Japanese Confucianism 评价人数不足
读书笔记 Confucianism as religion
仏頂面な徒然
I believe that most of the major early and mid-seventeen-century Confucians, and indeed many of those who came later, can be understood through this prism of tension between the imperatives of Neo-Confucianism and those of the hereditary feudal order (Paramore 2012b). In the case of someone like Kumazawa, the tension between the way the state operated and his Neo-Confucian ideals are obvious. Yamaga Soko's entire ideological system was set up almost to prove the necessity of Neo-Confucian forms of practice in a warrior society. But even elements of seventeen-century Japanese Confucianism which most served state ideological purposes can be viewed as attempts to resolve the tension between Confucianism and the nature of feudal warrior Japan. For instance, Yamazaki Ansai made a point of rejecting the Confucian doctrin which allowed for (indeed, justified) the replacement of an unvirtuous ruler. Neo-Confucian readings of the doctrine of Heaven's Mandate linded the ruler's morality to the legitimacy of their dynastic rule. Yamazaki's rejection to this element of Neo-Confucian discourse, while simultaneously claiming to be a defender of Neo-Confucian orthodoxy, can be view as an attempt to adapt Neo-Confucianism to the political situation in Japan - to mitigate against the inherent tensions between this moralistic and potentially meritocratic ideology and the reality of the Tokugawa state. Even the most pro-state thinkers like Yamazaki and Hayashi therefore seem to have had at the base of their ideas an understanding of the inherent tension between Neo-Confucianism and the feudal state.

感觉本质上是儒学者从任何角度都无法向德川军阀发起挑战,而在这种矛盾下,学者们在追求儒家本土化的过程中自然而然地开始强调形式,刻意忽视宋明儒家的本质精神,以避免和幕府发生直接的冲突。熊泽蕃山以宋明儒家精神为内核的经济改革措施遭到幕府的压制最终失败;山鹿素行转而研究形式并谋求儒家与神道的结合却仍然遭到攻击。山崎闇斋和林罗山的例子原文也有提及。这使得这些儒家学者无论立场如何,还是把诚心正意推向了个人形式上的修为。因此,与其说是各家学说中潜藏着这样的矛盾,不如说是这种矛盾造成了日本儒家独特的极端注重形式的文化风格。

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