对我们民主的严重威胁,并不在于外部的集团国家,而在于我们自己的个人态度和环境的法律习俗,它们使外在权威、戒律、整齐划一及依赖外国'领袖'得逞。战场也正在这里——在我们自己心中,在我们的法律习俗中。"

"It is the purpose of this book to analyse those dynamic factors in the character structure of modern man(现代人的性格结构), which made him want to give up freedom in Fascist countries and which so widely prevail in millions of our own people.”

" Any attempt to understand the attraction which Fascism exercises upon great nations compels us to recognize the role of psychological factors. For we are dealing here with a political system which, essentially, does not appeal to rational forces of self-interest, but which arouses and mobilizes diabolical forces in man which we had believed to be nonexistent, or at least to have died out long ago. ”

“如果追究法西斯主义对大国产生吸引力的原因,我们不得不承认心理因素所起的作用。因为我们在此研究的是一种政治制度,而这种政治制度实质上并不诉诸利己的理性力量,相反,这种政治制度唤起和动用了人性中的凶暴的力量,这种力量以前我们相信在人性中是根本不存在的,或者至少早已消失了的。”

弗洛伊德说过:" In consequence of this suppression of natural impulses by society something miraculous happens: the suppressed drives turn into strivings that are culturally valuable and thus become the human basis for culture. "

"由于社会对自然冲动的压抑,有时会发生不可思议的事情:被压抑的冲动转变成了在文化上有价值的冲动,并从而变成了创造人类文化的基础.”

弗洛伊德称之为“升华”(sublimation)

“ The relation of the individual to society in Freud’s theory is essentially a static one: the individual remains virtually the same and becomes changed only in so far as society exercises greater pressure on his natural drives (and thus enforces more sublimation) or allows more satisfaction (and thus sacrifices culture). ” 弗洛伊德认为“个人同社会的关系本质上是一种静态的关系”

"Thus the individual, primarily alone and self-sufficient(孤独而又自主的个体), enters into economic relations with others as means to one end: to sell and to buy(作为达到买卖这一目的的手段,与他人发生了经济关系). Freud’s concept of human relations is essentially the same: the individual appears fully equipped with biologically given drives, which need to be satisfied. In order to satisfy them, the individual enters into relations with other “objects.” Other individuals thus are always a means to one’s end(他人总是一种达到个人目的或冲动的一种手段), the satisfaction of strivings which in themselves originate in the individual before he enters into contact with others. " “ it is an exchange of satisfaction of biologically given needs(天生的生物需求和满足的交换), in which the relationship to the other individual is always a means to an end but never an end in itself. ”

“与他人发生关系总是一种达到某人目的的手段,而不是目的本身”

“ Contrary to Freud’s viewpoint, the analysis offered in this book is based on the assumption that the key problem of psychology is that of the specific kind of relatedness of the individual towards the world (个人与世界的特殊关联性问题)and not that of the satisfaction or frustration of this or that instinctual need per se;(而不是种种自我本能感到满足或是感到挫败的问题) ”

“ furthermore, on the assumption that the relationship between man and society is not a static one. ”

本书基于这种假设: “人与社会的关系并不是静止的”

"Certain needs,such as hunger, thirst, sex, which are common to man,”

人类共有的需求:饿,渴,性。

“ those drives which make for the differences in men’s characters, like love and hatred, the lust for power and the yearning for submission, the enjoyment of sensuous pleasure and the fear of it, are all products of the social process. ”

真正让人类性格得以区别的,比如爱与恨,对于权力的贪求以及渴望屈服,对感官刺激(愉悦)的满足或是恐惧,都是社会过程的产物。

" The most beautiful as well as the most ugly inclinations of man are not part of a fixed and biologically given human nature, but result from the social process which creates man. "

那些美好或是丑恶的倾向,并不是固定在人生物本能里的一部分,而是在社会进程的产物。

“ In other words, society has not only a suppressing function—although it has that too—but it has also a creative function.”

“ Man’s nature, his passions(所热爱的), and anxieties(所焦虑的) are a cultural product; as a matter of fact, man himself is the most important creation and achievement of the continuous human effort, the record of which we call history. ”

Social psycology : " Its task is to show not only how passions(热情?情欲?), desires, anxieties change and develop as a result of the social process, but also how man’s energies thus shaped into specific forms in their turn become productive forces, molding the social process."

它的任务不仅仅是揭示情欲,愿望,忧虑 怎样随着社会过程而变化发展,而且是要揭示人的能量(在其变化过程中他们已经演化为各种具体形式)怎样变成生产力量,形成社会过程。

"Human nature, though being the product of historical evolution, has certain inherent mechanisms and laws, to discover which is the task of psychology."

人性固然是历史演变的产物,但也具有某些固有机制和规则,心理学的任务就在于发现它们。

顺应 (Adaptation) : 静态的(static) , 动态的(dynamic).

” By static adaptation we mean such an adaptation to patterns as leaves the whole character structure unchanged and implies only the adoption of a new habit. ”

“静态的”顺应乃指形式上的顺应,这种顺应不会改变整个性格结构,而仅是采纳一种新的习惯。

“While here, too, as in the first case, an individual adapts himself to certain external circumstances, this kind of adaptation creates something new in him, arouses new drives and new anxieties. Every neurosis is an example of this dynamic adaptation; ” “动态的”顺应 --

同前一种顺应一样,也是个人使自己顺应某种外在的环境,但它在他身上产生了某种新的东西,引起了新的冲动和忧虑。任何精神病都是这种动态顺应的例子。

Neurosis 柯林斯词典:" is a mental condition which causes people to have unreasonable fears and worries over a long period of time. " 神经机能病, 神经功能症

仍需要解答的问题是 “ What is it that forces man to adapt himself to almost any conceivable condition of life, and what are the limits of his adaptability? ”

是什么因素迫使人们去顺应几乎任何可以想象得到的生活环境? 人们的顺应力的限度是什么?

"There are certain sectors in man's nature that are more flexible and adaptable than others. Those strivings and character traits by which men differ from each other show a great amount of elasticity and malleability":

人性中有些因素比其他因素更具有灵活性和顺应性,那些构成人与人之间区别的冲动和性格特质显示出极大的伸缩性和适应性。

比如: “love, destructiveness, sadism(虐待狂), the tendency to submit, the lust for power, detachment(超然性),the desire for self-aggrandizement(自大狂), the passion for thrift(节俭欲),

the enjoyment of sensual pleasure, and the fear of sensuality. "

对感官满足的津津乐道和对耽于声色(sensuality)的恐惧

渴望感官刺激的且又担心过度纵欲。

这些冲动和需求一旦成为了性格的一部分,就难以改变。但是却在童年时期具有”灵活性(flexible)"

" particularly in their childhood, develop the one or other need according to the whole mode of life they find themselves in."

特别是处于儿童时期的个人,将会按照他们生活于其中的整个生活方式,培养出这种活那种需求

与这些需求不同的是,人生理上的需求(渴,饿,睡等等 (比如安全感,住所shelter))"are an indispensable part of human nature and imperatively need satisfaction"

是人性中不可缺少的成分,是必须予以满足的。

"All these physiologically conditioned needs can be summarized in the notion of a need for self-preservation. "

这些生理需求可以被总结为

自我保存的需求(a need for self-preservation)

为了满足生理上的需求,人需要生产和劳动(produce and work). 具体的劳动(concrete work):

" a specific kind of work in a specific kind of economic system. "

在某一特定的经济制度中的某一特地的劳动。

“ These different kinds of work require entirely different personality traits and make for different kinds of relatedness to others. ”

不同种类的劳动,需要有完全不同人格特质,并且也造成了不种类的人际关系

“ he has to work under the particular conditions and in the ways that are determined for him by the kind of society into which he is born. ”

他必须在特定的环境下,按照他所出生于其中的都一种社会已为他决定了的那种方式劳动。

一个人需要符合社会需求的工作,或从事满足社会需求的工作。 而他所需要的生存(live)和社会制度(social system),是个人无法改变的:“ in principle are unalterable by him as an individual, and they are the factors which determine the development of those other traits that show greater plasticity ” 而这些因素也决定了之前那些所提到了具有很大伸缩性适应性的特性的发展。

''primarily his personality is molded by the particular mode of life, as he has already been confronted with it as a child through the medium of the family, which represents all the features that are typical of a particular society or class. "

从根本上说,他的人格是由特定的生活方式所塑造出来的,因为当他还是个儿童时,他就已经通过家庭的媒介,与这种特定的生活方式打交道了,家庭代表着某一特定社会或阶级所有典型的特征。

"The economic structure of a society in determining the mode of life of the individual operates as condition for personality development.

一个社会的经济结构,在决定个人的生活方式时,也作为人格发展的 条件 起作用。

而这些社会的经济结构,经济条件(Economic conditions) 是不同于 主观的经济动机(subjective ecomomic motives)的, 比如人们追求物质财富的欲望 (desire for material wealth)。 因为这种欲望只存在某种特定文化条件下(peculiar to certain culture)产生, 而在其他不同的经济条件下完全能创造出厌恶物质财富或者对物质财富无所谓、不在乎的态度。

" The need to be related to the world outside oneself, the need to avoid aloness." 另外一种必不可少的需求,并不植根于生理肉体,而是“ the very essence of the human mode and practice of life" :

想与自身之外的世界发生关系,逃避孤独的需求。

哪怕肉体上不再与外界有任何联系,但是精神上( "ideas, values or at least social patterns") 也会“give him a feeling of communion(交流) and 'belonging(归属感)' 。 而有的人在众人中也会有孤独感。 “This lack of relatedness to values, symbols, patterns, we may call moral aloneness”

这种在价值,符号和模式方面失去联系的的现象,我们可以称之为精神上的孤独。

"Why the fear of isolation is so powerful?"

"One important element is the fact that men cannot live without some sort of co-operation with others."

人不与他人进行某些合作就不能够生存。

“ There is another element, however, which makes the need to “belong” so compelling: the fact of subjective self-consciousness, of the faculty of thinking by which man is aware of himself as an individual entity, different from nature and other people. ”

但是,还有一个因素, 使得这这种”从属“的需求变得如此迫切,这就是主观的自我意识,人的藉以把自身与自然及他人区分开来,作为一个完整的个体加以认识的思维功能。

这种自我意识,会让人产生这样的疑问与困惑:

” by being aware of himself as distinct from nature and other people, by being aware—even very dimly—of death, sickness, aging, he necessarily feels his insignificance and smallness in comparison with the universe and all others who are not “he."

认识到自身与自然以及其他人的区别,由于认识到(即使是朦胧地认识到)生老病死之必然,他必然会觉得,与宇宙、与不同与他的所有其他人比较起来,他是多么的渺小和不重要。

"Unless he belonged somewhere, unless his life had some meaning and direction."

人的渺小感,无意义感,驱使着人去寻找从属的感觉,驱使着人去与外界社会建立联系,以减轻这种感觉所带来的烦恼与困惑。

“The main theme of this book: that man, the more he gains freedom in the sensee of emerging from the original oneness with man and nature and the more he becomes an 'individual,' has no choice but to unite himself with the world in the spontaneity of love and productive work or else to seek a kind of security by such ties with the world as destroy his freedom and the integrity of his individual self. "

本书的主题:人,他所获得的自由愈多(从半是野兽、半是人的原始状态中脱离出来的意义上的自由), 他愈加”个人化“, 他就与别无选择,或者通过自发性的爱和创造性的工作来使自己与世界联结起来,或者通过那些会破坏他的自由和他个人的完整性与世界的联结方式来寻求某种安全。

为什么说人越自由(越”个人化”), 反而越别无选择?

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