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读书笔记 CHAPTER ONE:The Selection of a Research Approach
东南亚主公逸

worldview=> "a basic set of beliefs that guide action"(Guba,1990,p.17),类似于我们说的paradigms(范式),epistemologies(认识论),ontologies(本体论)……

下面是作者对worldview这个词语的归纳——

I see worldviews as a general philosophical orientation about the world and the nature of research that a researcher brings to a study.(p6)

The Postpositivist Worldview (后实证主义)研究影响结果(outcomes)的因素(causes)运用科学的办法来理解世界,将世界的组成分成一部分一部分的。

The Constructivist Worldview (建构主义)社会建构论、属于定性研究方法、每个人对于客观事物都存在着主观的看法,这致使研究者们尝试去理解世界的复杂性。每个人的观点受着文化的社会的陶染。

The Transformative Worldview (变革主义)认为后实证主义所建构的世界并未将边缘群体包括进去。批判理论、参与式行动研究、马克思主义、女性主义、少数族裔、残障人士、后殖民主义、性少数群体、酷儿群体。认为建构主义在设置议程,呼吁人们关注少数群体上,并没有什么建树。

The Pragmatic Worldview(实用主义)

Research Designs——quantitative designs vs qualitative designs

具体方法的分类(p12)

【Quantitative Designs】

19世纪末20世纪初,后实证主义,心理学领域

true experiments/quasi-experiments/nonexperimental quantitive research(causal-comparative research)

问卷法、实验法

【Qualitative Designs】

二十世纪九十年到二十一世纪,来源于人类学、社会学、人文学科、评价体系

叙事研究(narrative research)

现象学研究(phenomenological research),又分为grounded theory,ethnography,case studies

grounded theory,ethnography,case studies的介绍(p14)

【Mixed Methods Designs】(并不是很懂这种混合方法是什么方法)

这种混合的办法起源于20世纪80年代,其根源,可以追溯到1959年Campbell和Fisk的关于心理特质的研究中。除了量化的方式,还运用了观察法和访谈法。20世纪90年代,这种定性和定量的混合方式逐渐成为一种系统方法。

【选择研究进路的原则】

……On the other hand,if a concept or phenomenon needs to be explored and understood because little research has been done on it, Then It merits a qualitative approach.qualitative research is especially useful when the researcher does not know the important variables to examine. This type of approach may be needed because the topic is new, the subject has never been addressed with a certain sample of group of people, and existing theories do not apply with the paticular sample or group under study(Morse,1991).(p20)
A mixed methods design……Researchers may first survey a large number of individuals and then follow up with a few participants to obtain their specific views and their voices about the topic.(p20)
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