This chapter is an interview conducted shortly after the 1981 election of Socialist President Francios Mitterand, published under the titile "Is it really important to think?"To practice criticism demands not only a liberation of thought, but also an intellectual activity that makes conflicts visible through the action of theory. (quote from Intro of the chapter)But the question that is raised by this change is whether it is possible to establish between those who govern and the governed a relationship that is not one of obedience, but one in which work will play an important role.We musht escape from the dilemma of being either for or against. After all, it is possible to face up to a governemtn and remain standing. To work with a government implies neither subjection nor total accpetance. One may work with it and ye be restive.A critique is not a matter of saying that things are not right as they are. It is a matter of pointing out on what kinds of assumptions, what kinds of familiar, unchallenged, unconsidered modes of thought the practices that we accept rest.We must free ourselves from the sacrilization of the social as the ony reality and stop regarding as superfluous something so essential in human life and in human relations as thought.Criticism is a matter of flushing out that though and trying to change it: to show that things are not as self-evident as one believed, to see that what is accepted as self-evident will no longer be accepted as such. Practicing criticism is a mtter of making facile gestures difficult.In these circumstances, criticism (and radical criticms) is absolutely indispensibke for any transformation. A transformation that remians within the sme mode of thought, a transformation that is only a way of adjusting the same thought more closely to the reality of things can merely be a superficial transformation.