管錐編(全四冊) 9.5分
读书笔记 第1143页
启罗米突

这段引文出自《容安馆札记》798条 批本红楼梦

黛玉笑湘雲道:“偏是咬舌子愛說話。”按脂硯齋評:“真正美人方有一陋處,如太真之肥、飛燕之瘦、西子之病,若施於別個,不美矣。今見‘咬舌’二字……不獨不見陋,且更學[覺]輕倩嬌媚。”按王子年《拾遺記》卷七云:“孫和月下舞水精如意,悞傷鄧夫人頰。太醫曰:‘得白獺髓雜玉與琥珀屑,當滅痕。’乃合此膏,琥珀太多,及差有赤點,更益其妍,諸嬖人更以丹脂點頰以要寵。”(《太平廣記》“吳太醫”條引作《酉陽雜俎》。)以至西方舊日婦女飾面及胸之 “Lamosca”(“la moucha”, “die Mücke”, “beauty patch”)皆此謂也。John Lyly,Euphues: “Venus had hir Mole in hir Cheeke which made hir more amiable: Helen hir Scarre on hir chinne which Paris calledCos amoris, the Whetstone of loue” (The Complete Works, ed. R. W. Bond, I, 184; cf. Oliver Herford & J.C. Clay, Cupid’s Cyclopedia, p. 44: “Male: The exception that proves the rule”)

T S Eliot的《 The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism》是这么评价Lyly的:

Our own Elizabethan and Jacobean poetry—in so nice a problem it is much safer to stick to one's own language—is repeatedly called "rhetorical." It had this and that notable quality, but, when we wish to admit that it had defects, it is rhetorical. It had serious defects, even gross faults, but we cannot be considered to have erased them from our language when we are so unclear in our perception of what they are. The fact is that both Elizabethan prose and Elizabethan poetry are written in a variety of styles with a variety of vices. Is the style of Lyly, is Euphuism, rhetorical? In contrast to the elder style of Ascham and Elyot which it assaults, it is a clear, flowing, orderly and relatively pure style, with a systematic if monotonous formula of antitheses and similes. Is the style of Nashe? A tumid, flatulent, vigorous style very different from Lyly's. Or it is perhaps the strained and the mixed figures of speech in which Shakespeare indulged himself. Or it is perhaps the careful declamation of Jonson. The word simply cannot be used as synonymous with bad writing. The meanings which it has been obliged to shoulder have been mostly opprobrious; but if a precise meaning can be found for it this meaning may occasionally represent a virtue. It is one of those words which it is the business of criticism to dissect and reassemble. Let us avoid the assumption that rhetoric is a vice of manner, and endeavour to find a rhetoric of substance also, which is right because it issues from what it has to express.

Lyly的Euphues,Euphuism,也称绮丽体,是英文中类似我国骈文的一种文体。比如这句

Venus had her mole in her cheek which made her more amiable:

Helen her scar on her chin which Paris called cos amoris, the whetstone of love.

Aristippus his wart,

Lycurgus his wen:……

Alexander valiant in war, yet given to wine.

Tully eloquent in his glozes, yet vainglorious:

Solomon wise, yet too wanton:

David holy but yet an homicide”

Venus、Helen、Paris、Aristippus、Lycurgus 均来自希腊神话,而Alexander、Tully、Solomon、David 则来自《圣经》故事。

华盛顿欧文评价道“ Even Lyly, though his writings were once the delight of a court, and apparently perpetuated by a proverb, is now scarcely known even by name.”

美国学者康戴维在《汉代宫廷文学与文化之探微》中引用韦利(Arthur Waley)论及司马相如的话:“世界上从来没有一个作家能够写出如此精美、华丽的语言。和他比起来,尤弗伊斯(英国文艺复兴时期作家黎里笔下的主人公,以华丽文风着称)显得羞赧无自信,阿普列乌斯显得冰冷无情。相如戏弄文字,犹如海豚与大海嬉戏。”

陈寅恪与刘叔雅论学,也提到外文的对仗:“昔罗马西塞罗Cicero辩论之文,为拉丁文中之冠。西土文士自古迄今,读之者何限,最近时德人始发见其文含有对偶。拉丁非单音语言,文有对偶,不易察知。故时历千载,犹有待发之覆。今言及此者,非欲助骈骊之文,增高其地位。”

余光中说:“凡熟悉英国文学史的人,都知道16世纪的英国散文有一种“优浮绩思体”(Euphuism),句法浮华而对称,讲究双声等等效果,又好使事用典,并炫草木虫鱼之学。照说这种文体有点近于中国的骈文与汉赋,但因西文文法繁复,虚字太多,语尾不断变换,字的音节又长短参差,所以比起中国骈文的圆美对仗来,实在笨拙不灵,难怪要为文豪史考特所笑。”

王佐良《英国散文的流变》:“黎里的《尤弗伊斯》(John Lyly: Euphues)讲究对仗、用典和音韵上的和谐,则雕琢更过于西塞罗风格,创立了类似中国骈文的“尤弗伊体”,略举一例如下:

No, no, it is the disposition of the thought, that altereth the nature of the thing. The Sunne shineth vpon the dounghill, and is not corrupted: the Diamond lyeth in the fire, and it is not consumed: the Christall toucheth the Toade and is not poysoned: the birde Trochilus lyueth by the mouth of the Crocodile and is not spoyled: a perfect wit is neuer bewitched with lewdnesse, neither enticed with lasciuousnesse. Is it not common that the Holme Tree springeth amidst the Beech? That the Iuie spreadeth vpon the hard stones? That the soft fetherbed breaketh the hard blade?曰:否,此大不然也,盖唯心所指则变物之性。日照粪壤,不损其明;钻石入火,不损其坚;水有蟾蜍,不染其毒;鹪鹩棲鳄吻,不为所吞;贤者不涉遐想,不动绮思。冬青耸出掬林;薜荔召笼磐石;柔茵能当利刃,此非物之常乎?(周珏良译文)”

钱钟书《谈艺录》:“英国古小说言埃及妇女足不出户,‘有如蜗牛顶屋,不须臾离’。(woemen should be euerlike yt Snaile,which hath euer his house on his head)见 Lyly,Euphues,in Complete works,ed. R.W. Bond,I,223-4。”

程巍的《光与影:文艺复兴时期文学》中,将lyly翻译成李雷,让我想起了韩梅梅——

大约在1588年到1594年间,英国文坛上出现了一群号称“大学才子” (University Wits)的文人,他们在创作上比威廉·莎士比亚出名得早(那时,刚从斯特拉福镇这个小地方出走到伦敦的莎士比亚,为了挣口饭吃,正勉强担任着雇佣演员),因而理所当然地成了莎士比亚这个更伟大的后来者的先驱。

正象“大学才子”这个绰号所指明的,这些才子都有正规的大学教育背景,毕业于牛津大学或剑桥大学。约翰·李雷(John Lyly)是“大学才子”中年纪最大的一个,曾一度担任过宫廷的娱乐总管。伊丽莎白一世一直没怎么留心他。他在郁郁不得志的沮丧中写下了这样的话:“千种希望,空无所有,万种允诺,仍是虚无。”足见他当时的失意。他最初是创作剧本,可是他的剧本没有宏大的结构,失之柔弱,这与伊丽莎白时代的自信精神以及向上热情很不谐调。这些剧本的可取之处仍是语言风格,空灵而又柔和。因为在写剧上的不才,他便改写小说。 《尤菲绮斯或智慧的剖析》及其续篇《尤菲绮斯和他的英国》是这一时期的代表作,是描写理想绅士的教育小说。他的小说正如他的剧本一样,缺乏结构,而对一个天才的作家来说,结构才是根本。李雷小说的风格也和剧本一样,显示出过分的才气,这就是说,失去了对才气掌握的分寸,因而显得浮夸,矫柔造作,这种文体风格得到了“尤菲绮斯体”这样一个称号,可见它对当时的影响,甚至莎士比亚早期的作品也染上了这种风格的痕迹。当然,同一个问题的另一面却是:过分的修饰对于那时尚且粗糙的英语不无雅驯的好处。李雷死于1606年,享年五十三岁,是短命才子中寿命最长的一个。

原来我在谈艺录的笔记里已经写过一遍了哈哈,想想以后,可能再也不会这么贯注精神去读书了,那种快乐的日子再也不会有了,而那种快乐其实是自私的,现在想来

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