英语魔法师之语法俱乐部 9.5分
读书笔记 从句省略1
Ryan

一 名词从句简化 名词从句的简化与其他词类的从属从句相同,都是省略主语与be动词,只留下补语.名称从句简化之后,剩下了的补语有两种常见的形态,v+ing和to v(动名词和不定式) 简化后剩下的补语是v+ing形态时: 1 主语位置 that l drink good wine with good friends is my greatest enjoyment = that l am drinking =省略that l am =drinking good wine with good friends is my greatest enjoyment 2宾语位置 动词的宾语 many husband enjoy that they do the cooking =many husband enjoy doing the cooking 介系词的宾语 he got used to something he worked late into the night he got used to working late into the night 3 补语位置 he favourite pastime is that he goes fishing on weekends=he favourite pastime is going fishing on weekends 4主语不能省略 有时省略名词从句的主语会造成句意的改变,这时要设法其他方式来改变 改成s+v+o+c 名词从句必须处于宾语位置,而且主要从句属于svoc结构 l imagined that a beautiful girl was singing to me 不可省略a beautiful girl 只能省略was be动词=l imagined a beautiful girl singing to me 用所有格来处理 that he calls my girlfriend every day is too much for me 改成 calling my friends every day is too much for me显然不合句意 这时就把he改成所有格 his his calling my girlfriend every day is too much for me 名词从句简化为ving形式,而主语不能省略,大多可用所有格表示 加介系词处理 l am worried about the fact that my son lies all the time =l am worried about my son’s lying all the time 5如何处理被动语态 被动语态中若省略主语和be动词,剩下的补语时adj类,无法取代原来的名词从句,所以必须进一步修改 that anyone is called a liar is the greatest insult 去掉 that anyone is 变成给liar打电话 不合句意 所以called a liar 不能动,只能借用前面的be动词来做动词变化,变成being called a liar ,be动词本身没有意义=being called a liar is the greatest liar l am looking forward to something l am invited to the party l am looking forward to being invited to the party l am looking forward to the invitation to the party 名词从句简化ving形式,如果是被动语态,以being v 形式 就可以表示。 6动词是单纯的be动词时 若名词从句中是be动词,后面接一般名词或adj做补语,则需加上ving 变成being that one is teacher requires a lot of patienc= being a teacher require a lot of patience that he was busy is no excuse for the negligence= being busy is no excuse for the negligence 简化后剩下的是补语 to+v 形态时 名词从句简化中,若其中有语气助动词,含有不确定语气,就会变成动词不定式 the children expected that they can get present for Christmas 因为句中有助动词,不确定语气,把助动词改成be+不定式(所以的语气助词都可以改)=that they are to =再把 that they are去掉 the children expected to get present for Christmas 不定式就是不一定是什么此类 可当名词 adj adv 主语不适合省略 名词从句的主语如果和主要从句不重复,又不是空泛字眼,省略时往往会改变句意,这时如果想办法改变这个主语,将他保留,在有些句型中,可以把主语放入宾语位置,变成svoc句型 l want that you should go = should 变成be to=成为l want that you are to go =在去be动词,主语you 放入宾语位置 togo 变成了宾语补足语 代表疑问句的名词从句简化 l don't know what l should do?=省略主语l 助动词改成不定式=l don‘t what to do 不定式与动名词的比较 不定式与动名词都可以当成名词使用,两者之间有时不易区分,但从简化从句的角度上来看,很容易区分 he forgot that he should see the dentist that day 他忘了他那天应该去看牙医的=he forgot to see the dentist that day he forgot that he saw the man before =he forgot seeing the man before 补充 形容词从句的简化 难点 补语to do 如果关系从句的动词有语气助词存在,就会成为不定式补语留下了 john is the one who should go this time 这次是john走人了 关系从句中的who should go 固然没有be动词,只将改成who is to go 就有了 且意思相近 在省略 who is john is the one to go this time(不定词的词类是‘不一定’此类,也就是当名词,形容词,副词,使用皆可.所以也符合原来关系从句的此类,可以形容先行词the one 是正确的简化从句 不定词的 主动 被动判断 不定词也有主动 被动之分 john is not a man to trust john这人不可信 john is not a man to be trusted = john is not a man one can trust =john is not a man who can be trusted 不定词的主语不清时如何处理,就可以安排主语介系词短语中以宾语形态出现,最常用的介系词是for l have a job that your bother can do = l have a job foryour brother to do

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